Expressways of China

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Map of expressways of China

The expressway network of China is an integrated system of national and provincial-level expressways in China. By the end of 2017, the total length of China's expressway network reached 136,000 kilometers, the world's largest expressway system by length, having surpassed the overall length of the American Interstate Highway System in 2011.[1] A system of national-level expressways, officially known as the National Trunk Highway System (simplified Chinese: 中国国家高速公路网; traditional Chinese: 中國國家高速公路網; pinyin: Zhōngguó Guójiā Gāosù Gōnglùwǎng) and abbreviated NTHS,[2] with 7 radial expressways (from the capital Beijing), 11 north-south expressways and 18 east-west expressways, forms the backbone of the expressway network in the country. This backbone is known as the 71118 network (simplified Chinese: 71118网; traditional Chinese: 71118網; pinyin: 71118 wǎng).[3] In addition, the provincial-level divisions of China each have their own expressway systems.

The first expressway recorded in China date back more than two thousand years ago to the Qin Dynasty when the first emperor Qin Shihuang built a 750km state highway, linking its capital Xianyang to the northerly border of Erdos as a defensive maneuver.[4] The first modern at-grade China National Highways is the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway, opened in October 1988.[5][note 1] This 17.37 kilometres (10.79 mi) expressway now forms part of Shanghai's expressway network. The early 1990s saw the start of the country's massive plan to upgrade its network of roads.[2] In 1999, the length of the network exceeded 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) in length.[6] Many of the major expressways parallel routes of the older China National Highways.

History

Prior to the 1980s, freight and passenger transport activities were predominantly achieved by rail transport rather than by road. The 1980s and 1990s saw a growing trend toward roads as a method of transportation and a shift away from rail transport. In 1978, rail transport accounted for 54.4% of the total freight movement in China, while road transport only accounted for 2.8%. By 1997, road transport's share of freight movement had increased to 13.8% while the railway's share decreased to 34.3%. Similarly, road's share of passenger transport increased from 29.9% to 53.3% within the same time period, with railway's share decreasing from 62.7% to 35.4%. The shift from rail to road can be attributed to the rapid development of the expressway network in China.[2]

On 7 June 1984, China's expressway ambitions began when construction of the Shenyang–Dalian Expressway began between the cities of Shenyang and Dalian. The expressway is now part of the longer G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway. Later that year, construction began on the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway in the city of Shanghai. The Shanghai–Jiading Expressway opened on 31 October 1988, becoming the first completed expressway in China.[5]

On 13 January 2005, Zhang Chunxian, China's Minister of Transport announced that China would build a network of 85,000 kilometres (53,000 mi) expressways over the next three decades, connecting all provincial capitals and cities with a population of over 200,000 residents. The announcement introduced the 7918 network (simplified Chinese: 7918网; traditional Chinese: 7918網; pinyin: 7918 wǎng), a grid of 7 radial expressways from Beijing, 9 north-south expressways, and 18 east-west expressways that would form the backbone of the national expressway system.[3] This replaced the earlier proposal for five north-south and seven east-west core routes, proposed in 1992.[2]

Costs

Map of the National Expressway Network
     Radial line      North–South line    East–West line
     Zonal ring line (Dot line: Planned)

The total costs of the national expressway network are estimated to be 2 trillion yuan (some 300 billion US dollars as rate in 2016). From 2005 to 2010, the annual investment was planned to run from 140 billion yuan (17 billion US dollars) to 150 billion yuan (18 billion US dollars), while from 2010 to 2020, the annual investment planned is to be around 100 billion yuan (12 billion US dollars).

The construction fund will come from vehicle purchase tax, fees and taxes collected by local governments, state bonds, domestic investment and foreign investment. Unlike other freeway systems, almost all of the roads on the NTHS/"7918 Network" are toll roads that are largely financed by private companies under contract from provincial governments. The private companies raise money through bond and stock offerings and recover money through tolls.

