Essex Wildlife Trust

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View from Blue House Farm bird hide

The Essex Wildlife Trust (EWT) is one of 47 wildlife trusts which cover the United Kingdom. The EWT was founded in 1959, and it describes itself as Essex's leading conservation charity, which aims to protect wildlife for the future and the people of the county. As of January 2017, it has over 34,000 members and runs 87 nature reserves, 2 nature parks and 11 visitor centres.[1][a]

Essex has one of the longest coastlines of any English county, with saltmarshes, lagoons, mudflats, grazing marshes, reedbeds and shingle. Its ancient forests were formerly important to the local economy, with wood being used for fuel, construction and bark in the tanning industry. Coppicing is being re-introduced by the EWT to encourage woodland grasses, flowers, invertebrates and birds. A few grasslands on the heavy clays of south- and mid-Essex are still grazed according to traditional methods, supporting a mixture of pasture and fen. Some brownfield sites, often on contaminated soil, have populations of nationally scarce species, particularly invertebrates.[3]

The EWT's first site was Fingringhoe Wick, which was established in 1961; its visitor centre has views over the Colne Estuary.[4] The largest site is the 400-hectare (990-acre) Hanningfield Reservoir, which has nationally important numbers of gadwalls and a rare moss. The smallest is Horndon Meadow at 0.8 hectares (2.0 acres); it is an unimproved hay meadow which has 80 flower species. The whole or part of 6 sites are Ramsar internationally important wetland sites, 29 are Sites of Special Scientific Interest, 3 are National Nature Reserves, 4 are Special Protection Areas, 2 are Special Areas of Conservation, 7 are Nature Conservation Review sites, 2 are a Geological Conservation Review sites, 2 are Scheduled Monuments and 7 are Local Nature Reserves.

