Erbil

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Erbil
Hêwler
ܐܲܪܒܝܠ

Arbīl, Arbela, Arba-ilu
City and Capital
Clockwise, from top: Downtown, Mudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-Mustawfi, Citadel of Erbil
Clockwise, from top: Downtown, Mudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-Mustawfi, Citadel of Erbil
Flag of Erbil
Flag
Official seal of Erbil
Seal
Region Kurdistan
Autonomous region  Kurdistan
Province Erbil Governorate
Founded by Built by the Assyrian empire
Government
 • Type Parliamentary democracy
 • Mayor Nawzad Hadi
Area
 • Total 40,000 km2 (20,000 sq mi)
 • Land 36,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi)
 • Water 4,000 km2 (2,000 sq mi)
Elevation 390 m (1,280 ft)
Population (2015)
 • Total 852,500[1]
Time zone UTC+3 (AST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+3 (not observed)
Postal code 44001
Area code(s) 066
Website http://hawlergov.org/ku/index.php

Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler/Hewler by the Kurds is the capital of legal government of Kurdistan region and the most populous city in the Kurdish inhabited areas. [2] It is located approximately 350 kilometres (220 miles) north of neighboring Baghdad Iraq. [3]It has about 850,000 inhabitants,[1] and Erbil governorate has a permanent population of 2,009,367 as of 2015.[4]

Human settlement at Erbil can be dated back to possibly 5th millennium BCE, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas in the world.[5] At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Erbil. The earliest historical reference to the region dates to the Third Dynasty of Ur of Sumer, when King Shulgi mentioned the city of Urbilum. The city was later settled by the Assyrians.[6][7]

Erbil became an integral part of the kingdom of Assyria by at least the 21st century BCE through to the end of the seventh century BCE, after it was captured by the Gutians, and it was known in Assyrian annals variously as Urbilim, Arbela and Arba-ilu. After this it was part of the geopolitical province of Assyria under several empires in turn, including the Median Empire, the Achaemenid Empire (Achaemenid Assyria), Macedonian Empire, Seleucid Empire, Parthian Empire, Roman Assyria and Sasanian Empire (Asōristān), as well as being the capital of the tributary state of Adiabene between the mid-second century BCE and early second century CE.

Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it no longer remained a unitary region, and during the Middle Ages, the city came to be ruled by the Seljuk and Ottoman empires.[8]

Erbil's archaeological museum houses a large collection of pre-Islamic artefacts, particularly the art of Mesopotamia, and is a centre for archaeological projects in the area.[9] The city was designated as Arab Tourism Capital 2014 by the Arab Council of Tourism.[10][11] In July 2014, the Citadel of Arbil was inscribed as a World Heritage site.

The city has an ethnically diverse population of Kurds (the majority ethnic group), Armenians, Assyrians, Arabs, Iraqi Turkmens, Yezidis, Shabakis and Mandaeans. It is equally religiously diverse, with believers of Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity (mainly followed by Assyrians and Armenians), Yezidism, Yarsanism, Shabakism and Mandaeism extant in and around Erbil.

Etymology

The name Erbil was mentioned in Sumerian holy writings of third millennium BC as Urbilum, Urbelum or Urbillum,[7] which appears to originate from Arbilum[12] Later, the Akkadians and Assyrians by a folk etymology rendered the name as arba'ū ilū to mean (four gods).[12] The city became a centre for the worship of the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar. In classical times the city became known as Arbela (Koine Greek: Ἄρβηλα), from the Syriac form of the name. In Old Persian, the city was called Arbairā.[13]

Today, the modern Kurdish name of the city, Hewlêr, appears to be a corruption of the name Arbel by a series of metatheses of consonants.[12]The nicknames of Arbil include: Cradle of Iraqi civilization, old as history, cradle of humankind, defeater of Hulaku and mirror of Kurdistan´s beauty.