Efforts to impose a national gasoline tax to finance construction of the tollways met with opposition and it has been very difficult for both the Communist Party of China and the State Council to pass such a tax through the National People's Congress of China.[8][9]

Expressway nomenclature

An old signpost refers the Jingshi Expressway as the Jingshi Freeway, thus hinting at its previous nomenclature. (Summer 2004 image)
Combined G4/G5 (formerly, G030) (Jingshi Expressway section) after Zhaoxindian/Changxindian exit (Early July 2004 image)
G50 Huyu Expressway crossing over the Si Du River Bridge in Enshi Prefecture, Hubei. The bridge cost around US $100 million.[10]

Neither officially named "motorway" nor "highway", China used to call these roads "freeways". In this sense, the word "free" means that the traffic is free-flowing; that is, cross traffic is grade separated and the traffic on the freeway is not impeded by traffic control devices like traffic lights and stop signs. However, many misinterpret "free" as meaning "no cost", and this may be misleading because most of the expressways are in fact toll roads. Some time in the 1990s, "expressways" became the standardised term.

Note that "highways" refers to China National Highways, which are not expressways at all.

"Express routes" exist too; they are akin to expressways but are mainly inside cities. The "express route" name is a derivation of the Chinese name kuaisu gonglu (compare with expressway, gaosu gonglu). Officially, "expressway" is used for both expressways and express routes, which is also the standard used here.

The names of the individual expressways are regularly composed of two characters representing start and end of expressway, e.g. "Jingcheng" expressway is the expressway between "Jing" (meaning Beijing) and Chengde.

Expressway speed limits

The Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China has raised the speed limit nationwide from 110 km/h to 120 km/h (75 mph), effective May 1, 2004.

A minimum speed limit of 70 km/h is in force. On overtaking lanes, however, this could be as high as 100 km/h to 110 km/h. Penalties for driving both below and in excess of the prescribed speed limits are enforced.

Expressway legislation

Only motor vehicles are allowed to enter expressways. As of May 1, 2004, "new drivers" (i.e., those with a Chinese driver's licence for less than a year) are allowed on expressways, something that was prohibited from the mid-1990s.

Overtaking on the right, speeding, and illegal use of the emergency belt (or hard shoulder) cost violators stiff penalties.

Expressway signage

Chinese expressway distances road sign. Shown here are some connections to the Expressways of Beijing in eastern Beijing. (Spring 2003 image)

Expressways in China are signed in both Simplified Chinese and English (except for parts of the Jingshi Expressway, which relies only on Chinese characters, and some provinces, in Inner Mongolia for example signs are in Mongolian and Chinese, and in XUAR the signs are in Chinese and Uyghur Language which uses Perso-Arabic Alphabet). This sharply reduces the language barrier; however, very few toll officials at toll gates speak English.

The signs on Chinese expressways use white lettering on a green background, like Japanese highways, Swiss autobahns and United States freeways. Newer signage places the exit number in an exit tab to the upper right of the sign, making them very similar in appearance to American freeway signs.

Exits are well indicated, with signs far ahead of exits. There are frequent signs that announce the next three exits. At each exit, there is a sign with the distance to the next exit. Exit signs are also posted 3000 m, 2000 m, 1000 m, and 500 m ahead of the exit, immediately before the exit, and at the exit itself.

Service areas and refreshment areas are standard on some of the older, more established expressways, and are expanding in number. Gas stations are frequent.

Signs indicate exits, toll gates, service/refreshment areas, intersections, and also warn about keeping a fair distance apart. "Distance checks" are commonplace; the idea here is to keep the two-second rule (or, as Chinese law requires, at least a 100 m distance between cars). Speed checks and speed traps are often signposted (in fact, on the Jingshen Expressway in the Beijing section, even the cameras have a warning sign above them), but some may just be scarecrow signs. Signs urging drivers to slow down, warning about hilly terrain, banning driving in emergency lanes, or about different road surfaces are also present. Also appearing from time to time are signs signaling the overtaking lane (which legally should only be used to pass other cars). Although most English signs are comprehensible, occasionally the English is garbled.