Nature reserves

Key

Site Photograph Area[b] Location[b] Access[b] Classifications Description
Abberton Reservoir[5] Abberton Reservoir 24.2 hectares (60 acres) Colchester
51°49′23″N 0°50′46″E / 51.823°N 0.846°E / 51.823; 0.846 (Abberton Reservoir)
TL 962 177
YES EWTVC,[5] NCR,[6] Ramsar,[7] SPA,[8] SSSI[9] The EWT runs the visitor centre for Essex and Suffolk Water's 716 hectare reservoir, which is internationally important for wintering wigeons, and nationally important for twelve other bird species. The small area run by the trust has new woodland with a bird hide, and there are two more hides over the reservoir.[5][9]
Abbotts Hall Farm[10] Abbotts Hall Farm 282.0 hectares (697 acres) Colchester
51°47′46″N 0°50′42″E / 51.796°N 0.845°E / 51.796; 0.845 (Abbotts Hall Farm)
TL 963 146
PP NNR,[11] Ramsar,[12] SAC,[13] SM,[14] SPA,[15] SSSI[16] This is the headquarters of the EWT, as well as a working farm which is managed to encourage wildlife. New seawalls have been built to create marshland, which has many fish, providing food for migrating birds. A new lake has also been constructed, and fields provide additional habitats for fauna such as skylarks.[10]
Aubrey Buxton[17] Aubrey Buxton 9.7 hectares (24 acres) Elsenham
51°54′54″N 0°12′36″E / 51.915°N 0.210°E / 51.915; 0.210 (Aubrey Buxton)
TL 521 264
YES The site is woodland on a sandy and gravel soil, with meadows and six man-made ponds. Grassland plants include wild strawberries and common spotted orchids. There are birds such as nuthatches and woodpeckers. Black poplars, which are the county's rarest native tree, have been planted to replace trees lost to storm damage.[17]
Bedfords Park[18] Bedfords Park Deer 87.0 hectares (215 acres) Havering-atte-Bower
51°36′29″N 0°11′38″E / 51.608°N 0.194°E / 51.608; 0.194 (Bedfords Park)
TQ 520 922
YES EWTVC,[18] LNR[19] The London Borough of Havering owns and manages Bedfords Park, while the EWT manages the visitor centre.[18] The site has wildflower meadows, diverse woodland, several ponds and a lake, as well as a herd of red deer. There are flora such as cuckoo flowers and ragged robins.[19]
Belfairs Woodland Centre[20] Prittle Brook in Belfairs Wood 36.8 hectares (91 acres)[21] Leigh-on-Sea
51°33′22″N 0°38′24″E / 51.556°N 0.640°E / 51.556; 0.640 (Belfairs Woodland Centre)
TQ 831 874
YES EWTVC,[20] LNR,[22] SSSI[21] This is a small remnant of the ancient Hadleigh Great Wood. It is coppiced oak woodland on sands, gravels and clay, and one of the largest areas of old woodland in the south of the county. Plants include the rare broad-leaved helleborine.[21]
Blue House Farm[23] Blue House Farm 242.8 hectares (600 acres) North Fambridge
51°38′31″N 0°40′52″E / 51.642°N 0.681°E / 51.642; 0.681 (Blue House Farm)
TQ 856 971
FP SSSI[24] This site has been grassland for the last 100 years, and it is grazed by cows and sheep. The site has ponds, creeks and ditches, and a 20 hectare field is flooded during the winter, providing feeding grounds for large numbers of wildfowl and wading birds, including around 2000 Brent geese.[23]
Bradwell Shell Bank[25] Bradwell Shell Bank N/Av Bradwell-on-Sea
51°44′06″N 0°56′46″E / 51.735°N 0.946°E / 51.735; 0.946 (Bradwell Shell Bank)
TM 035 081
PP NCR,[26][27] Ramsar,[28] SAC,[25] SPA,[25] SSSI[25] The site is a large area of saltmarsh, together with some 12 hectares (30 acres) of shell bank. Birds which breed on the shell bank include little terns and ringed plovers, and there are many species on the saltmarsh. There are flora such as yellow-horned poppies, grass-leaved oraches and rock samphires.[25]
Brookes Nature Reserve[29] Brookes Nature Reserve 24.3 hectares (60 acres) Halstead
51°54′36″N 0°37′37″E / 51.910°N 0.627°E / 51.910; 0.627 (Brookes Nature Reserve)
TL 808 268
YES SSSI[29] The site is coppice woodland on chalky boulder clay. There is a variety of woodlands types, such as wet ash and maple, pedunculate Oak and hornbeam, and acid birch, ash and lime. The ground flora includes species which are locally uncommon, including greater butterfly-orchid and bird's-nest orchid.[30] There is also a variety of butterflies, and ponds which have frogs and newts.[29]
Chafford Gorges Nature Park[31] Chafford Gorges 80.9 hectares (200 acres) Grays
51°29′24″N 0°17′10″E / 51.490°N 0.286°E / 51.490; 0.286 (Chafford Gorges)
TQ 588 793
YES EWTVC,[31] GCR,[32] SSSI[31][33] This site has lakes, woodland and meadows. There are common spotted, bee and bird's nest orchids, and long-eared and common pipistrelle bats.[31] Two areas are Sites of Special Scientific Interest: Grays Thurrock Chalk Pit has been designated for its biological interest, and Lion Pit for geological interest.[33]
Chigborough Lakes[34] Chigborough Lakes 18.6 hectares (46 acres) Maldon
51°44′42″N 0°43′01″E / 51.745°N 0.717°E / 51.745; 0.717 (Chigborough Lakes)
TL 876 086
YES This area of former gravel pits has diverse habitats, lakes, marshes, willow carr, grazed grassland and scrub. More than 120 species of bird have been recorded, out of which more than 40 have bred, including great crested grebes, grey herons and little egrets. There are eleven species of willow and several of orchid.[34]
Cockaynes Wood[35] Cockaynes Wood 20.2 hectares (50 acres) Wivenhoe
51°51′22″N 0°58′52″E / 51.856°N 0.981°E / 51.856; 0.981 (Cockaynes Wood)
TM 054 217
PP Cockaynes Wood is ancient, and was listed in the Domesday Book. The nature reserve also includes Villa Wood and more open areas, with heathland, meadows, and water-filled former quarries. Wildlife includes a rare weevil and birds including barn owls.[35]
Colne Point[36] Colne Point 276.4 hectares (683 acres) St Osyth
51°46′16″N 1°03′14″E / 51.771°N 1.054°E / 51.771; 1.054 (Colne Point)
TM 108 125
YES NCR,[27] NNR,[37] Ramsar,[38] SSSI[37] The site is shingle surrounding saltmarsh, and Ray Creek flows through it. It is a breeding ground for many birds, and a feeding area for migrants. There are many invertebrates which are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and flora include the nationally rare golden samphire and small cord-grass.[36]
Copperas Wood[39] Copperas Wood 13.8 hectares (34 acres) Harwich
51°56′20″N 1°12′00″E / 51.939°N 1.200°E / 51.939; 1.200 (Copperas Wood)
TM 200 315
YES SSSI[40] This is ancient sweet chestnut and hornbeam coppice. The Great Storm of 1987 caused severe damage, and some areas have been left to regenerate naturally. Around 100 bird species have been observed, out of which 43 are nesting, and there are 23 butterfly species and over 300 of moths.[39]
Cranham Marsh[41] Cranham Marsh 13.0 hectares (32 acres) Cranham
51°32′49″N 0°15′29″E / 51.547°N 0.258°E / 51.547; 0.258 (Cranham Marsh)
TQ 567 856
YES LNR[42] The habitats on the site are woodland, wet meadow, marsh and fen. There are three small woods, including Spring Wood, which has species indicative of ancient woodland. Insects include a rare bee, macropis europaea, and 23 species of butterfly have been recorded.[43]
