Emperor Taizong of Jin

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Emperor Taizong of Jin
Wanyan Wuqimai.jpg
Emperor of the Jin dynasty
Reign 27 September 1123 – 9 February 1135
Predecessor Emperor Taizu of Jin
Successor Emperor Xizong of Jin
Born (1075-11-25)25 November 1075
Died 9 February 1135(1135-02-09) (aged 59)
Spouse Empress Qinren
Issue Puluhu
Hulu
Hulubu
Aludai
Alubu
Hushahu
Alin
Alu
Gulan
Hulijia
Shentumen
Huboshu
Wolie
Gusha
Full name
Wanyan Sheng (sinicised name)
Wuqimai (Jurchen name)
Era dates
Tianhui (天會; 1123–1135)
Posthumous name
Emperor Tiyuan Yingyun Shide Zhaogong Zhehui Rensheng Wenlie (體元應運世德昭功哲惠仁聖文烈皇帝)
Father Wanyan Helibo
Mother Lady Nalan
Emperor Taizong of Jin
Chinese 金太宗
Wuqimai
Traditional Chinese 吳乞買
Simplified Chinese 吴乞买
Wanyan Sheng
Traditional Chinese 完顏晟
Simplified Chinese 完颜晟

Emperor Taizong of Jin (25 November 1075 – 9 February 1135), personal name Wuqimai, sinicised name Wanyan Sheng, was the second emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. His regnal name was "Tianhui" (天會). During his reign, the Jin dynasty conquered the Khitan-led Liao dynasty. He then led the Jurchens in their campaigns against the Song dynasty, captured the Song capital in 1127 and went on to occupy most of northern China. After his death, he was posthumously honoured with the temple name Taizong by his successor, Emperor Xizong.

Life

Wuqimai was the fourth son of Helibo and his primary consort, Lady Nalan (拏懒氏). He was a younger brother of Aguda (Emperor Taizu), the founder and first emperor of the Jin dynasty. He succeeded his brother in 1123. Two years later, the Jin general Wanyan Loushi (完顏婁室) led forces to attack the Khitan-led Liao dynasty and succeeded in capturing Emperor Tianzuo, the last Liao ruler, thereby ending the Liao dynasty's existence.

In October 1125, Emperor Taizong waged war against the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty and ordered his fifth brother, Wanyan Gao (完顏杲), to lead the Jin armies to attack Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng, Henan Province), the Song capital, from two different directions. The Song general Li Gang (李綱) led fierce resistance against the Jin invaders. After some time, the Jin and Song dynasties agreed to a truce. In August 1126, Emperor Taizong ordered Wanyan Zongwang (完顏宗望) and Wanyan Zonghan to lead Jin forces to attack and besiege Bianjing again. This time, the Jin dynasty not only conquered Bianjing, but also captured Emperors Huizong and Qinzong of the Song dynasty. This event, historically known as the Jingkang Incident, marked the end of the Northern Song dynasty and beginning of the Southern Song dynasty.

In 1128, Emperor Taizong gave ironic titles of nobility to the two captured former Song emperors; Emperor Huizong was called "Duke Hunde" (昏德公; literally "Besotted Duke") while Emperor Qinzong was called "Marquis Chonghun" (重昏侯; literally "Doubly Besotted Marquis"). They were resettled in Wuguocheng (五國城; in present-day Yilan County, Heilongjiang Province).

During his reign, Emperor Taizong laid and strengthened the Jin dynasty's political system and institutions. In his later years, he designated Hela, a grandson of Aguda, as his successor. He died in Mingde Palace in 1135 and was buried in the He Mausoleum (和陵). His descendants were massacred by Digunai (Prince of Hailing), the fourth ruler of the Jin dynasty, as a political move to eliminate possible contenders to the throne. His remains were relocated to Dafangshan (大房山), which became known as the Gong Mausoleum (恭陵).

Family

  • Father: Helibo
  • Mother: Lady Nalan (拏懒氏), posthumously honoured as Empress Yijian (翼簡皇后)
  • Spouse: Lady Tangkuo (唐括氏; died 1143), formally known as Empress Qinren (欽仁皇后)
  • Sons:
    • Puluhu (蒲魯虎), sinicised name Wanyan Zongpan (完顏宗磐), Prince of Song (宋王)
    • Hulu (胡魯), sinicised name Wanyan Zonggu (完顏宗固), Prince of Bin (豳王)
    • Hulubu (斛魯補), sinicised name Wanyan Zongya (完顏宗雅), Prince of Dai (代王)
    • Aludai (阿魯帶), sinicised name Wanyan Zongshun (完顏宗順), Prince of Xu (徐王)
    • Alubu (阿魯補), sinicised name Wanyan Zongwei (完顏宗偉), Prince of Yu (虞王)
    • Hushahu (斛沙虎), sinicised name Wanyan Zongying (完顏宗英), Prince of Teng (滕王)
    • Alin (阿鄰), sinicised name Wanyan Zongyi (完顏宗懿), Prince of Xue (薛王)
    • Alu (阿魯), sinicised name Wanyan Zongben (完顏宗本), Prince of Yuan (原王)
    • Gulan (鶻懶), Prince of Yi (翼王)
    • Hulijia (胡里甲), sinicised name Wanyan Zongmei (完顏宗美), Prince of Feng (豐王)
    • Shentumen (神土門), Prince of Yun (鄆王)
    • Huboshu (斛孛束), Prince of Huo (霍王)
    • Wolie (斡烈), Prince of Cai (蔡王)
    • Gusha (鶻沙), sinicised name Wanyan Zongzhe (完顏宗哲), Prince of Bi (畢王)
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