Many expressways have digital displays. These displays may advise against speeding, indicate upcoming road construction, warn of traffic jams, or alert drivers to rain. Recommended detours are also signaled. The great majority of messages are only in Chinese.

Expressway exit numbering

Chinese expressway exit sign (older version). Shown here is an exit sign to Liangxiang Airport in southwestern Beijing on the Jingshi Expressway. (Summer 2004 image)

Exit numbering has been standardised in China from its inception. Most Chinese expressways, especially those in the national network, use distance-based exit numbering, with the last three numbers before the decimal point taken used as the exit number. Hence, an exit present at km 982.7 would be Exit 982, whereas an exit at km 3,121.2 would be Exit 121. Unlike American exit numbering systems that reset at each state line a freeway crosses, exits on Chinese expressways increase along the total length of the freeway, regardless of how many provincial boundaries the expressway crosses.

Mostly regional expressways still use sequential exit numbering, although even here, new signage feature distance-based exit numbering. Before the 2009–2010 numbering switchover, nearly all of China's expressways used sequential numbering, and a few expressways used Chinese names outright.

The exit is written inside an oval in green letters to the immediate right of the Chinese word for exit, "出口" (chukou).

Expressway tolls and financing

Chinese expressway toll gate. Shown here is the Dujiakan toll gate on the Jingshi Expressway in southwest Beijing. (Summer 2004 image)
Chinese expressway toll charges table. In many jurisdictions it is legally required that charges be openly disclosed. Shown here is the toll charges table at Doudian exit on the Jingshi Expressway in southwest Beijing. (Autumn 2004 image)

Nearly all expressways are toll roads. Tolls are roughly around CNY 0.5 per kilometre, and minimum rates (e.g. CNY 5) usually apply regardless of distance. However, some are more expensive (the Jinji Expressway costs around CNY 0.66 per kilometre) and some are less expensive (the Jingshi Expressway in Beijing costs around CNY 0.33 per kilometre). It is noteworthy that cheaper expressways do not necessarily mean poorer roads or a greater risk of traffic congestion.[citation needed]

Expressway planning is performed by the Ministry of Transportation of the People's Republic of China. Unlike the road networks in most nations, most Chinese expressways are not directly owned by the state, but rather are owned by for-profit corporations (which have varying amounts of public and private ownership) which borrow money from banks or securities markets based on revenue from projected tollways. One reason for this is that Chinese provinces, which are responsible for road building, have extremely limited powers to tax and even fewer powers to borrow.

Expressway construction has also been one of the rare instances in which the Communist Party of China and the State Council has had to back down on a major policy initiative. During the late-1990s, there were proposals to fund public highways by means of a fuel tax, but this was voted down by the National People's Congress.

Toll methods

ETC sign, along with exit signage, on China National Expressway 1 in Hebei

Most expressways use a card system. Upon entrance to an expressway (or to a toll portion of the expressway), an entry card is handed over to the driver. The tolls to be paid are determined from the distance traveled when the driver hands the entry card back to the exit toll gate upon leaving the expressway. A small number of expressways do not use a card system but charge unitary fares. Passage through these expressways is relatively faster but it is economically less advantageous. An example of such an expressway would be the Jingtong Expressway.

China is increasingly deploying a network of electronic toll collection (ETC) systems, and in the latest edition of expressway toll gate signage, a new ETC sign is now shown at an increasing number of toll gates. ETC networks based around Beijing,[11] Shanghai,[12] and Guangdong province[13] all feature either mixed toll passages supporting toll card payment or full-service dedicated ETC lanes. Beijing, in particular, has a dedicated ETC lane at almost all toll gates.[14]

City transit cards are not widely used; one of the first experiments with the Beijing Yikatong Card on what is now the Jingzang Expressway (G6)[15] went live for only a year before a new national standard replaced it in early 2008.

