Treaty of Perpetual Peace (1686)

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The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the 1686 treaty
Polish-Russian peace treaty 1686.JPG

A Treaty of Perpetual Peace (also "Treaty of Eternal Peace"; Polish: Pokój wieczysty or Pokój Grzymułtowskiego, Russian: Вечный мир, Lithuanian: Amžinoji taika) between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was signed on 6 May 1686 in Moscow by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth envoys: voivod of Poznań Krzysztof Grzymułtowski and chancellor (kanclerz) of Lithuania Marcjan Ogiński and Russian knyaz Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn These parties were moved to cooperate after a major geopolitical intervention in Ukraine on the part of the Ottoman Empire.[1]

The treaty confirmed the earlier Treaty of Andrusovo of 1667.[1] It consisted of a preamble and 33 articles. The treaty secured Russia's possession of Left-bank Ukraine plus the right-bank city of Kiev.[2] 146,000 rubles were to be paid to Poland as compensation for the loss of the Left Bank.[2] The region of Zaporizhian Sich, Siverian lands, cities of Chernihiv, Starodub, Smolensk and its outskirts were also ceded to Russia, while Poland retained Right-bank Ukraine. Both parties agreed not to sign a separate treaty with the Ottoman Empire.[2] By signing this treaty, Russia became a member of the anti-Turkish coalition, which comprised Poland, the Holy Roman Empire and Venice. Russia pledged to organize a military campaign against the Crimean Khanate, which led to the Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700).

The treaty was a major success for Russian diplomacy. Strongly opposed in Poland, it was not ratified by the Sejm (parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) until 1710.[2][3] The legal legitimacy of its ratification has been disputed.[4] According to Jacek Staszewski, the treaty was not confirmed by a resolution of the Sejm until the Convocation Sejm (1764).[5]

It marked a turning point in Russo-Polish relations and played a big part in the struggle of Eastern European peoples against the Turkish-Tatar aggression.[citation needed] Subsequently, it facilitated Russia's struggle with Sweden for access to the Baltic Sea.[citation needed]

The borders between Russia and the Commonwealth established by the treaty remained in effect until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.

References

  1. ^ a b Ariel Cohen (1998). Russian Imperialism: Development and Crisis. Greenwood Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-275-96481-8. 
  2. ^ a b c d Jerzy Jan Lerski; Piotr Wróbel; Richard J. Kozicki (1996). Historical dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0. 
  3. ^ Norman Davies (1982). God's Playground, a History of Poland: The origins to 1795. Columbia University Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-231-05351-8. 
  4. ^ Eugeniusz Romer, O wschodniej granicy Polski z przed 1772 r., w: Księga Pamiątkowa ku czci Oswalda Balzera, t. II, Lwów 1925, s. [355].
  5. ^ Jacek Staszewski, August II Mocny, Wrocław 1998, p. 100.

See also


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