Empress Xiaoduanwen

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Empress Xiaoduanwen
Empress Consort of the Qing dynasty
Reign 1636–1643
Successor Borjigit, Demoted Empress
Empress Dowager of the Qing dynasty
Reign 1643–1649
alongside Empress Xiaozhuangwen
Successor Empress Xiaohuizhang
Born (1600-05-31)31 May 1600
Died 28 May 1649(1649-05-28) (aged 48)
Spouse Hong Taiji
Full name
Borjigit Jerjer (博爾濟吉特‧哲哲)
Posthumous name
Empress Xiaoduan Zhengjing Renyi Zheshun Cixi Zhuangmin Futian Xiesheng Wen (孝端正敬仁懿哲順慈僖庄敏輔天協聖文皇后)
Father Manggusi
Empress Xiaoduanwen
Chinese name
Chinese 孝端文皇后
Borjigit Jerjer
Traditional Chinese 博爾濟吉特‧哲哲
Simplified Chinese 博尔济吉特‧哲哲
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡥᡳᠶᠣᠣᡧᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᡩᠣᡵᠣᠩᡤᠣ ᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ ᡧᡠ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡥᡝᠣ ᠵᡝᡵᠵᡝᡵ
Romanization hiyoošungga doronggo genggiyen šu hūwangheo Jerjer

Empress Xiaoduanwen (31 May 1600 – 28 May 1649), of the Mongol Borjigit clan, personal name Jerjer or Jere, was the Empress Consort of Hong Taiji, the second ruler of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.


Jerjer was a Khorchin Mongol by birth and was from the Borjigit clan, the clan of Genghis Khan. Her father, Manggusi (莽古思), was a beile of the Khorchin Mongols. Her mother was Manggusi's primary consort.

Jerjer married Hong Taiji, the ruler of the Later Jin dynasty, on 28 May 1614 and became his primary consort even though she was not his first wife. In 1636, after Hong Taiji renamed the Later Jin dynasty to Qing dynasty, he instated Jerjer as his Empress. Two of Jerjer's nieces, Bumbutai and Harjol, were also Hong Taiji's consorts.

After Hong Taiji's death in 1643, Jerjer was honoured as "Mother Empress, Empress Dowager" (母后皇太后) by the Shunzhi Emperor, Hong Taiji's ninth son and successor. The emperor's birth mother, Bumbutai (Jerjer's niece), was similarly honoured as "Holy Mother, Empress Dowager" (聖母皇太后).

Jerjer died in 1649 and was interred in the Zhaoling Mausoleum in Shenyang. She was posthumously honoured with the title "Empress Xiaoduanwen".


Jerjer bore Hong Taiji three daughters:

  • Makata (馬喀塔; 1625–1663), known as Gurun Princess Wenzhuang (固倫溫莊長公主), Hong Taiji's second daughter. She married Eje (額哲), a Chahar Mongol prince, in 1635. After Eje's death, she remarried Abunai (阿布奈), Eje's younger brother, in 1661.
  • Gurun Princess Jingduan (固倫靖端長公主; 1628–1686), personal name unknown, Hong Taiji's third daughter. She married Jitate (奇塔特) of the Khorchin Mongols in 1639.
  • Gurun Princess Yong'an (固倫永安長公主; 1634–1692), personal name unknown, Hong Taiji's eighth daughter. She married Bayasihulang (巴雅斯護朗) of the Khorchin Mongols.

See also


Empress Xiaoduanwen
Preceded by
Empress Xiaocigao
Empress of the Qing dynasty
(Empress of the Qing dynasty but never Empress of China)

1636 – 21 September 1643
Succeeded by
Borjigit, Demoted Empress
(As Empress of both China and the Qing dynasty)
Chinese royalty
Preceded by
Empress Dowager Xiaochun
Empress Dowager of China
21 September 1643 – 1649
Succeeded by
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
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