End of World War II in Asia

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The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 14 and 15 August 1945, when armed forces of the Empire of Japan surrendered to the forces of the Allies. The surrender came over three months after the surrender of the Axis forces in Europe and brought an end to World War II.

Prelude

  • November 28, 1943 – Tehran Conference – Soviet Union agrees to invade Japan "after the defeat of Germany" – commence stockpiling resources in the Far East.
  • February 4, 1945 – Yalta Conference – Soviet Union agrees to invade Japan within 3 months of German surrender.
  • April 5, 1945 – Soviet Union denounces the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact that had been signed on April 13, 1941.
  • April 29, 1945 - Italian Fascist Republican troops, under Rodolfo Graziani's command, surrender in the "Rendition of Cazerta".
  • May 8, 1945 – Germany surrenders
  • July 16, 1945 – Potsdam Conference.
  • July 26, 1945 – Potsdam Declaration to Japan demanding unconditional surrender.

Final stages

Aftermath

  • September 2, 1945 – The Japanese garrison in Penang surrenders, while the British retake Penang under Operation Jurist.
  • September 3, 1945 – The Japanese commander in the Philippines, Gen. Yamashita, surrenders to Gen. Wainwright at Baguio.
  • September 4, 1945 – Japanese troops on Wake Island surrender.
  • September 5, 1945 – The British land in Singapore.
  • September 5, 1945 – The Soviets complete their occupation of the Kuril Islands.[3]
  • September 6, 1945 - Japanese forces in Rabaul surrender.
  • September 8, 1945 – MacArthur enters Tokyo.
  • September 8, 1945 – U.S. forces land at Incheon to occupy Korea south of the 38th Parallel
  • September 9, 1945 – Japanese in China surrender.
  • September 9, 1945 – Japanese in Korea surrender.
  • September 10, 1945 - Japanese in Labuan surrender.
  • September 11, 1945 - Japanese in Sarawak surrender.
  • September 12, 1945 - Japanese in Singapore surrender.
  • September 13, 1945 – Japanese in Burma surrender.
  • September 14, 1945 - Japanese in Celebes surrender.
  • September 16, 1945 - Japanese in Hong Kong formally surrender.
  • October 25, 1945 – Japanese in Taiwan surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek as part of General Order No. 1, which later led to the ambiguous and unresolved political status of Taiwan.

Thailand (Siam)

After Japan's defeat in 1945, with the help of Seri Thai, Thailand was treated as a defeated country by the British and French, although American support mitigated the Allied terms. Thailand was not occupied by the Allies, but it was forced to return the territory it had regained to the British and the French. In the postwar period Thailand had relations with the United States, which it saw as a protector from the communist revolutions in neighbouring countries.[citation needed]

Occupation of Japan

At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, India, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. This foreign presence marked the first time in its history that the island nation had been occupied by a foreign power.[4] The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on September 8, 1951, marked the end of the Allied occupation, and after it came into force on April 28, 1952, Japan was once again an independent country.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East

During the occupation leading Japanese war crime charges were reserved for those who participated in a joint conspiracy to start and wage war, and were brought against those in the highest decision-making bodies; "Class B" crimes were reserved for those who committed "conventional" atrocities or crimes against humanity; "Class C" crimes were reserved for those in "the planning, ordering, authorization, or failure to prevent such transgressions at higher levels in the command structure."

Twenty-eight Japanese military and political leaders were charged with Class A crimes, and more than 5,700 Japanese nationals were charged with Class B and C crimes, mostly entailing prisoner abuse. China held 13 tribunals of its own, resulting in 504 convictions and 149 executions.

The Japanese Emperor Hirohito and all members of the imperial family such as Prince Asaka, were not prosecuted for involvement in any the three categories of crimes. Herbert Bix explains that "the Truman administration and General MacArthur both believed the occupation reforms would be implemented smoothly if they used Hirohito to legitimise their changes."[5] As many as 50 suspects, such as Nobusuke Kishi, who later became Prime Minister, and Yoshisuke Aikawa, head of the zaibatsu Nissan, and future leader of the Chuseiren,[clarification needed] were charged but released without ever being brought to trial in 1947 and 1948. Shiro Ishii received immunity in exchange for data gathered from his experiments on live prisoners. The lone dissenting judge to exonerate all indictees was Indian jurist Radhabinod Pal.

The tribunal was adjourned on 12 November 1948.

See also

References

  1. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, pp. 30-31.
  2. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, p. 31.
  3. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, pp. 33, 34.
  4. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Japan, 1900 a.d.–present". Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  5. ^ https://www.harpercollins.com/authors/13941
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