Numeric system and list by number

G000 series

A previous system, the 1992 "five vertical + seven horizontal expressways" system, was used for arterial expressways and were, in essence, G0-series expressways (e.g. G020, G025). This was replaced by the present-day new numeric system (see below).

New numbering system

Signs using the new numbering system as seen on China National Expressway 1 in Tianjin

A new system, which dates from 2004 and began use on a nationwide level beginning late 2009 and early 2010, integrates itself into the present-day G-series number system. The present-day network, termed the 7918 Network (also known as the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS)), uses one, two or four digits in the G-series numbering system, leaving three-figured G roads as the China National Highways.

The new 7918 Network is composed of

  • 7 radial expressways leaving Beijing (G1-G7)
  • 9 vertical expressways going north to south (double digit G roads with numbers ending in an odd numeral)
  • 18 horizontal expressways head west to east (double digit G roads with numbers ending in an even numeral)

The network is additionally composed of connection expressways as well as regional and metropolitan ring expressways.

On a nationwide basis, expressways use the G prefix (short for "guojia" in Chinese meaning "national"), as well as the character "国家高速" (National Expressway, white letters on a red stripe on top of the sign). For regional expressways, the prefix S (short for "shengji" or "province-level") is used instead, as well as the one-character abbreviation of the province and "高速" (expressway, black letters on an orange-yellow stripe on top of the sign.) The same numbering system is used for both national and regional expressways.

Numbering rules

  • All expressways in this network begin with the letter G. (For regional expressways, the letter S is used instead.)
  • All expressways have a thin band on top of the sign. For national expressways, this will be red; for regional expressways, it will be orange-yellow.
  • For radial expressways leaving from or ending in Beijing, use a single digit from 1 to 9 (e.g. G1, G2).
  • For north-south expressways, use an odd number from 11-89 (e.g. G13, G35).
  • For west-east expressways, use an even number from 10-90 (e.g. G30, G46).
  • For regional expressways in the 7918 network, use numbers from 91-99 (e.g. G91, G93)
  • For the parallel expressways running alongside primary expressways, add the direction signal "W", "E", "N", "S" after the primary expressway number (e.g. G4W).
  • For connection expressways, use "1" plus an order number after the main line (e.g. G1511).
  • For city ring expressways, use "0" plus an order number after the main line number, starting from the smallest possible number.

NTHS Expressways

Regional expressways

Numbered: All expressways are ordered by number. Unnumbered: All expressways are ordered by direction, starting from north or east.

