Energy storage as a service

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Energy Storage as a Service (ESaaS) allows a facility to benefit from the advantages of an energy storage system by entering into a service agreement without purchasing the system. Energy storage systems provide a range of services to generate revenue, create savings, and improve electricity resiliency. The operation of the ESaaS system is a unique combination of an advanced battery storage system, an energy management system, and a service contract which can deliver value to a business by providing reliable power more economically.

History

The term ESaaS was developed and trademarked by Constant Power Inc.,[1] a Toronto-based company, in 2016. The service has been designed to work in the North American open electricity markets. Notable other companies offering Energy Storage-as-a-Service[2] include GI Energy[3], AES Corporation[4], STEM[5], and Younicos[6].

Components

ESaaS is the combination of an energy storage system, a control and monitoring system, and a service contract.

The most common energy storage systems used for ESaaS are lithium-ion[7] or flow[8] batteries due to their compact size, non-invasive installation, high efficiencies, and fast reaction times but other storage mediums may be used such as compressed air,[9] flywheels,[10] or pumped hydro.[11][12] The batteries are sized based on the facility's needs and is paired with a power inverter to convert the DC power to AC power in order to connect directly to the facility’s electricity supply.

ESaaS systems are remotely monitored and controlled by the ESaaS operator using a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.[13] The SCADA communicates with the facility's Energy Management System (EMS),[14] Power Conversion System (PCS),[15] and Battery Management System (BMS).[16] The ESaaS operator is responsible for ensuring the ESaaS system is monitoring and responding to the facility’s needs as well as overriding commands to participate in regional incentive programs such as coincident peak management and demand response programs in real time.

The facility benefiting from the ESaaS system is linked to the ESaaS system operator through a service contract. The contract specifies the length of the service term, payment structure, and list of services the facility wishes to participate in.

Services

ESaaS is used to perform a variety of services including:

  • Coincident Peak Management[17]
During times of high regional demand, Independent Service Operators (ISOs)/Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) offer incentives for facilities to reduce or curtail their load. ESaaS allows a facility to isolate or offset their load during these high regional demand periods to decrease demand from the electricity grid to benefit from the incentives. The system is designed to work in conjunction or independent of facility curtailment.
ISOs/RTOs offer facilities payment for curtailing their energy demand when dispatched by the grid operator. ESaaS allows facilities to participate in these programs by off-setting all or a portion of a facility load during a demand response occurrence. A facility can benefit from the incentive without interrupting their facility operation.
During charging and discharging, active and reactive power may be balanced prior to supplying a facility. By balancing the amount of active and reactive power to a facility, the power factor and resulting facility electrical efficiency may be improved. This improvement may reduce a facility's monthly peak demand charge.
ESaaS actively monitors electricity supply to a facility. In times of intermittent power supply, ESaaS acts as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to ensure uninterrupted, reliable power supply to eliminate unexpected fluctuations. Fluctuating and intermittent power affects equipment operation which may cause costly delays and defects in production.
If the electricity grid experiences a power outage, ESaaS offers a back-up power service to continue powering all or a portion of a facility's electricity demand. Depending on the size of the ESaaS installation, ESaaS may maintain facility operation for the duration of a grid failure.
ESaaS actively monitors a facility’s energy profile to normalize the electricity draw from the electricity grid. The ESaaS system stores energy when the facility demand is lower than average and discharges the stored energy when the facility demand is higher than average. The result is a steady draw of electricity from the electricity grid and a lower monthly peak demand charge.
ESaaS actively monitors local electricity spot prices to store energy when the price is low to be utilized when electricity prices are high. This is commonly referred to as arbitrage. The net different in price results in cost savings.
ESaaS enables facilities to participate in the local ISO/RTO markets to provide services such as frequency regulation, operating reserve, and dispatchable generation. By participating in the local market, facilities can generate revenue through the ESaaS contract.
ESaaS may provide services to ease congestion and constraint on electricity transmission networks by storing energy during heavy transmission periods to be released during less congested periods. The use of this service can prolong the life of infrastructure and defers system upgrades.

Markets served

ESaaS primarily benefits large energy consumers with an average demand of over 500 kW,[26] although, the service may benefit smaller facilities depending on regional incentives.[27] Current early adopters of ESaaS are manufacturers (chemical, electrical, lighting, metal, petrochemical, plastics), commercial (retail, large offices, medium offices, multi-residential, supermarkets), public facilities (colleges, universities, hotels, hospitality, schools), and resources (oil & extraction, pulp & paper, metals & ore, food processing, greenhouses).