Crowsheath Wood[44] Crowsheath Wood 8.1 hectares (20 acres) Downham
51°38′28″N 0°29′38″E / 51.641°N 0.494°E / 51.641; 0.494 (Crowsheath Wood)
TQ 727 964
YES The wood has many mature oak trees, with coppiced areas mainly of hornbeam, together with other trees such as ash and field maple. There are ponds in the centre of the site where lesser spearwort grows. Flowers include bluebell and wood anemone, and there are birds typical of broadleaved woodland.[44]
Danbury Ridge[45] Danbury Ridge 101.2 hectares (250 acres) Danbury
51°43′44″N 0°35′24″E / 51.729°N 0.590°E / 51.729; 0.590 (Danbury Ridge)
TL 790 065
YES SSSI[46][47] The site includes several areas in two different SSSIs, Danbury Common[46] and Woodham Walter Common.[47] Habitats include woodland, a bog area which has sphagnum moss, marsh, a pond and heathland. Dormice are common in the reserves.[45]
Fingringhoe Wick[4] Fingringhoe Wick 48.6 hectares (120 acres) Fingringhoe
51°50′06″N 0°58′16″E / 51.835°N 0.971°E / 51.835; 0.971 (Fingringhoe Wick)
TM 048 193
YES EWTVC,[4] NCR,[27] Ramsar,[48] SSSI[37] These former gravel quarries were the Trust's first reserve, established in 1961. Habitats are the Colne Estuary, gorse heathland, grassland, reedbeds and ponds. There are nearly 200 species of birds and 350 of flowering plants, together with many dragonflies, damselflies and butterflies.[4]
Fobbing Marsh[49] Fobbing Marsh 75.7 hectares (187 acres) Fobbing
51°32′02″N 0°29′42″E / 51.534°N 0.495°E / 51.534; 0.495 (Fobbing Marsh)
TQ 731 846
YES The site is mainly grazing marshes, but there are also areas of rough grassland, saltmarsh, seawalls and reedbed. Flowering plants include hairy buttercup, knotted hedge-parsley and the nationally rare least lettuce. There are breeding birds such as corn buntings and yellow wagtails.[49]
Gernon Bushes[50] Gernon Bushes 32.0 hectares (79 acres) Epping
51°42′22″N 0°08′17″E / 51.706°N 0.138°E / 51.706; 0.138 (Gernon Bushes)
TL 478 030
YES SSSI,[51] NCR[52] This site is ancient coppice, with old hornbeam pollards, and many ponds which were created for gravel extraction. There are areas of marsh with large patches of the unusual marsh fern, and other plants include marsh marigold and ragged robin.[50]
Great Holland Pits[53] Great Holland Pits 16.2 hectares (40 acres) Great Holland
51°49′34″N 1°11′49″E / 51.826°N 1.197°E / 51.826; 1.197 (Great Holland Pits)
TM 204 190
YES This area of former gravel pits has grassland, ancient woodland, ponds and wet depressions. There are water birds such as kingfishers, coots and little grebes, and flowering plants include moschatels and carline thistles.[53]
Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges[54] Shoebury Ranges 25.0 hectares (62 acres) Shoeburyness
51°31′23″N 0°47′06″E / 51.523°N 0.785°E / 51.523; 0.785 (Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges)
TQ 932 841
PP LNR,[55] SM,[56] SSSI[57] Gunners Park, which is named for its former military use, has over twelve habitats, including coastal grassland and ancient sand dunes. Rare insects include sandwich click beetles, while there are unusual plants such as bulbous meadow-grass. There is a wide range of migrating birds.[54]
Hanningfield Reservoir[58] Hanningfield Reservoir 400 hectares (990 acres) Chelmsford
51°38′46″N 0°29′31″E / 51.646°N 0.492°E / 51.646; 0.492 (Hanningfield Reservoir)
TQ 725 971
YES EWTVC,[58] SSSI[59] The reservoir has a nationally important population of gadwalls, and it also has significant numbers of pochards, teal, tufted ducks and pintails. The chalk sludge lagoon has several unusual plants, and there is a rare moss Brachythecium mildeanum at the foot of the southern dam.[59]
Horndon Meadow[60] Horndon Meadow 0.8 hectares (2.0 acres) Stanford-le-Hope
51°32′24″N 0°24′36″E / 51.540°N 0.410°E / 51.540; 0.410 (Horndon Meadow)
TQ 672 851
YES This site is an unimproved hay meadow, which has around eighty flower species, such as green-winged orchids, yellow rattles, musk mallows and black knapweeds. Other plants include adder's tongue ferns.[60]
Howlands Marsh[61] Howlands Marsh 29.9 hectares (74 acres) St Osyth
51°48′40″N 1°04′01″E / 51.811°N 1.067°E / 51.811; 1.067 (Howlands Marsh)
TM 115 169
YES NCR,[27] Ramsar,[38] SPA,[62] SSSI[37] This site is marshy grassland, which is low lying and hummocky, and divided by water channels. There are also areas of saltmarsh, which have sea wormwood and golden samphire. Breeding birds include reed warblers, skylarks, lapwings and reed buntings.[61]
Hunsdon Mead[63][c] Hunsdon Mead 27.5 hectares (68 acres) Harlow
51°46′59″N 0°03′32″E / 51.783°N 0.059°E / 51.783; 0.059 (Hunsdon Mead)
TL 421 114
YES SSSI[64] This is unimproved grassland which is subject to winter flooding. Notable grass species include meadow brome and the quaking grass briza media, and there are other unusual flora such as pepper saxifrage and green-winged orchid.[64]
Ingrebourne Valley[65] Ingrebourne Valley 261 hectares (640 acres) Hornchurch
51°31′48″N 0°12′29″E / 51.530°N 0.208°E / 51.530; 0.208 (Ingrebourne Valley)
TQ 532 835
YES EWTVC,[65] LNR,[66] SSSI[67] The EWT manages the visitor centre for this site, which is run by Havering Council.[65] The site has a wide range of habitats, rough grassland, woodland, marshes, river, reedbeds and wet grazing. There are fauna such as great crested newts, slow worms and harvest mice.[67]
Iron Latch[68] Iron Latch 4.3 hectares (11 acres) Eight Ash Green
51°53′49″N 0°49′58″E / 51.897°N 0.8328°E / 51.897; 0.8328 (Iron Latch)
TL 950 259
YES The site consists of areas of species-rich grassland and ash woodland. Bird's foot trefoil provides food for common blue butterflies, and other butterlies include purple hairstreaks. Nightingales nest in the trees and hedges.[68]
John Weston Nature Reserve[69] John Weston 3.6 hectares (8.9 acres) Walton-on-the-Naze
51°52′23″N 1°17′25″E / 51.873°N 1.2903°E / 51.873; 1.2903 (John Weston Nature Reserve)
TM 266 245
YES This site is named after its former warden, who died in 1984. It has rough grassland, blackthorn and bramble scrub and four ponds. Nesting brids include the lesser and common whitethroat, and there are flora such as slender thistle, pepper saxifrage and fenugreek.[69]
Langdon Nature Reserve[70] Langdon Nature Reserve 210.0 hectares (519 acres) Basildon
51°33′43″N 0°23′39″E / 51.562°N 0.3942°E / 51.562; 0.3942 (Langdon Nature Reserve)
TQ 660 875
YES EWTVC [70] This site has a wildlife garden, woodland, meadows and lakes. Over 350 species of flowering plants have been recorded, and 30 butterflies including white admirals, green hairstreaks, marbled whites and grizzled skippers.[70]
Lexden Gathering Grounds[71] Lexden Gathering Grounds 8.9 hectares (22 acres) Colchester
51°53′35″N 0°51′20″E / 51.893°N 0.8555°E / 51.893; 0.8555 (Lexden Gathering Grounds)
TL 965 254
