Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg

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Ernest Augustus
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Elector-designate of Hanover
ErnstAugustKurfürst.JPG
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Elector of Hanover
Reign 19 December 1692 – 23 January 1698
Successor Georg Ludwig
Prince of Calenberg
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Reign 18 December 1679 – 23 January 1698
Predecessor John Frederick
Successor Georg Ludwig
Born (1629-11-20)20 November 1629
Herzberg am Harz, Göttingen, Germany.
Died 23 January 1698(1698-01-23) (aged 68)
Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, Germany.
Burial 18 March 1698
Hanover, Germany.
Spouse Sophia of the Palatinate
Issue George I, King of Great Britain
Frederick Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Maximilian William of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Sophia Charlotte, Queen of Prussia
Charles Philip of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Christian Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany
House Hanover
Father George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Mother Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt

Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698), was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg (with its capital Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. He was appointed Prince-elector, but died before the appointment became effective. He was also the Prince-Bishop of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück.

Biography

Ernest Augustus was born at Herzberg am Harz in Göttingen, as the son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt (Ernest Augustus was descended from the Albertinian line of the Habsburg family, and also the House of Hohenzollern). In 1658, he married Sophia of the Palatinate in Heidelberg. She was the daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart of England, and granddaughter of King James I of England. As the fourth son, Ernest Augustus had little chance of succeeding his father as ruler, and so in 1662, his relatives appointed him Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück; according to the Peace of Westphalia, every second holder of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Osnabrück was to be appointed by the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg. However, after two of his elder brothers had died without sons, Ernest Augustus inherited part of his father's territories in 1679, Calenberg, with the Principality of Göttingen included; thus, he succeeded to the title of Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

In 1683, against the protestations of his five younger sons, Ernest Augustus instituted primogeniture, so that his territory would not be further subdivided after his death, and also as a pre-condition for obtaining the coveted electorship. He participated in the Great Turkish War on the side of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1692, he was appointed Prince-elector by Emperor Leopald I, thus raising the House of Hanover to electoral dignity; however, the electorship did not come into effect until 1708. He was nonetheless recognized as Elector of Hanover, the very first. Ernest Augustus died in 1698 at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover. He was succeeded as duke by his eldest son, George Louis, who would later succeed to the English throne as "King George I of Great Britain".

The main residences of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, that ruled the Principality of Calenburg, were: the Leineschloss; Calenberg Castle; and Herrenhausen Palace.

Arms of Ernest as Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1661–1692
Arms of Ernest August as Elector-designate 1692–1698

Ancestry

Children

The children of Ernest Augustus and Sophia of the Palatinate were:[1]

Name Birth Death Notes
George Louis 28 May 1660 11 June 1727 Firstly, succeeded his mother Sophia as heir presumptive to the throne of Great Britain; secondly, succeeded Anne, Queen of Great Britain as King George I of Great Britain, the first member of the Hanoverian Dynasty to rule Britain.
Frederick Augustus 3 October 1661 10 June 1691 Died at the Battle of St. Georgen
Stillborn son February 1664 February 1664
Maximilian William 13 December 1666 27 July 1726
Stillborn son 13 December 1666 13 December 1666 Twin of Maximilian
Sophia Charlotte 2 October 1668 21 January 1705 Married King Frederick I of Prussia
Charles Philip 13 October 1669 1 January 1690 Died at the Battle of Pristina
Christian Henry 29 September 1671 31 July 1703 Died during the Battle of Munderkingen when drowned in the Danube
Ernest Augustus 7 September 1674 14 August 1728 Duke of York and Albany

References

  1. ^ A General History of the House of Guelph Or Royal Family of Great-Britain by Sir Andrew Halliday "Table IV (B)" J. Moyes, London (1821); Google Books; November 6, 2017

External links

Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 20 November 1629 Died: 23 January 1698
Religious titles
Preceded by
Francis William, Count of Wartenberg
Administrator of the
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück

1662–1698
Succeeded by
Charles Joseph
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John Frederick
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Prince of Calenberg

1679–1698
Succeeded by
George I Louis
Preceded by
New Creation
Elector-designate of Hanover
1692–1698
Succeeded by
George I Louis
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