La République En Marche!

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La République En Marche!
Executive Officer Christophe Castaner
President in the National Assembly Richard Ferrand
President in the Senate François Patriat
Founder Emmanuel Macron
Founded 6 April 2016; 2 years ago (2016-04-06)
Headquarters 63, Rue Sainte-Anne 75002 Paris
Youth wing Les Jeunes avec Macron
Membership Increase 390,715 claimed adherents[1]
Ideology Liberalism[2]
Social liberalism[2][3][4]
Pro-Europeanism[5]
Political position Centre[3]
European affiliation None
International affiliation None
European Parliament group None
Colours

         
Black and White

     Yellow (customary)[6]
National Assembly
310 / 577
Senate
21 / 348
European Parliament
1 / 74
Presidency of departmental councils
0 / 101
Presidency of regional councils
0 / 17
Website
en-marche.fr

La République En Marche![a] (frequently abbreviated REM, LRM or LREM; officially LaREM), sometimes called by its old name En Marche! (French: [ɑ̃ maʁʃ]; English translation: "Forward!",[7][8] "Onward!",[9] "Working!" or "On The Move!"),[10] is a centrist,[11] liberal[12] and social-liberal[13] political party in France. It was founded on 6 April 2016 by Emmanuel Macron, a former Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs, who was later elected President of France in the 2017 presidential election by a landslide 66.1% of the second-round vote.[9] Macron considers La République En Marche! to be a progressive movement, uniting both the left and the right.[14]

The party ran candidates in the 2017 legislative elections[15] including dissidents from the Socialist Party, The Republicans and minor parties. It won an absolute majority in the National Assembly, securing 308 seats. Its ally, the Democratic Movement, secured 42.

La République En Marche! is a pro-European[16][14] movement that accepts globalization and wants to "modernize" and moralize French politics.[17] The movement generally accepts members from other parties at a higher rate than other political parties in France[18] and does not impose any fees on members who want to join.[19] The party is seen as the most pro-European party in France,[20][21][22] but it is not currently part of any European parliamentary group.

History

Creation

La Gauche Libre, the think tank for the movement, was declared as an organization on 1 March 2015.[23] Afterwords, lesjeunesavecmacron.fr was registered as a domain[24] on 23 June 2015. Eventually, two Facebook pages[25][26] were created and an extra domain registered.[27] Another organization was eventually created by Macron, declared as "L'Association pour le renouvellement de la vie politique"[28] and was registered as a "micro-party" in January 2016.[29] This was following en-marche.fr being claimed as a domain.[30] "L'Association pour le renouvellement de la vie politique" was then registered as "EMA EN MARCHE" in March.[17]

En Marche! was founded on 6 April 2016 in Amiens by Emmanuel Macron, then aged 38,[18] with the help of political advisor Ismaël Emelien.[31] The initials of the name of the party are the same as the initials of Macron's name.[32][19]

The announcement of En Marche! was the first indication by Macron that he was planning to run for president[33] with Macron using En Marche! to fundraise for the potential presidential run.[34] The launch of the party was widely covered throughout the media[35] and media coverage continued to peak as tensions rose among Macron and other government ministers as his loyalty was questioned.[36] In the weeks following the creation of En Marche!, Macron soared in the opinion polls to be seen as the main competitor on the left.[37][38]

The creation of En Marche! was welcomed by several political figures including Najat Vallaud-Belkacem,[39] Jean-Pierre Raffarin[40] and Pierre Gattaz[41] though it was also criticised by Jean-Luc Mélenchon[42] and Christian Estrosi.

In an attempt to create the party's first platform that it would launch into a campaign with, Macron and head of operations Ludovic Chaker[43] recruited 4,000 volunteers[44] to conduct door-to-door surveys to 100,000 people and then they would use the information gained to create a programme closer to the French electorate.[45] Only a quarter of the 100,000 surveys handed out were ever completed.[46]

2017 legislative elections

La République En Marche! ran candidates in most constituencies. At least half its candidates came from civil society – the other half having previously held political office – and half were women. No "double investitures" were permitted, though on 5 May 2017 Macron waived the original requirement of prospective candidates to leave their previous political party.[47] In addition to those parameters, Macron specified in his initial press conference on 19 January that he would require that candidates demonstrate "probity" (disqualifying any prospective candidates with a criminal record), "political plurality" (representing the threads of the movement), and "efficacy". Those wishing to seek the endorsement of République En Marche! had to sign up online,[48] and the movement received nearly 15,000 applications.