YES The site is mainly woodland with some marsh, meadow and open rides. One area has semi-natural birch and ash woods, and the marsh has moschatel and mature hazel and alder coppice. There are badgers and foxes, and butterflies including common browns and small coppers.[71]
Lion Creek and Lower Raypits[72] Lion Creek 65.2 hectares (161 acres) Canewdon
51°37′08″N 0°46′34″E / 51.619°N 0.776°E / 51.619; 0.776 (Lion Creek and Lower Raypits)
TQ 923 948
YES SSSI[73][74] The former creek has been cut off from the Crouch Estuary by a seawall, and it has salt marsh plants such as golden samphire and sea-spurrey. Lower Raypits has a variety of pasture, salt marsh and intertidal habitats, with nationally scarce plants such as beaked tasselweed, sea barley, grass vetchling and curved hard-grass. Invertebrates include Roesel's bush-cricket.[72]
Little Haven[75] Little Haven 37.2 hectares (92 acres) Thundersley
51°34′16″N 0°36′27″E / 51.571°N 0.6075°E / 51.571; 0.6075 (Little Haven)
TQ 808 890
YES This site has diverse habitats of woodland, meadows, scrub and hedges. The main trees are sessile oaks, hornbeams and sweet chestnut, and plants such as wood sorrel and are indicators of ancient woodland. The reserve is one of only 25 in the county where the rare heath fritillary is well established.[75]
Little Waltham Meadows[76] Little Waltham Meadows 8.9 hectares (22 acres) Little Waltham
51°46′44″N 0°28′54″E / 51.779°N 0.4818°E / 51.779; 0.4818 (Little Waltham Meadows)
TL 713 119
YES The site is wet and dry meadows on the bank of the River Chelmer, which are grazed to restore them to their previous state. There are grassland plants such as saxifrage, bee orchids and yellow oat-grass. Tawny owls and sparrowhawks hunt in the meadows and ancient hedgerows.[76]
Maldon Wick[77] Maldon Wick 6.1 hectares (15 acres) Maldon
51°43′12″N 0°39′55″E / 51.720°N 0.6653°E / 51.720; 0.6653 (Maldon Wick Meadow)
TL 842 057
YES This is a 2.4-kilometre (1.5-mile) linear site along the route of the former railway line between Maldon and Woodham Ferrers, and it is mainly on embankment. There are many breeding birds, and 28 species of butterflies and 17 of dragonfly have been recorded. Flowering plants include moschatels and sweet violets.[77]
Naze, TheThe Naze[78] The Naze 45 hectares (110 acres) Walton-on-the-Naze
51°52′05″N 1°17′17″E / 51.868°N 1.288°E / 51.868; 1.288 (The Naze)
TM 264 238
YES EWTVC,[78] GCR,[79] SSSI[80] This coastal site has a variety of terrestrial and marine habitats, and many migrating and nesting birds, such as dark bellied brent geese, sedge warblers, barn owls and whitethroats. The cliff is eroding at one to two metres a year.[78]
Newland Grove[81] Newland Grove in the snow 3.2 hectares (7.9 acres) Chelmsford
51°46′12″N 0°29′08″E / 51.770°N 0.4856°E / 51.770; 0.4856 (Newland Grove)
TL 716 108
YES The site is rough grassland on the bank of the River Chelmer, with areas of woodland and thorn thicket. More than 230 plant species have been recorded, including St John's wort, hairy violet and musk mallow. Birds include several species of warbler, and 23 of butterflies.[81]
Oakfield Wood[82] Oakfield Wood 2.8 hectares (6.9 acres) Wrabness
51°56′24″N 1°09′04″E / 51.940°N 1.151°E / 51.940; 1.151 (Oakfield Wood)
TM 167 315
YES This is former farmland which is being converted into a "green burial ground", overlooking the Stour Estuary. A native broadleaved tree is planted for each burial with a wooden plaque at the base. When the burial ground is full, it will be managed by the trust as a nature reserve.[82]
Oxley Meadow[83] Oxley Meadow 3.2 hectares (7.9 acres) Tiptree
51°48′04″N 0°46′44″E / 51.801°N 0.779°E / 51.801; 0.779 (Oxley Meadow)
TL 917 149
YES The site has two meadows which are rich in flowers, including many green winged orchids and adderstongue ferns. There is also a variety of common butterfly species, and hedgerows provide nesting sites for birds such as the lesser whitethroat.[83]
Phyllis Currie[84] Phyllis Currie 8.9 hectares (22 acres) Great Leighs
51°50′10″N 0°29′56″E / 51.836°N 0.499°E / 51.836; 0.499 (Phyllis Currie)
TL 723 182
YES This site is named after Mrs Phyllis Currie, who bequeathed it to the trust. It has diverse habitats, with grassland, a lake, woodland and ditches. Birds include kingfishers and grey herons, and 23 species of butterflies and 13 of dragonflies and damselflies have been recorded.[84]
Pound Wood[85] Pound Wood 22.3 hectares (55 acres) Thundersley
51°34′08″N 0°37′08″E / 51.569°N 0.619°E / 51.569; 0.619 (Pound Wood)
TQ 816 888
YES Much of this site is ancient woodland, with some old secondary woodland. Trees include sweet chestnut, aspen and the wild service tree. There are a number of dells and ponds.[85]
Ray Island[86] Ray Spit 40.5 hectares (100 acres) Mersea Island
51°48′04″N 0°54′54″E / 51.801°N 0.915°E / 51.801; 0.915 (Ray Island and Bonners Saltings)
TM 011 154
EWTO The site is a sandy hill which rises out of an area of saltmarsh. It has rough grassland and a shingle foreshore. There are saltmarsh plants such as lax flowered sea-lavender, sea rush and golden samphire, and breeding birds include oystercatchers and shelducks.[86]
Roding Valley Meadows[87] Roding Valley Meadows 64.6 hectares (160 acres) Chigwell
51°37′44″N 0°03′54″E / 51.629°N 0.065°E / 51.629; 0.065 (Roding Valley Meadows)
TQ 430 943
YES LNR,[88] SSSI[89] The meadows are bordered by the River Roding. They form one of the largest areas of grassland in Essex which are traditionally managed as hay meadows, flood meadows and marshland. Plants include the largest beds in Essex of the rare brown sedge.[89]
Roman River Valley[90] Roman River Valley 17.8 hectares (44 acres) Layer de la Haye
51°51′11″N 0°51′58″E / 51.853°N 0.866°E / 51.853; 0.866 (Roman River Valley)
TL 975 211
YES This wetland site along the Roman River has ancient woodland and marshes. Aquatic plants include the uncommon small teasel, and there are flowering plants such as yellow archangel and moschatel.[90]
Rushy Mead[91] Rushy Mead 4.6 hectares (11 acres) Bishop's Stortford
51°51′18″N 0°10′19″E / 51.855°N 0.172°E / 51.855; 0.172 (Rushy Mead)
TL 497 196
YES The site has areas of sedges and reeds with water near the surface all year. They provide protection for snipe and water rails in the winter, and sedge and reed warblers in the summer. The northern part is alder woodland with some ash and willow. In drier areas there is chalk grassland which supports a wide variety of wild flowers.[91]
Sandylay and Moat Woods [92] Sandylay and Moat Woods 7.5 hectares (19 acres) Great Leighs
51°49′44″N 0°30′50″E / 51.829°N 0.514°E / 51.829; 0.514 (Sandylay and Moat Woods)
TL 733 175
YES These adjacent woods are mainly coppiced small-leaved lime, with a small stream and many flowering plants, including wood anemones, sweet violets, spurge laurel, stinking iris and early purple orchid.[92]
Sawbridgeworth Marsh[93] Sawbridgeworth Marsh 8.9 hectares (22 acres) Sawbridgeworth
51°49′16″N 0°09′49″E / 51.821°N 0.1635°E / 51.821; 0.1635 (Sawbridgeworth Marsh)
TL 492 158
YES SSSI[94]

