Eyepatch

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Eyepatch
Child eyepatch.jpg
A child wearing an adhesive eyepatch to correct amblyopia
[edit on Wikidata]

An eyepatch is a small patch that is worn in front of one eye. It may be a cloth patch attached around the head by an elastic band or by a string, an adhesive bandage, or a plastic device which is clipped to a pair of glasses. It is often worn by people to cover a lost or injured eye, but it also has a therapeutic use in children for the treatment of amblyopia. (See orthoptics and vision therapy.) Eyepatches used to block light while sleeping are referred to as a sleep mask. Eyepatches associated with pirates are a stereotype originating from fiction.

An eyepad or eye pad is a soft medical dressing that can be applied over an eye to protect it. It is not necessarily the same as an eyepatch.[1]

History

In the years before advanced medicine and surgery, eyepatches were common for people who had lost an eye. They were particularly prevalent among members of dangerous occupations, such as soldiers and sailors who could lose an eye in battle, as well as blacksmiths who used them to cover one eye for protection from sparks while working.[citation needed] While stereotypically associated with pirates, there is no evidence to suggest the historicity of eye patch wearing pirates before several popular novels of the 19th century (see Pirate Eyepatches below).

Medical uses

Amblyopia

Eye patching is used in the orthoptic management[2] of children at risk of lazy eye (amblyopia), especially strabismic or anisometropic[3] amblyopia. These conditions can cause visual suppression of areas of the dissimilar images[4] by the brain such as to avoid diplopia, resulting in a loss of visual acuity in the suppressed eye and in extreme cases in blindness in an otherwise functional eye. Patching the good eye forces the amblyopic eye to function, thereby causing vision in that eye to be retained.[2][3] It is important to perform “near activities” (such as reading or handiwork) when patched, thereby exercising active, attentive vision.[5]

A study provided evidence that children treated for amblyopia with eye patching had lower self-perception of social acceptance.[6] To prevent a child from being socially marginalized by his or her peers due to wearing an eye patch, atropine eye drops may be used instead. This induces temporary blurring in the treated eye.

It has been pointed out that the penalization of one eye by means of patching or atropine drops does not provide the conditions that are necessary in order to develop or improve binocular vision. Recently, efforts have been made to propose alternative treatments of amblyopia that do allow for the improvement of binocular sight, for example using binasal occlusion or partially frosted spectacles[4] in place of any eye patch, using alternating occlusion goggles or using methods of perceptual learning based on video games or virtual reality games for enhancing binocular vision.

A 2014 Cochrane Review sought to determine the effectiveness of occlusion treatment on patients with sensory deprivation amblyopia, however no trials were found eligible to be included in the review.[7] However, it is suggested that good outcomes from occlusion treatment for sensory deprivation amblyopia rely on compliance with the treatment.

Extraocular muscle palsy

To initially relieve double vision (diplopia) caused by an extra-ocular muscle palsy, an eye care professional may recommend using an eyepatch. This can help to relieve the dizziness, vertigo and nausea that are associated with this form of double vision.[8][9][10]

Use for adaptation to dark

Pirates

1783 etching of wounded sailors

Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah, once the most popular pirate in the Persian Gulf, was also the first to wear an eyepatch after losing an eye in battle.[11][12] Although eyepatches have since become stereotypically associated with pirates, the source is unclear, and there is no historical evidence to suggest that their use was for any other reason than protecting and concealing the eye socket after the loss of an eye. Most historical depictions of seamen with eye patches are of ex-sailors, rather than pirates.

More recent medical texts have often referred to the eye patch as a "pirate's patch" and writing in the Minnesota Academy of Sciences Journal in 1934, Charles Sheard of the Mayo foundation, pointed out that by "wearing a patch (The pirate's patch) over one eye, it will keep the covered eye in a state of readiness and adaptation for night vision".[13] This technique was explored during WWII by institutes such as the United States Navy.[14]

The proposal that pirates may have worn an eyepatch so that one eye would be pre-adjusted to below-deck darkness was tested in an episode of Mythbusters in 2007 and found to be plausible, but without any recorded historical precedent.[15]