When dealing with nominations sought by those in the political world, the Party considered the popularity, establishment, and media skills of applicants, with the most difficult cases adjudicated by Macron himself. To present themselves under the label of République En Marche!, however, outgoing deputies had to leave the Socialist Party (PS) or the Republicans (LR).[49] Macron previously said the legislative candidates would have to leave the Socialist Party before they could join République En Marche! in the election.[50] However, then La République En Marche! spokesperson Christophe Castaner later said they could stay in the Socialist Party as long as they supported Macron.[50] Moreover, spokesperson Jean-Paul Delevoye said the members of civil society could be mayors or members of regional councils and departmental councils.[50]

After François Bayrou endorsed Macron in February, the Democratic Movement (MoDem), which he leads, reserved 90 constituencies for MoDem candidates (running under the label of La République En Marche!), of which 50 were considered[by whom?] winnable.[51]

On 15 May the secretary general of the presidency announced the appointment of Édouard Philippe, a member of The Republicans, as Prime Minister of France.[52]

By winning an absolute majority in the National Assembly in the second round of the elections on 18 June 2017, La République En Marche! became France's party of power in support of the President.

Ideology

Although Macron was a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009 and an Independent from 2009 to 2016,[53][54] La République En Marche! seeks to transcend traditional political boundaries to be a transpartisan organisation.[18]

Macron has described it as being a progressive party of both the left and the right.[55] Observers and political commentators have described the party as being both socially and economically liberal in ideology.[56][57][3][58]

Adherents

La République En Marche! considers every person who submits identification information (date of birth, email, full address, and telephone number) and adheres to the party's charter to be an adherent.[59] Unlike other political parties, it does not require adherents to make a monetary donation.[60] Emmanuel Macron has indicated that it is possible to adhere to La République En Marche! while remaining a member of "another republican party."[18]

On 10 April 2016, a few days after the movement's launch, Emmanuel Macron claimed 13,000 adherents.[61] Le Canard enchaîné accused him of inflating the figure and claimed that 13,000 was in reality the number of clicks that Macron had received on his website.[62] Ismaël Emelien, Macron's advisor, clarified that "each adherent signs a charter of values and has a voice in the movement's general assembly" and that "that has nothing to do with those who sign up for the newsletter, who are much greater in number."[63] Sylvain Fort, another of Macron's advisors, affirmed that the movement verifies the e-mail addresses of adherents but conceded that "the system relies on the honesty of each adherent."[60]

In October 2016, Macron affirmed that En Marche! was "neck and neck with the Socialist Party" in terms of membership after only "seven months" of existence.[64] According to Mediapart, this included "many independents and executives, but few functionaries, farmers and unemployed people. Many of the members have never been engaged in politics. The majority have only shown interest by leaving their information on the site."[65]

La République En Marche! takes inspiration from the participatory model of Désirs d'avenir, Ségolène Royal's movement, and intends to rely on its member files, according to deputy Pascal Terrasse, former leader of Désirs d'avenir.[66][67][68] According to Libération, the movement relies on a "pyramidal enrolment system inspired by Barack Obama's campaigns of 2008 and 2012."[69]

By relying on a participatory political model, each La République En Marche! adherent has the opportunity to freely join or create a local committee. Each of these committees is led by one or more adherents who organize the committee by planning local events, meetings, and debates centered around the ideas and values promoted by the movement. La République En Marche! counted more than 2,600 of these committees in December 2016.[70]

Finance

Christian Dargnat, former general director of BNP Paribas Asset Management, leads the La République En Marche! financial association.[71] Since its creation, the association has raised funds for La République En Marche!. In 2016, Georges Fenech, a deputy of The Republicans, alerted the National Assembly that the association had continued fund raising even during Emmanuel Macron's trip to London. This led Prime Minister Manuel Valls to issue an official denial, even though En Marche! had already done so.[72] Emmanuel Macron declared in May that 2,000 donors had already contributed financially to En Marche!. In December 2016, he spoke of "more than 10,000 donors from 1 euro to 7,500 euros."[73] By the end of December 2016, he had collected between 4 and 5 million euros in donations.[74] At the end of March, this figure exceeded 9 million euros from 35,000 donations, averaging 257 euros per donation. 600 donors made up half of the total amount donated, with donations upwards of 5,000 euros.[75]