The site is a river valley marsh close to the River Stort, which has a varied wetland flora. Grazing and cutting of the marsh in rotation maintains biological diversity.[94] Uncommon plants include marsh willowherb, marsh valerian and marsh arrow-grass, and drainage ditches and two ponds have a rich aquatic life.[93]

Sergeants Orchard[95] Sergeants Orchard 3.2 hectares (7.9 acres) Mount Bures
51°56′35″N 0°46′30″E / 51.943°N 0.775°E / 51.943; 0.775 (Sergeants Orchard)
TL 908 308
PP The site consists of an old orchard in a long narrow field, another narrow field to the west and a larger one to the east. The western field has been planted with fruit trees and the eastern one with a conservation grass mix. A rare bee, bombus muscorum, has been found on the site.[95][96]
Shadwell Wood[97] Shadwell Wood 7.1 hectares (18 acres) Saffron Waldon
52°02′53″N 0°17′31″E / 52.048°N 0.292°E / 52.048; 0.292 (Shadwell Wood)
TL 572 413
YES SSSI[98] This is oak and ash woodland, interspersed with coppiced hazel and maple. Diverse flowering plants include oxlips, wood anemones, herb paris, and early purple and common spotted orchids.[97]
Shotgate Thickets[99] Shotgate Thickets 3.2 hectares (7.9 acres) Wickford
51°37′05″N 0°33′11″E / 51.618°N 0.553°E / 51.618; 0.553 (Shotgate Thickets)
TQ 768 940
YES This site on the north bank of the River Crouch has oak woodland, two ponds, rough grassland and thorn thickets. Fauna include great crested newts, water voles, and over seventy bird species. More than a hundred plant species have been recorded, such as golden dock and dyer's greenweed.[99]
Shut Heath Wood[100] Shut Heath Wood 20.2 hectares (50 acres) Great Totham
51°47′17″N 0°41′06″E / 51.788°N 0.685°E / 51.788; 0.685 (Shut Heath Wood)
TL 853 133
YES Over half this site is managed as farmland, and the rest is ancient oak woodland with coppiced sweet chestnut and hornbeam. The understorey is ash, elder and hazel. Invertebrates include damselflies, dragonflies, glow-worms and wood ants.[100]
Skippers Island[101] Skippers Island 94.3 hectares (233 acres) Walton-on-the-Naze
51°52′19″N 1°13′16″E / 51.872°N 1.221°E / 51.872; 1.221 (Skippers Island)
TM 218 242
BPA