History

Siege of Erbil by the Ilkhanid Mongols in 1258–59 depicted in the Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Division Orientale
Citadel of Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan

Ancient history

The region in which Erbil lies was largely under Sumerian domination from c.3000 BC, until the rise of the Akkadian Empire (2335–2154 BC) which united all of the Akkadian Semites and Sumerians of Mesopotamia under one rule. Today the Assyrian people, a Syriac-speaking community who claim descent from Akkadian speakers, endure as a minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iran, their population is estimated to be 3.3 million.[14]

The first mention of Erbil in literary sources' comes from the archives of the east Semitic speaking kingdom of Ebla. They record two journeys to Erbil (Irbilum) by a messenger from Ebla around 2300 BC. Later, Erridupizir, king of the language isolate speaking kingdom of Gutium, captured the city in 2150 BC.[15]

The Neo-Sumerian ruler of Ur, Amar-Sin, sacked Urbilum in his second year, c. 1975 BC[7]

Erbil was an integral part of Assyria from around 2050 BC, becoming a relatively important city during the Old Assyrian Empire (1975–1750 BC), Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC) and the Neo Assyrian Empire (935–605 BC), until the last of these empires fell between 612–599 BC, however it remained part of Assyria under Persian, Greek, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid rule until the first half of the 7th century AD.

Under the Median Empire, Cyaxares might have settled a number of people from the Ancient Iranian tribe of Sagartians in the Assyrian cities of Arbela and Arrapha (modern Kirkuk), probably as a reward for their help in the capture of Nineveh.[16] The Persian emperor Cyrus the Great occupied Assyria in 547 BC and established it as an Achaemenid satrapy called in Old Persian Aθurā (Athura), with Arbela as the capital.[17]

The Battle of Gaugamela, in which Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia in 331 BC, took place approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Erbil. After the battle, Darius managed to flee to the city, and, somewhat inaccurately, the confrontation is sometimes known as the "Battle of Arbela". Subsequently, Arbela was part of Alexander's Empire.

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, Arbela became part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.

Erbil became part of the region disputed between Rome and Persia under the Sasanids. The ancient Assyrian kingdom of Adiabene (the Greek form of the Assyrian Ḥadyab) had its centre at Erbil, and the town and kingdom are known in Jewish Middle Eastern history for the conversion of the royal family to Judaism.[18] During the Parthian era to early Sassanid era, Erbil became the capital of the Assyrian state of Adiabene.

Its populace then gradually converted from the Mesopotamian religion between the 1st and 4th centuries to the Assyrian Church of the East Christianity (and to a lesser degree to the Syriac Orthodox Church), with Pkidha traditionally becoming its first bishop around 104 AD, although the ancient Assyrian religion did not die out entirely in the region until the 10th century AD.[19][20] The metropolitanate of Ḥadyab in Arbela (Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ Arbel) became a centre of eastern Syriac Christianity until late in the Middle Ages.[21]

Medieval history

As many of the Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrians who had converted to Christianity adopted Biblical (including Jewish) names, most of the early bishops had Eastern Aramaic or Jewish/Biblical names, which does not suggest that many of the early Christians in this city were converts from Judaism.[22] It served as the seat of a Metropolitan of the Assyrian Church of the East. From the city's Christian period come many church fathers and well-known authors in Syriac.

Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Sasanid province of Assuristan, of which Erbil made part of, was dissolved, and from the mid 7th century AD the region saw a gradual influx of Muslim peoples, predominantly Arabs, Kurds and Turkic peoples.

The most notable Kurdish tribe in the region were the Hadhbani, of which several individuals also acted as governors for the city from the late 10th century until the 12th century when it was conquered by the Zengids and its governorship given to the Turkic Begtegenids, who retained the city during the Ayyubid era [23][24] Yaqut al-Hamawi further describes Erbil as being mostly Kurdish-populated in the 13th century.[25]

When the Mongols invaded the Near East in the 13th century, they attacked Arbil for the first time in 1237. They plundered the lower town but had to retreat before an approaching Caliphate army and had to put off the capture of the citadel.[26] After the fall of Baghdad to Hülegü and the Mongols in 1258, the last Begtegenid ruler surrendered to the Mongols, claiming the Kurdish garrison of the city would follow suit; they refused this however, therefore the Mongols returned to Arbil and were able to capture the citadel after a siege lasting six months.[27][28] Hülegü then appointed an Assyrian Christian governor to the town, and the Syriac Orthodox Church was allowed to build a church.

As time passed, sustained persecutions of Christians, Jews and Buddhists throughout the Ilkhanate began in earnest in 1295 under the rule of Oïrat amir Nauruz, which affected the indigenous Assyrian Christians greatly.[29] This manifested early on in the reign of the Ilkhan Ghazan. In 1297, after Ghazan had felt strong enough to overcome Nauruz's influence, he put a stop to the persecutions.

During the reign of the Ilkhan Öljeitü the Assyrian Christian inhabitants retreated to the citadel to escape persecution. In the Spring of 1310, the Malek (governor) of the region attempted to seize it from them with the help of the Kurds. Despite the Turkic bishop Mar Yahballaha's best efforts to avert the impending doom, the citadel was at last taken after a siege by Ilkhanate troops and Kurdish tribesmen on 1 July 1310, and all the defenders were massacred, including many of the Assyrian inhabitants of the lower town.[30][31]

However, the city's Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian population remained numerically significant until the destruction of the city by the forces of Timur in 1397.[32]

In the Middle Ages, Erbil was ruled successively by the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Buwayhids, the Seljuks and then the Atabegs of Erbil (1131–1232), under whom it was a Turkmen state; they were in turn followed by the Ilkhanids, the Jalayirids, the Kara Koyunlu, the Timurids and the Ak Koyunlu. Erbil was the birthplace of the famous 12th and 13th century Kurdish historians and writers Ibn Khallikan and Ibn al-Mustawfi. Erbil and all of Iraq passed into the hands of the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century. Erbil was part of the Musul Vilayet in Ottoman Empire for 400 years until World War I, when the Ottomans and their Kurdish and Turcoman allies were defeated by the British Empire, with the aid of the Assyrians and Armenians, and the Ottoman Turks ejected.

Modern history

A postcard showing the city of Erbil in 1900
A postcard showing the city of Erbil in 1900

The modern town of Erbil stands on a tell topped by an Ottoman fort. During the Middle Ages, Erbil became a major trading centre on the route between Baghdad and Mosul, a role which it still plays today with important road links to the outside world.

Erbil Mail Square

Today, Erbil is both multi-ethnic and multi-religious, with the Kurds forming the largest ethnic group in the city, with smaller numbers of Arabs, Assyrians, Turcoman, Armenians, Yazidis, Shabaks, Circassians, Kawliya, Iranians and Mandeans also extant.

The parliament of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region was established in Erbil in 1970 after negotiations between the Iraqi government and the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) led by Mustafa Barzani, but was effectively controlled by Saddam Hussein until the Kurdish uprising at the end of the 1991 Gulf War. The legislature ceased to function effectively in the mid-1990s when fighting broke out between the two main Kurdish factions, the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). The city was captured by the KDP in 1996 with the assistance of the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein. The PUK then established an alternative Kurdish government in Sulaimaniyah. KDP claimed that on March 1996 PUK asked for Iran's help to fight KDP. Considering this as a foreign attack on Iraq's soil, the KDP asked the Iraqi government for help.

The Kurdish Parliament in Erbil reconvened after a peace agreement was signed between the Kurdish parties in 1997, but had no real power. The Kurdish government in Erbil had control only in the western and northern parts of the autonomous region. During the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, a United States special forces task force was headquartered just outside Erbil. The city was the scene of celebrations on 10 April 2003 after the fall of the Ba'ath regime.

Erbil Clock Tower

During the coalition forces occupation of Iraq, sporadic attacks hit Erbil. Parallel bomb attacks against Eid celebrations killed 109 people on 1 February 2004.[33] Responsibility was claimed by the Ansar al-Sunnah,[33] and stated to be in solidarity with Ansar al-Islam.[citation needed] A suicide bombing on 4 May 2005 killed 60 civilians and injured 150 more outside a police recruiting centre.[34]

The Erbil International Airport opened in the city in 2005. In 2015, the Christian Nestorian Church has moved its seat from Chicago to Erbil.

Projects

Downtown Erbil

Main article: Downtown Erbil

Downtown Erbil is a large shopping complex in Gulan street, Erbil. The project was coordinated by Emaar Properties, the GCC's largest real estate developer. Emaar is well known for international big projects like Downtown Dubai and Burj Khalifa. The 2 billion dollar project was launched by Nasri group of Iraq.

American village

The Erbil based American village is a big villa complex that features western style (mostly American designed) houses for people to rent and buy from. Unlike other neighborhoods in Erbil the American village has 24 hours of electricity with added security and other services. [35]

"American, Hawlerian or Palace homes; each style offering luxurious comfort, refined design inspired by the architectural style of the American East Coast and featuring the most advanced amenities. Everything and all the services you need are here in this fully independent and self sufficient residential community. Make yourself at home in your exclusive American style community where you can walk across landscaped gardens, watch your children safely having fun in the playground, and enjoy the spectacular mountain view."

Empire world

Set at the forefront of one of Erbil’s most sought after and prestigious communities, Empire Avenue offers the best possible location to live, work and play.

With a host of stylish cafes, top restaurants and an array of fashionable stores, Empire Avenue enables residents and visitors alike to not only experience the best possible lifestyle, but the very best of Erbil.

Empire Avenue isn’t simply an urban walkway– it’s a sanctuary. Here, lush green landscapes and wide boardwalks and fascinating fountains provide the luxurious backdrop for pedestrian-friendly living set within a warm and energetic urban setting. [36][37]

Transportation

Erbil International Airport is one of Iraq's busiest airports and is near the city. Services includes direct flights to many domestic destinations such as Baghdad international airport. There are international flights from Erbil such as to countries; Netherlands, Germany, Saudi arabia, Austria, Turkey, Jordan and many more flights elsewhere around the world. There are occasionally seasonal flights from Erbil international airport. Erbil International Airport was briefly closed to international commercial flights in September 2017 by the Iraqi government in retaliation for the Kurdish independence vote but reopened in March 2018.[38][39]

Most of Kurdistan's transportation is with local Taxis, that are operated by private companies and also managed by the government of Kurdistan. Hawler Taxi, also known as Kurd Taxi, will be the first and only taxi service in Erbil to offer app-based taxi bookings in the Erbil area and eventually across the Kurdistan region. Currently Kurd Taxi/Hawler Taxi is only available in Erbil, but once the application is fully launched, there is hope to also launch Duhok Taxi and Slemani Taxi in the future.[40]

Climate

Erbil's climate is hot-summer Mediterranean (Csa) according to Köppen climate classification, with extremely hot summers and cool wet winters. January is the wettest month.[41]

Climate data for Erbil
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
14.2
(57.6)
18.1
(64.6)
24.0
(75.2)
31.5
(88.7)
38.1
(100.6)
42.0
(107.6)
41.9
(107.4)
37.9
(100.2)
30.7
(87.3)
21.2
(70.2)
14.4
(57.9)
27.2
(81)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.9
(48)
12.4
(54.3)
17.5
(63.5)
24.1
(75.4)
29.7
(85.5)
33.4
(92.1)
33.1
(91.6)
29.0
(84.2)
22.6
(72.7)
15.0
(59)
9.1
(48.4)
20.2
(68.3)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.6
(38.5)
6.7
(44.1)
11.1
(52)
16.7
(62.1)
21.4
(70.5)
24.9
(76.8)
24.4
(75.9)
20.1
(68.2)
14.5
(58.1)
8.9
(48)
3.9
(39)
13.2
(55.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 111
(4.37)
97
(3.82)
89
(3.5)
69
(2.72)
26
(1.02)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
12
(0.47)
56
(2.2)
80
(3.15)
540
(21.25)
Average rainy days 9 9 10 9 4 1 0 0 1 3 6 10 62
Average snowy days 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Average relative humidity (%) 75 70 65 59 42 29 25 28 31 44 61 76 50
Source #1: Climate-Data.org,[41] My Forecast for records, humidity, snow and precipitation days[42]
Source #2: What's the Weather Like.org,[43] Erbilia[44]

Culture

Citadel of Erbil

The Citadel of Arbil is a tell or occupied mound in the historical heart of Erbil, rising between 25 and 32 metres (82 and 105 ft) from the surrounding plain. The buildings on top of the tell stretch over a roughly oval area of 430 by 340 metres (1,410 ft × 1,120 ft) occupying 102,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft). It has been claimed that the site is the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world.[45] The earliest evidence for occupation of the citadel mound dates to the 5th millennium BC and possibly earlier. It appears for the first time in historical sources during the Ur III period and gained particular importance during the Neo-Assyrian Empire (10th to 7th centuries BC) period. West of the citadel at Ary Kon quarter, a chamber tomb dating to the Neo-Assyrian Empire period has been excavated.[9] During the Sassanian period and the Abbasid Caliphate, Erbil was an important centre for Assyrian Christianity and the Assyrians. After the Mongols captured the citadel in 1258, Erbil's importance began to decline.

During the 20th century, the urban structure was significantly modified, as a result of which a number of houses and public buildings were destroyed. In 2007, the High Commission for Erbil Citadel Revitalization (HCECR) was established to oversee the restoration of the citadel. In the same year, all inhabitants, except one family, were evicted from the citadel as part of a large restoration project. Since then, archaeological research and restoration works have been carried out at and around the tell by various international teams and in co-operation with local specialists, and many areas remain off-limits to visitors due to the danger of unstable walls and infrastructure. The government plans to have 50 families live in the citadel once it is renovated.

The only religious structure that currently survives in the citadel is the Mulla Afandi Mosque. When it was fully occupied, the citadel was divided in three districts or mahallas: from east to west the Serai, the Takya and the Topkhana. The Serai was occupied by notable families; the Takya district was named after the homes of dervishes, which are called takyas; and the Topkhana district housed craftsmen and farmers. Other sights to visit in the citadel include the bathing rooms (hammam) built in 1775 located near the mosque and the Textile Museum.[46] Erbil citadel has been inscribed on the World Heritage List on 21 June 2014 .

Other sights

  • The covered Erbil Qaysari Bazaars, lying below the main entrance to the citadel and stocking mainly household goods and tools.
  • The 36-metre-high (118-foot) Mudhafaria Minaret, situated in Minaret Park several blocks from the citadel, dates back to the late 12th century AD and the Governor of Erbil, in the reign of Saladin, Muzaffar Al-Din Abu Sa’eed Al-Kawkaboori (Gökböri), who had entered in the obedience of Salahuddin without war and married his sister. It has an octagonal base decorated with two tiers of niches, which is separated from the main shaft by a small balcony, also decorated. Another historical minaret with turquoise glazed tiles is nearby.
  • Sami Rahman Park
  • Franso Hariri Stadium
  • The Mound of Qalich Agha lies within the grounds of the Museum of Civilization, 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the citadel. An excavation in 1996 found tools from the Halaf, Ubaid and Uruk periods.[9]
  • Kurdish Textile Museum

Sports

The local major football team is Erbil SC which plays its football matches at Franso Hariri Stadium (named after the assassinated Assyrian politician, former governor of Erbil city Franso Hariri) which is based in the south part of central Erbil. Erbil SC were the first Kurdish team to make it to the AFC Champions league.