In the book Dans l'enfer de Bercy: Enquête sur les secrets du ministère des Finances (JC Lattès, 2017) by journalists Frédéric Says and Marion L'Hour, Emmanuel Macron was accused of using 120,000 euros from the state budget from 1 January to 30 August 2016 in order to fund his presidential campaign.[76]

Election results

Presidential elections

Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Rank Votes % Rank
2017 Emmanuel Macron 8,656,346 24.01 1st 20,743,128 66.10 1st

Legislative elections

Election year 1st round 2nd round Seats +/− Rank
(seats)
Government
Votes % Votes %
2017 6,391,269 28.21 7,826,245 43.06
308 / 577
Increase 308 1st Presidential majority (with MoDem)

Symbols

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ In French, there is a space in front of the exclamation mark, which makes it "En marche !". However, it is written without the space in English media.

References

  1. ^ "La carte En Marche !". En Marche. Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "France". Parties and Elections in Europe. 
  3. ^ a b c Milner, Susan (6 February 2017). "Emmanuel Macron and the building of a new liberal-centrist movement". EUROPP. London School of Economics. Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  4. ^ Audrey Tonnelier (24 February 2017). "« Le projet d'Emmanuel Macron est social-libéral »". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 23 June 2017. 
  5. ^ "Emmanuel Macron a Berlin pour se donner une stature européenne". Le Monde. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  6. ^ "De quelle couleur est Emmanuel Macron ? - Libération". Liberation.fr. Retrieved 2018-05-06. 
  7. ^ Callus, Andrew; Jarry, Emmanuel (16 November 2016). "Macron Launches French Presidential Bid as Polls Show Tight Race". Reuters. Retrieved 17 November 2016. 
  8. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (17 February 2017). "Emmanuel Macron: the French outsider who would be president". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Rubin, Alissa J. (7 May 2017). "Macron, Well Ahead of Le Pen, Is Poised to Be President of France". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 May 2017. 
  10. ^ Williamson, Lucy (7 May 2017). "French election: What next for Macron after win?". BBC News. Retrieved 9 May 2017. 
  11. ^ Sophie Di Francesco-Mayot (2017). "The French Parti Socialiste (2010–16): from office to crisis". In Rob Manwaring; Paul Kennedy. Why the Left Loses: The Decline of the Centre-Left in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-4473-3269-5. 
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  13. ^ Isabelle Hertner (2018). Centre-left parties and the European Union: Power, accountability and democracy. Manchester University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-5261-2036-6. 
  14. ^ a b spécial), Patrick Roger (Charente-Maritime, Vendée, envoyé (20 August 2016). "Macron précise son projet " progressiste " pour 2017" – via Le Monde. 
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  17. ^ a b "Site officiel d'En Marche ǃ - Une charte pour avancer ensemble" (PDF). 
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  21. ^ "Emmanuel Macron, le seul candidat pour qui l'Europe est la solution, pas le problème". Le Huffington Post (in French). 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
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  24. ^ "Whois lesjeunesavecmacron.fr". www.whois.com. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  25. ^ "Security Check Required". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  26. ^ "Security Check Required". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  27. ^ "Whois vision-macron.fr". www.whois.com. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  28. ^ "Consulter les annonces du JO Association. www.journal-officiel.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  29. ^ "Consulter les annonces du JO Association. www.journal-officiel.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
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  31. ^ Pietralunga, Cédric (19 December 2016). "Ismaël Emelien, le bras droit d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde. Retrieved 8 May 2017. 
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  33. ^ Wieder, Thomas (2016-04-07). "Le pari libéral d'Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  34. ^ Mourgue, Marion (2016-05-18). "Les levées de fonds au profit d'Emmanuel Macron se poursuivent". Le Figaro (in French). ISSN 0182-5852. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
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  38. ^ "Macron : l'envol dans les sondages". ladepeche.fr (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  39. ^ "Macron lance son mouvement :"J'adhère assez" (Vallaud-Belkacem)" (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  40. ^ "La "marche" de Macron régale Raffarin, et fait rire Mélenchon". leparisien.fr. 2016-04-07. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