Anhui

Number and Name Chinese Name Origin Terminus Length
(km)
Notes
Anhui Expwy S01 sign no name.svg S01 Lihuang Expressway 溧黄高速 Liyang, Jiangsu Huangshan, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S03 sign no name.svg S03 Ningxuan Expressway 宁宣高速 Nanjing, Jiangsu Xuancheng, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S04 sign no name.svg S04 Sisu Expressway 泗宿高速 Siyang, Jiangsu Suzhou, Jiangsu
Anhui Expwy S05 sign no name.svg S05 Xuantong Expressway 宣桐高速 Xuancheng, Anhui Tonglu, Zhejiang
Anhui Expwy S06 sign no name.svg S06 Sudeng Expressway 宿登高速 Suzhou, Jiangsu Dengfeng, Henan
Anhui Expwy S07 sign no name.svg S07 Xuming Expressway 徐明高速 Xuzhou, Jiangsu Mingguang, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S0711 sign no name.svg S0711 Siwu Expressway 泗五高速 Sihong, Jiangsu Wuhe, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S0712 sign no name.svg S0711 Xuming Expressway 盱明高速 Xuyi, Jiangsu Mingguang, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S11 sign no name.svg S11 Chaohuang Expressway 巢黄高速 Chaohu, Anhui Huangshan, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S1111 sign no name.svg S1111 Ningjing Expressway 宁旌高速 Ningguo, Anhui Jingde, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S12 sign no name.svg S12 Chuxin Expressway 滁新高速 Chuzhou, Anhui Xincai, Henan
Anhui Expwy S1211 sign no name.svg S1211 Fuhuang Expressway 阜潢高速 Fuyang, Anhui Huangchuan, Hunan
Anhui Expwy S17 sign no name.svg S17 Benghe Expressway 蚌合高速 Bengbu, Anhui Hefei, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S1711 sign no name.svgS1711 Wubeng Expressway 五蚌高速 Wuhe, Anhui Bengbu, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S18 sign no name.svg S18 Benghe Expressway 岳武高速 Yuexi, Anhui Wuhan, Hubei
Anhui Expwy S21 sign no name.svg S21 Jidang Expressway 济砀高速 Jining, Shandong Dangshan, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S22 sign no name.svg S22 Tianqian Expressway 天潜高速 Tianchang, Anhui Qianshan, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S2211 sign no name.svg S2211 Xinyang Expressway 新扬高速 Xinyi, Jiangsu Yangzhou, Jiangsu
Anhui Expwy S2212 sign no name.svg S2212 Ninghe Expressway 宁和高速 Nanjing, Jiangsu Hexian, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S23 sign no name.svg S23 Dangqi Expressway 砀祁高速 Dangshan, Anhui Qimen, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S24 sign no name.svg S24 Changhe Expressway 常合高速 Changshu, Jiangsu Hefei, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S27 sign no name.svg S27 Andong Expressway 安东高速 Anqing, Anhui Dongzhi, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S28 sign no name.svg S28 Liwu Expressway 溧芜高速 Liyang, Jiangsu Wuhu, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S32 sign no name.svg S32 Xuantong Expressway 宣铜高速 Xuancheng, Anhui Tongling, Anhui
S35 Pushang Expressway 濮商高速 Puyang, Henan Shangcheng, Henan
S36 Shidong Expressway 石东高速 Shitai, Anhui Dongzhi, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S38 sign no name.svg S38 Dongpeng Expressway 东彭高速 Dongzhi, Anhui Pengze, Jiangxi
S40 Huning Expressway 湖宁高速 Huzhou, Zhejiang Ningguo, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S42 sign no name.svg S42 Huangfu Expressway 黄浮高速 Huangshan, Anhui Fuliang, Jiangxi
S48 Jianhuang Expressway 建黄高速 Jiande, Zhejiang Huangshan, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S91 sign no name.svg S91 Huaibei Branch Line 淮北支线 China Expwy G3 sign no name.svg G3 Jingtai Expressway Huaibei, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S92 sign no name.svg S92 Tongling Branch Line 铜陵支线 China Expwy G50 sign no name.svg G50 Huyu Expressway Tongling, Anhui
Anhui Expwy S95 sign no name.svg S95 Fengyang Branch Line 凤阳支线 China Expwy G50 sign no name.svg S17 Benghe Expressway Bengbu, Anhui
Hefei Airport Branch Line 合肥机场支线 China Expwy G40 sign no name.svg G40 Hushaan Expressway Hefei Xinqiao International Airport, Anhui

Beijing

Chongqing

Fujian

Gansu Province

[16]