Benefits

System benefactor does not require installation capital

To participate in an ESaaS service, the installation system benefactor does not require any capital outlay.[28] Upon installing an ESaaS service, the facility sees immediate savings and/or revenue generation. Initial capital is often a hurdle for facilities to adopt an energy storage system since in most cases, the payback period[29] of an energy storage system is 5–10 years.[30]

System operated by a third-party system operator[31]

ESaaS is a contracted service[32] that is automatically controlled by a third party. This eliminates responsibility for the facility[33] to allocate resources to manage their energy profile allowing a facility to operate their core business. The system operators have knowledge of local electricity sectors that continually monitor and update[34] system protocols as regional markets change. The information is used to optimize the value realized by the ESaaS system while still meeting facility requirements.

Environmental

For most ESaaS services, energy is stored during night time, off-peak hours when energy production is created from non-carbon emitting sources.[35] The energy is then used to offset the required carbon emitting[36] production during peak-times. The load shifting capability provided by ESaaS displaces heavy emitting generation requirements.

Pricing

ESaaS contracts may be structured as a cost sharing model or a fixed monthly price over a contracted term.[37] Cost sharing models share the economical benefits of ESaaS after they are realized by the customer. The fixed price is based on potential economic benefit and applicable programs in the region of deployment. The ESaaS contract price is always less than the economic value provided by the service to ensure the client retains a net positive value through the service.

References

  1. ^ "Constant Power Inc". Constant Power Inc.
  2. ^ Wang, Ucilia. "4 Things You Should Know About Energy Storage". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  3. ^ "Con Edison Battery REV Demo | GI Energy US". GI Energy US. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
  4. ^ "Energy Storage-as-a-Service". Greentech Media. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Stem: Energy Strorage-as-a-Service, Delivering Value to Customers and Utilities". Harvard Technology and Operations Management. Retrieved 2 January 2017. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  6. ^ "Younicos launches service to rent energy storage systems". Utility Dive. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  7. ^ "How Lithium-ion batteries work". electronics.howstuffworks.com. How Stuff Works TECH. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  8. ^ "Flow Batteries". energystorage.org. Energy Storage Association. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  9. ^ "Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)". energystorage.org. Energy Storage Association. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  10. ^ "Flywheels". www.explainthatstuff.com. Explain That Stuff!. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  11. ^ "Hydro Technology - Pumped Storage". www.hydro.org. National Hydropower Association. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  12. ^ "Energy Storage Technologies". energystorage.org. Energy Storage Association. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  13. ^ "What is SCADA?". inductiveautomation.com. Inductive Automation. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  14. ^ "Energy Management Systems". ems3.com/. EMS3. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  15. ^ "Power Conversion System for Energy Storage" (PDF). www.parker.com. Parker. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  16. ^ "Battery Management System (BMS)". www.mpoweruk.com. Electropaedia. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  17. ^ "Coincident Peak and Your Electricity Costs". www.energymanagertoday.com. Energy Manager Today. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  18. ^ "Demand Response". energy.gov. Energy.Gov. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  19. ^ "Practical Power Factor Correction". www.allaboutcircuits.com. All About Circuits. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  20. ^ "Power Quality". adfpowertuning.com. Power Tuning. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  21. ^ "Backup Power Generator, Emergency Power Supply". www.duracellpower.com. Duracell. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  22. ^ "Peak Shaving". new.abb.com. ABB. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  23. ^ "Energy Storage on the Grid Edge". www.greentechmedia.com. Greentech Media. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  24. ^ "Ancillary Services - AESO". www.aeso.ca. AESO. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  25. ^ "Transmission and Distribution Deferral". redflow.com. Red Flow. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  26. ^ "Survey of Commercial and Institutional Energy Use - Buildings 2009" (PDF). oee.nrcan.gc.ca.
  27. ^ "Energy Incentive Programs". energy.gov. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  28. ^ "Energy Service Agreements". www.energ-group.com. ENER-G. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  29. ^ "Renewable Energy Project Financing: Impact of the Financial Crisis and Federal Legislation" (PDF). www.nrel.gov. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  30. ^ "Energy Storage Opportunities and Challeneges" (PDF). www.ecofys.com. ECOFYS. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  31. ^ "Network Operations Center (NOC)". www.techopedia.com. Techopedia. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  32. ^ "What is a Service Contract". www.businessdictionary.com. Business Dictionary. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  33. ^ "Optimize Energy Use on a Large Scale" (PDF). www.cisco.com. Cisco. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  34. ^ "Energy Intelligence to Meet Your Biggest Challenges". www.enernoc.com. ENERNOC. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  35. ^ "Types of Renewable Energy". www.renewableenergyworld.com. Renewable Energy World. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  36. ^ "Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions". www.epa.gov. US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  37. ^ "What is the fixed price contract". www.businessdictionary.com. BusinessDictionary. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Energy_storage_as_a_service&oldid=867251595"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_Storage_as_a_Service_(ESaaS)
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Energy storage as a service"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA