Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina

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Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina
Gracanica in Trebinje.jpg
Gračanica, in Trebinje
Location
Territory Parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro
Headquarters Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Information
Denomination Eastern Orthodox
Sui iuris church Serbian Orthodox Church
Established 1219
Language Church Slavonic
Serbian
Current leadership
Bishop Grigorije Durić
Map
Map of Eparchies of Serbian Orthodox Church (including Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric)-en.svg
Website
Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina

The Eparchy of Zahumlje, Herzegovina and the Littoral (Serbian: Епархија Захумско-херцеговачка и Приморска) is an eparchy (diocese) of the Serbian Orthodox Church with its seat in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has jurisdiction over the region of Herzegovina, the littoral region of southern Dalmatia in Croatia and a small part of Montenegro. Since 1999, the Bishop of Zahumlje and Herzegovina has been Grigorije Durić.

History

Ecclesiastical background

The region was under the Eastern Orthodox Metropolitanate of Dyrrachium, which in turn was under the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.[when?] In 1089, the see of Trebinje (Travunia) was briefly theoretically under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Bar.

Middle Ages

The Eparchy of Hum or Zahumlje was founded in 1219, by first Serbian Archbishop Sava, the same year the Serbian Orthodox Church acquired its autocephaly status from Patriarchate of Constantinople. Thus, it was one of the original Serbian Orthodox bishoprics. It had jurisdiction over historical regions of Zahumlje and Travunija. The first Bishop of Hum was Ilarion, succeeded by Sava II (son of Stefan the First-Crowned). The original seat was in Ston, in the church of the Most Holy Theotokos (Пресвете Богородице). Following an earthquake, the bishop moved the seat to the Monastery of Holy Apostles in the valley of river Lim in the 1250s. From that time, the Eparchy of Hum was sometimes also called "Eparchy of Lim".

With the War of Hum (1326–29), most of Zahumlje was taken over by Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia, but the Travunija region remained under the rule of Serbian Kings. After the creation of the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć in 1346, all original Serbian bishops were raised to the honorary rank of metropolitan bishops. The see of the eparchy was then moved to the Mileševa monastery. In the middle of 15th century, Metropolitan David was a very influential figure in the court of Stefan Kosača, who was titled Duke (Herzeg) of Saint Sava. Following the fall of the Duchy of St. Sava to the Ottoman Empire (1482), the see was frequently moved, finally to settle in the Tvrdoš Monastery near Trebinje in 1508. Eventually, the eparchy was further divided into the Eparchy of Mileševa.

Modern and contemporary history

In 1557, Serbian Patriarchate of Peć was restored and the Eparchy of Herzegovina was returned to its jurisdiction, with its bishops of holding the honorary title of metropolitan.[1] In 1766, when the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć was abolished, Eparchy of Herzegovina and all other Serbian eparchies under Ottoman rule came under the jurisdiction of Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Bishops of Herzegovina kept their honorary title of Metropolitan, as was also the custom in the Ecumenical Patriarchate. The seat of metropolitan was transferred to Mostar.

Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Mostar (white church with black roof) in the background

Since 1878, territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina was under the occupation of Austria-Hungary, but under the Church Convention of 1880 all Eastern Orthodox eparchies remained under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. At the end of the First World War in 1918, all Serbian Orthodox bishops in Bosnia and Herzegovina reached a unanimous decision to join with other Serbian ecclesiastical provinces into united Serbian Orthodox Church. The process of unification was completed in 1920 and since then the Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina has remained part of Serbian Orthodox Church.[2]

The seat of the eparchy was the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Mostar. As of 2017, it is being rebuilt after being demolished during the Bosnian War.

Heads

Picture Name Time Notes
Eparchy of Hum (Serbian Archbishopric)
Ilarion 1219–? First bishop.
Metodije
Teodosije
Nikola
Sava II ?–1264 Son of Stefan the First-Crowned.
Jevstatije ca. 1300
Jovan ca. 1305
Danilo 1316–24 hagiographer and Archbishop of Peć
Stefan 1324 moved, Eparchy of Hum also known as "Eparchy of Lim"
Metropolitanate of Hum, or Mileševa (Serbian Patriarchate of Peć)
Metropolitan of unknown name 1377 Crowned Stefan Tvrtko I as King of Serbs and Bosnia.
David 1465 Metropolitan in the Duchy of St. Sava (Herzegovina)
Metropolitanate of Herzegovina, or Trebinje (Archbishopric of Ohrid)
Jovan 1508–1513 Restored Tvrdoš in 1508 (becoming the see)
Visarion 1509–1525
Maksim before 1532
Marko 1531–1534
Nikanor 1534–1546
Eparchy of Herzegovina (Serbian Patriarchate of Peć, 1557-1766)
Antonije 1570
Savatije Sokolović 1573–85
Visarion 1590–1602
Silvestar 1602
Leontije 1605–11
Simeon 1613—1635
Saint Basil of Ostrog.jpg Basil of Ostrog 1639–49 Saint
Simeon Ljubibratić 1671–1681
Savatije Ljubibratić 1683–1716 Sided with Venetians during the war, styled as bishop "of Zahumlje and Dalmatia"
Nektarije 1693–1712
Melentije 1712–1713
Arsenije II 1715
Gerasim 1716–1717
Aksentije I 1727-1736
Filotej 1741—1751
Aksentije II 1763-1766
Stefan 1763-1766
Eparchy of Herzegovina (Patriarchate of Constantinople, 1766-1920)
Antim 1766—1772
Ananije 1772—1802
Jerimija 1803—1815
Josif I 1816—1835
Prokopije I 1837—1838
Aksentije III 1838—1848
Josif II 1848—1854
Grigorije 1855—1860
Prokopije 1864—1875
Ignatije 1875—1888
LeontijeRadulović-mošti.jpg Leontije Radulović 1888
Serafin Perović.png Serafim Perović 1889–1903
Petar Zimonjić 1903–20
Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina (Serbian Orthodox Church)

Monasteries

There are eight monasteries in the diocese:[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sotirović 2011, pp. 143-169.
  2. ^ Kiminas 2009, pp. 22, 28.
  3. ^ http://www.eparhija-zahumskohercegovacka.com/

Sources

  • Јанковић, Марија (1985). Епископије и митрополије Српске цркве у средњем веку (Bishoprics and Metropolitanates of Serbian Church in Middle Ages). Београд: Историјски институт САНУ.
  • Boris Nilević (1990). Srpska pravoslavna crkva u Bosni i Hercegovini do obnove Pećke patrijaršije 1557. godine. Veselin Masleša.
  • Вуковић, Сава (1996). Српски јерарси од деветог до двадесетог века (Serbian Hierarchs from the 9th to the 20th Century). Евро, Унирекс, Каленић.
  • Bataković, Dušan T. (1996). The Serbs of Bosnia & Herzegovina: History and Politics. Dialogue Association.
  • Mileusnić, Slobodan (1997). Spiritual Genocide: A survey of destroyed, damaged and desecrated churches, monasteries and other church buildings during the war 1991-1995 (1997). Belgrade: Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
  • Popović, Svetlana (2002). "The Serbian Episcopal sees in the thirteenth century (Српска епископска седишта у XIII веку)". Старинар (51: 2001): 171–184.
  • Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Kiminas, Demetrius (2009). The Ecumenical Patriarchate: A History of Its Metropolitanates with Annotated Hierarch Catalogs. Wildside Press LLC.
  • Sotirović, Vladislav B. (2011). "The Serbian Patriarchate of Peć in the Ottoman Empire: The First Phase (1557–94)". Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies. 25 (2): 143–169.

External links

  • Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina (in Serbian)
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