The highest part of the island has thorn thickets, separated by grassy rides. The lowest land is saltmarsh, and there is also extensive rough pasture with brackish pools. Flora include sea hog's fennel and lax-flowered sea-lavender, and there are breeding birds such as shelducks and oystercatchers.[101]

Stanford Warren[102] Stanford Warren 16.6 hectares (41 acres) Stanford-le-Hope
51°30′18″N 0°25′44″E / 51.505°N 0.429°E / 51.505; 0.429 (Stanford Warren)
TQ 687 812
YES

This former gravel quarry is bisected by the River Hassenbrook. It has one of the largest reedbeds in the county, together with rough grassland and marshes. The bird life is diverse, including water rails, grey wagtails and bearded tits.[102]

Stow Maries Halt[103] Stow Maries Halt 2.2 hectares (5.4 acres) Stow Maries
51°39′40″N 0°39′07″E / 51.661°N 0.652°E / 51.661; 0.652 (Stow Maries Halt)
TQ 835 991
YES The former Stow St Mary Halt railway station has marshes, a pond and scrub, together with adjoining pasture which is also part of the reserve. Butterflies include purple and white-letter hairstreaks, and there are flowers such as common fleabane and wild carrot.[103]
Thorndon Countryside Centre[104] Thorndon Countryside Centre 200 hectares (500 acres)[105] Brentwood
51°33′36″N 0°18′58″E / 51.560°N 0.316°E / 51.560; 0.316 (Thorndon Countryside Centre)
TQ 605 915
YES EWTVC,[104] SSSI[106] The EWT runs the visitor centre for Thorndon Country Park, which is managed by Essex County Council. The park has diverse habitats, with ancient woodland, a meadow, a marsh, parkland and ponds. Mature trees include large oak and hornbeam pollards.[104]
Thrift Wood[107] Thrift Wood 19.4 hectares (48 acres) Bicknacre
51°41′06″N 0°35′17″E / 51.685°N 0.588°E / 51.685; 0.588 (Thrift Wood)
TL 790 017
YES SSSI[108] The site is an ancient semi-natural wood on acid soil. Wild service trees and elders are found in the shrub layer, and a pond has a raised sphagnum bog. Twenty species of butterfly have been recorded.[108]
Thurrock Thameside Nature Park[109] Thurrock Thameside Nature Park 50 hectares (120 acres)[d] Stanford-le-Hope
51°29′56″N 0°26′31″E / 51.499°N 0.442°E / 51.499; 0.442 (Thurrock Thameside Nature Park)
TQ 696 806
YES EWTVC[109] The park is next to the River Thames and it has internationally important numbers of ringed plovers and avocets, and nationally important numbers of grey plovers and dunlins. Mammals include water voles, Britain's fastest declining species, and there are invertebrates such as the great crested newt.[109]
Tile Wood[110] Tile Wood 6.5 hectares (16 acres) Thundersley
51°34′16″N 0°37′08″E / 51.571°N 0.619°E / 51.571; 0.619 (Tile Wood)
TQ 816 890
YES The wood is ancient, having been mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon period. The main trees are sessile oak, hornbeam and sweet chestnut. Ground flora include wood sorrel, bluebells and wood-rush.[110]
Tiptree Heath[111] Tiptree Heath 24.3 hectares (60 acres) Tiptree
51°47′56″N 0°43′44″E / 51.799°N 0.729°E / 51.799; 0.729 (Tiptree Heath)
TL 883 147
YES SSSI[112] This is the largest surviving area of heathland in Essex, and has a number of plants rare in the county. It is dominated by heather and bent grass.[112] A small herd of Dexter cattle help to control the growth of invasive scrub.[111]
Tollesbury Wick[113] Tollesbury Wick 242.9 hectares (600 acres) Tollesbury
51°45′25″N 0°51′11″E / 51.757°N 0.853°E / 51.757; 0.853 (Tollesbury Wick)
TL 970 103
FP

This is coastal freshwater marsh which is grazed by sheep, and is worked by traditional methods which encourage wildlife. Areas of ungrazed rough pasture have badgers, and field voles and pygmy shrews are hunted by hen harriers and short-eared owls.[113]