Aircraft pilots

Aircraft pilots used an eye patch, or close one eye to preserve night vision when there was disparity in the light intensity within or outside their aircraft, such as when flying at night over brightly lit cities, so that one eye could look out, and the other would be adjusted for the dim lighting of the cockpit to read unlit instruments and maps.[16] Some military pilots have worn a lead-lined or gold-lined eyepatch, to protect against blindness in both eyes, in the event of a nuclear blast or laser weapon attack.[17][18][19]

Eyepatches are not currently used by military personnel; modern technology has provided an array of other means to preserve and enhance night vision, including red-light and low-level white lights, and night vision devices.[20][21][22]

Notable eyepatch-wearers

Notable eyepatch-wearers in fiction

  • Catalina Creel (Cuna de Lobos)
  • Lockon Stratos (Gundam 00)
  • Valmet (Jormungand)
  • Ken Cosgrove (Mad Men)

See also

References

  1. ^ Google search
  2. ^ a b Georgievski Z, Koklanis K, Leone J (2007). "Orthoptists' management of amblyopia – a case based survey". Strabismus. 15 (3): 197–203.
  3. ^ a b Georgievski Z, Koklanis K, Leone J (2008). "Fixation behaviour in the treatment of amblyopia using atropine". Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 36 (Suppl 2): A764–A765.
  4. ^ a b Final Activity and Management Report Summary - SVS (Strabismus and visual suppression), CORDIS
  5. ^ Birch EE (2013). "Amblyopia and binocular vision". Progress in Retinal and Eye Research (Review). 33: 67–84. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.11.001. PMC 3577063. PMID 23201436.
  6. ^ Webber AL, Wood JM, Gole GA, Brown B (November 2008). "Effect of amblyopia on self-esteem in children". Optometry and Vision Science. 85 (11): 1074–81. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e31818b9911. PMID 18981922.
  7. ^ Antonio-Santos A, Vedula SS, Hatt RR, Powell C (2014). "Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2: CD005136. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005136.pub3. PMC 4260153. PMID 24504975.
  8. ^ O'Sullivan, S.B & Schmitz, T.J. (2007). Physical Rehabilitation. Philadelphia, PA: Davis. ISBN 978-0-8036-1247-1.
  9. ^ Kernich CA (2006). "Diplopia". The Neurologist. 12 (4): 229–230.
  10. ^ Edlow, Jonathan; Selim, Magdy (2010). Neurology Emergencies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538858-9.
  11. ^ Lampe, Christine (2010). The Book of Pirates. Gibbs Smith. p. 14.
  12. ^ Belgrave, Charles (1966). The Pirate Coast. George Bell & Sons. p. 122.
  13. ^ Sheard, Charles (1934). "Night Vision". Minnesota Academy of Sciences Journal. 2–12: 26.
  14. ^ "Night Vision". Addendum to the Handbook of the Hospital Corps, United States Navy. 1939. United States. Navy Dept. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery: A–2. 1944.
  15. ^ MythBusters, episode 71
  16. ^ Roy Brocklebank (2005). WORLD WAR III – The 1960s Version. Journal of Navigation, 58, pp 341-347 doi:10.1017/S0373463305003413
  17. ^ Nuclear flash eye protection, Steen Hartov
  18. ^ Les Frazier
  19. ^ Laser Weapons
  20. ^ Luria, S. M.; D. A. Kobus (26 April 1985). "IMMEDIATE VISIBILITY AFTER RED AND WHITE ADAPTATION" (PDF). Naval Submarine Research Laboratory. Department of the Navy. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  21. ^ "A Guide to the U. S. Naval Air Station at Vero Beach" (PDF). Indian River County Main Library,. July 1999. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  22. ^ "We Own The Night". Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). Archived from the original on 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  23. ^ [1]Sightseeing Madrid - The Princess of Eboli
  24. ^ The Herald - Glasgow (UK) Nov 4, 2002
  25. ^ St. Louis Post Dispatch
  26. ^ Los Angeles Times
  27. ^ Indianapolis Star