Type Number Name Chinese name Startpoint Endpoint Length
Ring S01 Lanzhou Outer City Ring Expressway 兰州外环绕城高速 Lanzhou Outer Ring N/A
Ring S02 Pingliang City Ring Expressway 平凉绕城高速 Pingliang Ring N/A
Ring S03 Tianshui City Ring Expressway 天水绕城高速 Tianshui Ring N/A
Ring S04 Wuwei City Ring Expressway 武威绕城高速 Wuwei Ring N/A
Ring S05 Zhangye City Ring Expressway 张掖绕城高速 Zhangye Ring N/A
Ring S06 Jiujia City Ring Expressway 酒嘉绕城高速 Jiuquan-Jiayuguan Ring N/A
North-south S15 Wuping Expressway 吴平高速 Shaanxi border towards Wuqi Pingliang 213 km
North-south S25 Jingtian Expressway 静天高速 Jingning Tianshui 225 km
North-south S35 Jingli Expressway 景礼高速 Jingtai Lixian 495 km
North-south S45 Lujiu Expressway 碌久高速 Luqu Jiuzhi 135 km
North-south S55 Axi Expressway 阿西高速 Inner Mongolia border towards Alxa Qinghai border towards Xining 300 km
North-south S65 Hangjiu Expressway 航酒高速 Inner Mongolia border at Hangtiancheng Jiuquan 220 km
North-south connector S11 Jinghua Expressway 泾华高速 Ningxia border towards Jingyuan Huating 28 km
North-south connector Gansu Expwy S13 sign no name.svg S13 Zhongchuan Airport Liaison Line 中川机场联络线 Lanzhou Zhongchuan Airport N/A
North-south connector S17 Ayong Expressway 阿永高速 Inner Mongolia border towards Alxa Yongchang N/A
North-south connector S19 Lindong Expressway 临东高速 Linxia Dongxiang 25 km
North-south S10 Fenghe Expressway 凤合高速 Shaanxi border towards Fengxian Hezuo 552 km
North-south S20 Lianglang Expressway 两郎高速 Lianghekou Langmusi 95 km
East-west connector S12 Su'a Expressway 肃阿高速 Subei Aksai 55 km
East-west connector S14 Longwei Expressway 陇渭高速 Longxi Weiyuan 39 km
East-west connector S16 Maitian Expressway 麦天高速 Maiji Tianshui ## km
East-west connector S18 Zhangsu Expressway 张肃高速 Zhangye Sunan 69 km
East-west connector S22 Baixin Expressway 白新高速 Baiyin Lanzhou New Area 52 km
East-west connector S24 Lanyong Expressway 兰永高速 Lanzhou Yongjing 38 km
East-west connector S26 Zhengyu Expressway 正榆高速 Zhengning Yulinzi 22 km
East-west connector S28 Linghua Expressway 灵华高速 Lingtai Huating 140 km
East-west connector S32 Linji Expressway 临积高速 Linxia Jishishan 60 km
East-west connector S34 Linxun Expressway 临循高速 Linxia Qinghai border at Xunhua 38 km
East-west connector S36 Linguang Expressway 临广高速 Lintao Guanghe 47 km
East-west connector S38 Xiawang Expressway 夏王高速 Xiahe Wangge'ertang 35 km
East-west connector S42 Zhangyi Expressway 漳殪高速 Zhangxian Yihuqiao 15 km
East-west connector S44 Kangwang Expressway 康望高速 Kangxian Wangguan 33 km
East-west connector S46 Wenqing Expressway 文青高速 Wenxian Qinglongqiao 32 km

Former numbers (before 2013):

  • Gansu Expwy S1 sign no name.svg S1 Lanzhou-Yingpanguan / Lanying Expressway
  • S2 Lanzhou-Langmusi / Lanlang Expressway
  • S11 Qingcheng - Wuqi / Qingwu Expressway
  • S13 Pingliang - Baoji / Pingbao Expressway
  • S15 Pingliang - Wudu / Pingwu Expressway
  • S10 Wuwei-Jinchang / Wujin Expressway
  • S12 Baiyin-Zhongchuan Airport / Baizhong Expressway

Guangdong

Guangxi

Guizhou

Hainan

Hebei

Heilongjiang

Henan

Hubei

Hunan

Inner Mongolia

Jiangsu

Jiangxi

Jilin

Liaoning Province

[17]