Two Tree Island[114] Two Tree Island 259 hectares (640 acres) Leigh-on-Sea
51°32′10″N 0°37′44″E / 51.536°N 0.629°E / 51.536; 0.629 (Two Tree Island)
TQ 824 852
YES NCR,[115][116]NNR,[117] SSSI[116] Mudflats provide food for wildfowl such as Brent geese, and waders such as dunlins and grey plovers. There are also areas of saltmarsh, grassland, lagoons, scrub and reedbeds. Butterflies include the marbled white, small skipper and Essex skipper.[114]
Warley Place[118] Warley Place 10.1 hectares (25 acres) Brentwood
51°35′31″N 0°17′02″E / 51.592°N 0.284°E / 51.592; 0.284 (Warley Place)
TQ 583 906
YES In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries this site was the garden of the leading horticulturalist, Ellen Willmott, who planted many plants from all over the world, some of which still survive. There is a line of mature sweet chestnuts, and flowers including daffodils, snowdrops and crocuses.[118]
Weeleyhall Wood[119] Weeleyhall Wood 13.6 hectares (34 acres) Weeley
51°50′42″N 1°07′55″E / 51.845°N 1.132°E / 51.845; 1.132 (Weeleyhall Wood)
TM 158 209
YES SSSI[120] This site has a variety of woodland types, reflecting diverse soils. It is mainly pedunculate oak over a layer of coppice hazel and sweet chestnut planted in the nineteenth century. There are two ponds and species-rich damp, grassy rides.[120]
West Wood[121] West Wood 23.5 hectares (58 acres) Thaxted
51°58′30″N 0°21′47″E / 51.975°N 0.363°E / 51.975; 0.363 (West Wood)
TL 623 333
YES SSSI[122] The site is ancient woodland on chalky boulder clay and sandy loam. It was mainly elm, but this has died and the wood regenerated naturally with ash. Bramble and dog's mercury dominate the ground layer, with a rich variety of plants in wetter areas, such as oxlip and meadow-sweet.[122] There are many species of birds and butterflies, and four ponds which have great crested newts, dragonflies and damselflies.[121]
Westhouse Wood[123] Anemone nemerosa in Westhouse Wood 2.8 hectares (6.9 acres) Colchester
51°54′29″N 0°52′08″E / 51.908°N 0.869°E / 51.908; 0.869 (Westhouse Wood)
TL 974 271
YES

The wood is mainly coppiced hazel, and other tree include small-leaved lime, crab apple, oak, ash, sweet chestnut, field maple and rowan. There are flowering plants such as wood anemones and foxgloves.[123]

Woodham Fen[124]  Woodham Fen 8.1 hectares (20 acres) South Woodham Ferrers
51°38′49″N 0°35′49″E / 51.647°N 0.597°E / 51.647; 0.597 (Woodham Fen)
TQ 798 975
YES SSSI[73][74]

The site lies between two tidal creeks which run into the River Crouch. It has saltmarsh and rough grassland with an unusual transition zone between them. Birds include reed buntings, yellow wagtails and meadow pipits, and there are common lizards and slow worms.[124]

Wrabness[125] Wrabness 24.3 hectares (60 acres) Wrabness
51°56′24″N 1°09′04″E / 51.940°N 1.151°E / 51.940; 1.151 (Wrabness)
TM 167 315
YES LNR[126] This site has grassland, marsh, scrub and woodland. It has a diverse bird life, such as yellowhammers, whitethroats, song thrushes and short-eared owls. There are also winter visitors including black-tailed godwits, grey plovers and turnstones.[125]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The EWT states that it runs 87 nature reserves but only lists 55 on its web site. However, some sites listed as visitor centres are also nature reserves, and the EWT may also run other sites which are not listed.[2]
  2. ^ a b c Unless stated otherwise, the area, location and public access are taken from the Essex Wildlife Trust page for each site.
  3. ^ Hunsdon Mead is managed jointly by the Essex and Herts and Middlesex Wildlife Trusts.[63]
  4. ^ As of May 2016, the Trust states that Thurrock Thameside Nature Park is being expanded from 120 to 845 acres.[109]