  28. ^ Bruce Peterson BioLee Majors Online
  29. ^ a b c d Our favorite eyepatch heroes Maxim magazine
  30. ^ Scenes from an Unfinished War: Low-Intensity Conflict in Korea, 1966–1968 by Major Daniel P. Bolger
  31. ^ "Obituary: Lord Mowbray and Stourton". The Telegraph. December 14, 2006.
  32. ^ Is Horrible 'Valkyrie' Tom Cruise's Nazi Apologia?Fox News
  33. ^ Dale Chihuly opens Rhode Island school gallery MSNBC
  34. ^ NASA Oral History TranscriptNASA
  35. ^ Congressman Dan CrenshawCongress
  36. ^ Sohachi Yamaoka, Date Masamune.
  37. ^ a b c d e Great Moments in Eye PatchesThe New York Times
  38. ^ Bangor Daily News, May 26, 1995
  39. ^ "Preminuo Dušan Prelević", novosti.rs
  40. ^ New York Day by Day Miami Herald
  41. ^ Colombia 1993 Lions Club International Amblyopia Prevention Campaign Digital Disability
  42. ^ UNRAVELING THE MYSTERY OF WHITE BIRD'S FLIGHT Boston Globe Mar 8, 1987
  43. ^ a b Scorsese's film `Journey' whirls through magnificent obsession The San Diego Union
  44. ^ Dreams come true again The Herald - Glasgow (UK) Jan 31, 2000
  45. ^ Fluxus Reader by Ken Friedman publisher Academy Editions ISBN 978-0-471-97858-9
  46. ^ Jazz singer George Melly dies ABC News
  47. ^ Ziss, Robert F. (Spring 2001). "Author-artist Jack Coggins". Historical Review of Berks County. 66 (2): 76–82. ISSN 0018-2524. OCLC 1589887. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
  48. ^ Jan Syrový
  49. ^ Vojenské osobnosti předválečné armády - Armádní generál Jan Syrový
  50. ^ José Millán and Terreros Base documental d'Història de Catalunya Contemporary. Biografies. (1800–1931) Biografies. (1800–1931)
  51. ^ Luis Vaz de Camões Catholic Encyclopedia
  52. ^ Tremayne, David; Fotheringham, Alasdair (11 October 2013). "F1 driver Maria de Villota, once the 'fastest woman in sport', is found dead in Spanish hotel". The Independent. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  53. ^ The Milwaukee Journal - Jun 27, 1983
  54. ^ Parkinson, Roger. The Fox of the North: The Life of Kutuzov, General of War and Peace. (London: Peter Davies, 1976), 11-17.
  55. ^ Momus (April 1998). "Story Of An Eye". Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  56. ^ A LIFE OF PRAYER FOR EWTN STAR STROKES BRING MOTHER ANGELICA FULL CIRCLE Saint Paul Pioneer Press - May 3, 2003
  57. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/07/13/newspaper-apologizes-mocking-congressional-hopeful-iraq-war-injury/
  58. ^ Nicolas-Jacques Conté This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.
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  60. ^ The Scourge of the Pirate Coast Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. QatarVisitor
  61. ^ TV: Focus on Directors; Raoul Walsh Is Rewarding Subject in Channel 13's 'Men Who Made Movies' The New York Times
  62. ^ Ray Sawyer The Spokesman-Review, Dec 22, 1978
  63. ^ Richard W. Rahn, Cato Institute. Accessed December 4, 2008.
  64. ^ Kansas '70s superstars lead lineup of Celebration bands By DAVID BURKE The Herald & Review August 4, 1999
  65. ^ Interview with Ron Hamilton (Patch the Pirate) The Baptist Voice
  66. ^ Sheila Gish Renowned British actress of stage and screen by Carole woods Herald Scotland March 14, 2005
  67. ^ Weir, Henry VIII, p. 262.
  68. ^ Without Bad Luck, He'd Have No Luck at All by John Branch The New York Times March 24, 2006
  69. ^ POST, WILEY HARDEMAN Texas State Historical Association
  70. ^ a b c d e f Staff (April 12, 2013). "The 8 Essential Eyepatches in Science Fiction".
  71. ^ a b c d e Martin Chilton (January 28, 2011). "The one-eyed legends of the big screen". The Telegraph.
  72. ^ https://www.lambiek.net/artists/f/forton_louis.htm
  73. ^ John Brownlee (November 1, 2016). "13 Immortal Costumes From The Closet Of David Bowie".

External links

  • International Orthoptic Association
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