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  42. ^ Pérou, Olivier (2016-04-07). "Macron : le Medef séduit, Mélenchon rigole, Philippot dénonce". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  43. ^ "Les bébés Macron font leurs premiers pas avec En Marche - La Lettre A N° 1737". www.lalettrea.fr (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  44. ^ "Comment Emmanuel Macron a fait son "diagnostic"". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  45. ^ "Emmanuel Macron lance sa "Grande Marche" vers un "plan d'action"". L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  46. ^ Damgé, Mathilde (2016-10-07). "Emmanuel Macron, En Marche ! et le flou du nombre d'adhérents". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2017-08-09. 
  47. ^ "Législatives: les candidats de "La République en marche" investis d'ici à jeudi". L'Express. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017. 
  48. ^ Nathalie Raulin (19 January 2017). "Macron lance un appel à ses "marcheurs" pour les investitures aux législatives". Libération. Retrieved 9 May 2017. 
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  51. ^ "Législatives: accord MoDem-En marche!". Le Figaro. 5 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017. 
  52. ^ "Day 1 for French President Macron: visit to Germany and naming of prime minister". Los Angeles Times. 15 May 2017. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 15 May 2017. [...] the announcement of Philippe's appointment, delivered by the presidency's new secretary general, took just eight seconds. 
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  57. ^ Endeweld, Marc (10 December 2016). "La démonstration de force du social-libéral Emmanuel Macron". Marianne (in French). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  58. ^ Venturini, Lionel (12 January 2017). "En marche ! Un social-libéral pour piloter le projet de Macron". L'Humanité (in French). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  59. ^ "En marche ! Espace personel". En Marche !. 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  60. ^ a b Mathilde Damgé (7 October 2016). "Emmanuel Macron, La Grande Marche et ses chiffres flous". lemonde.fr. Retrieved 16 October 2016. 
  61. ^ "Emmanuel Macron annonce une 'grande marche en France' et 13 000 adhérents". L'Express.fr. 10 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 
  62. ^ ""En marche" : quand Macron gonfle le nombre de ses adhérents". Metronews. 2016. 
  63. ^ "Prévisions de croissance, Macron... Suivez l'actualité politique en direct". lemonde.fr. 20 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  64. ^ Marie-Pierre Haddad (20 October 2016). "Présidentielle 2017 : pourquoi Macron court-circuite l'agenda de Hollande". rtl.fr. Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  65. ^ Mathieu Magnaudeix (23 September 2016). "Macron joue le centre, pour occuper le vide". Mediapart. Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  66. ^ Pauline Théveniaud (7 April 2016). "Le modèle de Macron ? Désirs d'avenir". www.leparisien.fr. Retrieved 20 April 2016.  Missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  67. ^ "Les "Désirs d'avenir" de Royal au service du "En marche" de Macron... et de Hollande". www.huffingtonpost.fr. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  68. ^ Jean-Laurent Cassely (5 October 2016). "Emmanuel Macron n'est pas candidat, il est consultant à la présidentielle". Slate. Retrieved 5 October 2016. 
  69. ^ Nathalie Raulin; Guillaume Gendron (3 April 2017). "L'équipe Macron affine la mise en cène". Libération (in French). Retrieved 19 April 2017. 
  70. ^ Camille Bordenet (10 December 2016). "Ces militants qui marchent avec Macron". lemonde.fr. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  71. ^ "Macron en marche ? "Nous assumons de lever des fonds"". lepoint.fr. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  72. ^ "Manuel Valls recadre sèchement Emmanuel Macron en direct sur les bancs de l'Assemblée nationale". rtl.fr. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  73. ^ Stéphane Lauer (6 December 2016). "Emmanuel Macron tente de se tailler une stature de présidentiable à New York". lemonde.fr. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  74. ^ Anne-Laure Dagnet (27 December 2016). "Le brief politique. Emmanuel Macron, 400 parrainages et 4 millions d'euros de dons au compteur". francetvinfo.fr. Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  75. ^ JDD, Le (28 March 2017). "Présidentielle : combien de dons par candidat?". lejdd.fr. Retrieved 10 May 2017. 
  76. ^ "Emmanuel Macron et les 120.000 euros de Bercy". Le Journal du Dimanche. 2017-07-29. Retrieved 2017-01-26. 

External links

  • Official website (in French)
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