Citations

  1. ^ "About us". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  2. ^ "Visitor Centres and Nature Reserves". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  3. ^ "Essex habitats". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Fingringhoe Wick". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c "Abberton Reservoir Visitor Centre". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  6. ^ Ratcliffe, 1977, p. 171
  7. ^ "Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): Abberton Reservoir" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  8. ^ "Abberton Reservoir". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Abberton Reservoir citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "Abbotts Hall Farm". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  11. ^ "Essex's National Nature Reserves". Natural England. Retrieved 13 September 2016. 
  12. ^ "Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): Blackwater Estuary (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 4)" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  13. ^ "Essex Estuaries". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  14. ^ "Great Wigborough henge". Historic England. Retrieved 13 September 2016. 
  15. ^ "Blackwater Estuary (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 4)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  16. ^ "Blackwater Estuary citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  17. ^ a b "Aubrey Buxton Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  18. ^ a b c "Bedfords Park Visitor Centre". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "Bedford's Park". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  20. ^ a b "Belfairs Woodland Centre". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  21. ^ a b c "Great Wood and Dodd's Grove citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 18 March 2016. 
  22. ^ "Belfairs". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 20 January 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  23. ^ a b "Blue House Farm". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  24. ^ "Map of Crouch and Roach Estuaries". Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  25. ^ a b c d e "Bradwell Shell Bank". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  26. ^ "Dengie citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c d Ratcliffe, 1977, pp. 7–8
  28. ^ "Dengie (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 1)" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 4 October 2016. 
  29. ^ a b c "Brookes Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  30. ^ "Belcher's and Broadfield Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  31. ^ a b c d "Chafford Gorges". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  32. ^ "Lion Pit Tramway Cutting (West Thurrock) (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  33. ^ a b "Map of Chafford Gorges Nature Park" (PDF). Healthy Life Essex. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  34. ^ a b "Chigborough Lakes". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  35. ^ a b "Cockaynes Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  36. ^ a b "Colne Point". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  37. ^ a b c d "Colne Estuary citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  38. ^ a b "Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): Colne Estuary (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 2)" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  39. ^ a b "Copperas Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  40. ^ "Stour and Copperas Woods, Ramsey citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  41. ^ "Cranham Marsh". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  42. ^ "Cranham Marsh". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  43. ^ "Cranham Marsh". Greenspace Information for Greater London. 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  44. ^ a b "Crowsheath Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  45. ^ a b "Danbury Ridge". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  46. ^ a b "Danbury Common citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  47. ^ a b "Woodham Walter Common citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  48. ^ "Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS): Colne Estuary (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 2)" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  49. ^ a b "Fobbing Marsh". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  50. ^ a b "Gernon Bushes". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  51. ^ "Epping Forest citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  52. ^ Ratcliffe, 1977, pp. 60–61
  53. ^ a b "Great Holland Pits". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  54. ^ a b "Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  55. ^ "Shoeburyness Old Ranges". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  56. ^ "Defended prehistoric settlement at Shoeburyness, known as the Danish Camp". Historice England. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  57. ^ "Unit List, Foulness SSSI". Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  58. ^ a b "Hanningfield Reservoir". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  59. ^ a b "Hanningfield Reservoir citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  60. ^ a b "Horndon Meadow". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  61. ^ a b "Howlands Marsh". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  62. ^ "Colne Estuary (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 2)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  63. ^ a b "Hunsdon Mead". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  64. ^ a b "Hunsdon Mead citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  65. ^ a b c "Ingrebourne Valley". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  66. ^ "Ingrebourne Valley". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  67. ^ a b "Ingrebourne Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  68. ^ a b "Iron Latch". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  69. ^ a b "John Weston Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  70. ^ a b c "Langdon Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  71. ^ a b "Lexden Gathering Grounds". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  72. ^ a b "Lion Creek and Lower Raypits". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  73. ^ a b "Crouch and Roach estuaries citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  74. ^ a b "Map of The Cliff, Burnham-on-Crouch". Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 4 November 2016. 
  75. ^ a b "Little Haven". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  76. ^ a b "Little Waltham Meadows". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  77. ^ a b "Maldon Wick". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  78. ^ a b c "The Naze". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  79. ^ "Walton-on-the-Naze (Aves)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  80. ^ "The Naze citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  81. ^ a b "Newland Grove". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  82. ^ a b "Oakfield Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  83. ^ a b "Oxley Meadow". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  84. ^ a b "Phyllis Currie". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  85. ^ a b "Pound Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  86. ^ a b "Ray Island and Bonners Saltings". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  87. ^ "Roding Valley Meadows". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  88. ^ "Roding Valley Meadows". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  89. ^ a b "Roding Valley Meadows citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  90. ^ a b "Roman River Valley". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  91. ^ a b "Rushy Mead". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  92. ^ a b "Sandylay and Moat Woods". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  93. ^ a b "Sawbridgeworth Marsh". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  94. ^ a b "Sawbridgeworth Marsh citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 28 December 2014. 
  95. ^ a b "Sergeants Orchard". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  96. ^ "Sergeants Orchard". Mount Bures Community Web Site. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  97. ^ a b "Shadwell Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  98. ^ "Hales and Shadwell Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  99. ^ a b "Shotgate Thickets". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  100. ^ a b "Shut Heath Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  101. ^ a b "Skippers Island". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  102. ^ a b "Stanford Warren". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  103. ^ a b "Stow Maries Halt". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  104. ^ a b c "Thorndon Countryside Centre". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  105. ^ "Thorndon Country Park". Essex County Council. Retrieved 11 November 2016. 
  106. ^ "Thorndon Park citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  107. ^ "Thrift Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  108. ^ a b "Thrift Wood, Woodham Ferrers citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  109. ^ a b c d "Thurrock Thameside Nature Park". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  110. ^ a b "Tile Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  111. ^ a b "Tiptree Heath". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  112. ^ a b "Tiptree Heath citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  113. ^ a b "Tollesbury Wick". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  114. ^ a b "Two Tree Island". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  115. ^ Ratcliffe, 1977, p. 12
  116. ^ a b "Benfleet & Southend Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016. 
  117. ^ "Essex's National Nature Reserves". Natural England. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  118. ^ a b "Warley Place". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  119. ^ "Weeleyhall Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  120. ^ a b "Weeleyhall Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  121. ^ a b "West Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  122. ^ a b "West Wood, Little Sampford citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  123. ^ a b "Westhouse Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  124. ^ a b "Woodham Fen". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  125. ^ a b "Wrabness". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  126. ^ "Wrabness". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 

Sources

External links

  • Essex Wildlife Trust website
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