Type Number Name Chinese name Startpoint Endpoint Length
Radial Liaoning Expwy S2 sign no name.svg S2 Shenkang Expressway 沈康高速 Shenyang Kangping 92 km
Radial Liaoning Expwy S3 sign no name.svg S3 Shentao Expressway 沈桃高速 Shenyang Taoxian Airport 12 km
Radial S4 Shenbei Expressway 沈北高速 Shenyang Inner Mongolia border at Beipiao N/A
North-South Liaoning Expwy S13 sign no name.svg S13 Yonghuan Expressway 永桓高速 Yongling Huanren 69 km
North-South Liaoning Expwy S17 sign no name.svg S17 Pingkang Expressway 平康高速 Siping Kangping 84 km
North-South Liaoning Expwy S19 sign no name.svg S19 Zhuanggai Expressway 庄盖高速 Zhuanghe Gaizhou 101 km
North-South Liaoning Expwy S21 sign no name.svg S21 Fuying Expressway 阜营高速 Fuxin Yingkou 189 km
North-South Liaoning Expwy S23 sign no name.svg S23 Dayaowan Port Expressway 大窑湾疏港高速 Dayaowan Port China Expwy G15 sign no name.svg 22 km
North-South S27 Dalianwan Port Expressway 大连湾疏港高速 China Expwy G11 sign no name.svg Dalianwan Port 4 km
North-South Liaoning Expwy S29 sign no name.svg S29 Liaobin Port Expressway 辽滨港疏港高速 Dawa Liaobin Port 15 km
North-South S31 Jinzhou Port Expressway 锦州疏港高速 Jinzhou Jinzhou Port N/A
East-West Liaoning Expwy S10 sign no name.svg S10 Futong Expressway 抚通高速 Fushun Jilin border towards Tonghua 97 km
East-West Liaoning Expwy S12 sign no name.svg S12 Pichang Expressway 皮长高速 Pikou Changxingdao Port N/A
East-West Liaoning Expwy S14 sign no name.svg S14 Liaokai Expressway 辽开高速 Jilin border towards Liaoyuan Kaiyuan 87 km
East-West S18 Kuanhai Expressway 宽海高速 Kuandian Haicheng N/A
East-West Liaoning Expwy S20 sign no name.svg S20 Dengliao Expressway 灯辽高速 Dengta Liaozhong 42 km
East-West Liaoning Expwy S22 sign no name.svg S22 Antai Expressway 鞍台高速 Anshan Tai'an 58 km
East-West S24 Dadong Port Expressway 大东港疏港高速 Donggang Dadong Port 18 km
East-West Liaoning Expwy S26 sign no name.svg S26 Xingjian Expressway 兴建高速 Xingcheng Jianchang 90 km
East-West S28 Haiyanghong Port Expressway 海洋红疏港高速 Gushan Haiyanghong Port 14 km
East-West S30 Bayuquan Port Expressway 鲅鱼圈疏港高速 Bayuquan Bayuquan Port 8 km
East-West S32 Xianrendao Port Expressway 仙人岛疏港高速 Gaizhou Xianrendao Port 6 km
East-West S34 Changxingdao North Port Expressway 长兴岛北疏港高速 Huayuankou Changxingdao Port N/A
Ring S51 Shenyang Outer City Ring Expressway 沈阳外环绕城高速 Shenyang Outer Ring N/A
Ring S52 Benxi City Ring Expressway 本溪绕城高速 Benxi Ring N/A

Ningxia Autonomous Province

[18]

Type Number Name Chinese name Startpoint Endpoint Length
North-south Ningxia Expwy S5 sign no name.svg S5 Yinba Expressway 巴高速 Yanchi Inner Mongolia border towards Otog Qianqi N/A
North-south S15 Yan'e Expressway 盐鄂高速 Yanchi Inner Mongolia border towards Otog Qianqi N/A
North-south Ningxia Expwy S19 sign no name.svg S19 Gunhong Expressway 滚红高速 Gunquan Hongsibu N/A
North-south S25 Jinghua Expressway 泾华高速 Jingyuan Gansu border towards Huating N/A
North-south Ningxia Expwy S27 sign no name.svg S27 Shizhong Expressway 石中高速 Yanchi Inner Mongolia border towards Otog Qianqi N/A
North-South S35 Shi'en Expressway 石恩高速 Shikong Enhe N/A
North-South S45 Zhonghai Expressway 中海高速 Zhongwei Haiyuan N/A
East-West S10 Shiping Expressway 石平高速 Shizuishan Pingluo N/A
East-West Ningxia Expwy S12 sign no name.svg S12 Guqing Expressway 古青高速 Guyaozi Qingtongxia N/A
East-West S20 Wulingqing North Ring Expressway 吴灵青北环高速 Wuzhong Qingtongxia N/A
East-west S30 Guqing Expressway 古青高速 Inner Mongolia border Guyaozi Qingtongxia N/A
East-West S40 Zhaihai Expressway 寨海高速 Zhaike Haiyuan N/A
East-West S50 Guxi Expressway 固西高速 Guyuan Xiji N/A
East-West S60 Gupeng Expressway 固彭高速 Guyuan Pengyang N/A

Qinghai

Shaanxi

Shandong

Shanghai

Shanxi

Sichuan

Tianjin

Tibet

Xinjiang

Yunnan

Zhejiang

Hong Kong and Macau

There are 160.9 kilometres (100.0 mi) of expressways in Hong Kong. Macau has fewer than 50 kilometres (31 mi) of highways, many of which are partially controlled access.

For more see Expressways in Hong Kong and Highways in Macau.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Shanghai–Jiading Expressway was the first expressway to be built in Mainland China, excluding Taiwan (see Political status of Taiwan), as well as Hong Kong and Macau, which were under British and Portuguese control respectively at the time. If Taiwan is included, the first expressway to open in modern China was Taiwan's National Highway 1, known as the Zhongshan Expressway, which opened in 1974.
  2. ^ Length of network as of 1 January of the respective year.

References

  1. ^ "我国高速公路通车里程位居世界第一 骨架网络正加快贯通". 第一财经日报. 
  2. ^ a b c d Li, Si-ming and Shum, Yi-man. Impacts of the National Trunk Highway System on accessibility in China. Journal of Transport Geography.
  3. ^ a b 国家高速公路网规划 (National Trunk Highway System Planning). 13 January 2005. (in Chinese)
  4. ^ "Exhibition unveils China's ancient "state highway" in Qin Dynasty". Xinhua. 2016-10-26. Retrieved 2016-10-26. 
  5. ^ a b 国内首条取消收费高速公路改建工程启动. News.cn. (in Chinese)
  6. ^ a b National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived 2009-03-07 at the Wayback Machine..
  7. ^ "交通运输行业晒出2016年度成绩单". Gov.cn. 2017-04-17. Retrieved 2017-06-16. 
  8. ^ "China bites the bullet on fuel tax". Rsc.org. 2009-01-01. Retrieved 2015-12-17. 
  9. ^ "Bbc News". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-12-17. 
  10. ^ Wang, Chongxu; Yuancheng Peng; Yinbo Liu (January 2009). "Crossing the Limits". Civil Engineering. Reston, Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers. 79 (1): 64–69, 79–80. ISSN 0885-7024. Archived from the original on 2010-01-15. 
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ [2] Archived July 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ [3]
  14. ^ "365条ETC车道开通,基本实现全市收费站点全覆盖". 北京快通高速路电子收费系统有限公司. 2010-04-29. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  15. ^ "北京八达岭高速"速通卡"将停止使用". 京华时报. 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  16. ^ Source
  17. ^ 辽宁省高速公路 Chinese Wikipedia List of Liaoning Expressways
  18. ^ Ningxia Expressway Plan 2014-2030

External links

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