Media

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Iraq". CITY POPULATION. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  2. ^ Danilovich, Alex (2018-10-12). Federalism, Secession, and International Recognition Regime: Iraqi Kurdistan. Routledge. ISBN 9780429827655.
  3. ^ "Baghdad | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  4. ^ "İşte Kürdistan Bölgesi'nin nüfusu…". Rudaw.net.
  5. ^ Novice, Karel (2008). "Research of the Arbil Citadel, Iraq, First Season". Památky Archaeological (XCIX): 259–302.
  6. ^ Villard 2001
  7. ^ a b c Hamblin, William J. (2006). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 0-415-25589-9.
  8. ^ Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq
  9. ^ a b c 'Directorate Antiquities of Erbil's Guide' Brochure produced by General Directorate of Antiquities, KRG, Ministry of Tourism
  10. ^ Erbil named 2014 Arab Tourism Capital. Retrieved 30 January 2014
  11. ^ "Erbil: Kurdish City, Arab Capital", Rudaw. Retrieved 30 January 2014
  12. ^ a b c Khan, Geoffrey (1999). A grammar of neo-Aramaic: the dialect of the Jews of Arbel, Part 1, Volume 47. BRILL. p. 2. ISBN 978-90-04-11510-1.
  13. ^ "Iranica: Arbela". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  14. ^ Statistics. "UNPO: Assyria". unpo.org.
  15. ^ Timeline Archived 14 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ErbilCitadel.orq
  16. ^ electricpulp.com. "ASAGARTA (Sagartia) – Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org.
  17. ^ E. Herzfeld, The Persian Empire, ed. G. Walser, Wiesbaden, 1968, pp. 304–07
  18. ^ Adiabene, Jewish Kingdom of Mesopotamia Archived 12 July 2009 at the Portuguese Web Archive, Jonah Gabriel Lissner
  19. ^ MŠIHA-ZKHA. "HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF ADIABENE UNDER THE PARTHIANS AND THE SASSANIDS". Tertullian.org.
  20. ^ Neusner, Jacob (1969). A history of the Jews in Babylonia, Volume 2. Brill Archive. p. 354.
  21. ^ British Institute of Persian Studies (1981). Iran, Volumes 19–21. the University of Michigan. pp. 15, 17.
  22. ^ Gillman, Ian and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. Christians in Asia before 1500. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1999) p. 33
  23. ^ V. Minorsky. Studies in Caucasian History III, Prehistory of Saladin. Cambridge University Press. 208 pp. 1953.
  24. ^ Nováček, K., Amin, N., & Melčák, M. (2013). A Medieval City Within Assyrian Walls: The Continuity of the Town of Arbīl in Northern Mesopotamia. Iraq, 75, 1-42. doi:10.1017/S0021088900000401
  25. ^ B. James. Le « territoire tribal des Kurdes » et l’aire iraqienne (xe-xiiie siècles): Esquisse des recompositions spatiales. Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée, 2007. P. 101-126.
  26. ^ Woods 1977, pp. 49–50
  27. ^ Nováček et al. 2008, p. 261
  28. ^ J. von Hammer-Purgstall. 1842. Geschichte der Ilchane, das ist der Mongolen in Persien, Volume 1. P. 159-161.
  29. ^ Grousset, p. 379
  30. ^ Sourdel 2010
  31. ^ Grousset, p. 383
  32. ^ Edwin Munsell Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities, (Chicago 1896) p. 153
  33. ^ a b Al-Nahr, Naseer (2 February 2004). "Twin Bombings Kill 56 in Irbil". Arabnews.com. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  34. ^ Jaff, Warzer; Oppel Jr., Richard A. (5 May 2005). "60 Kurds Killed by Suicide Bomb in Northern Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  35. ^ "American Village, exclusive villas in Kurdistan, Erbil". www.americanvillage.info. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  36. ^ "Empire Avenue - Empire World". empireworld.com. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  37. ^ "JW Marriott Partners with Falcon Group to Manage Hotels in Kurdistan Region, Iraq - Falcon Group". falconiraq.com. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  38. ^ Blockade by Iraq (29 September 2017). "Iraqi govt enforces international flight ban in Kurdistan region". France 24.
  39. ^ International Flight Return. "Erbil International Airport". erbilairport.com.
  40. ^ "Erbil prepares to launch first app-based taxi service". Rudaw. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  41. ^ a b "Climate: Arbil – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  42. ^ "Irbil, Iraq Climate". My Forecast. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  43. ^ "Erbil climate info". What's the Weather Like.org. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  44. ^ "Erbil Weather Forecast and Climate Information". Erbilia. Archived from the original on 9 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  45. ^ "Erbil Citadel". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  46. ^ 'Erbil Citadel' Brochure, High Commission for Erbil Citadel Revitalization (HCECR). www.erbilcitadel.org

Sources

External links

  • Hawler Governorate
  • Erbil – Portal for international visitors
  • Livius.org: Arbela
  • Erbil Information Guide
  • Hawler/Erbil visitor's guide
  • Erbil seen through camera lens
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