Zhao Bing

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Zhao Bing
Song Modi.jpg
Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign 10 May 1278 – 19 March 1279
Coronation 10 May 1278
Predecessor Emperor Duanzong
Born Zhao Bing
(1272-02-12)12 February 1272
Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China
Died 19 March 1279(1279-03-19) (aged 7)
Yamen, Guangdong Province, China
Burial Shekou, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China
Era dates
Xiangxing (祥興; 1278–1279)
House House of Zhao
Father Emperor Duzong
Mother Consort Yu
Zhao Bing
Traditional Chinese 趙昺
Simplified Chinese 赵昺
Literal meaning "Glorious Zhao"
Emperor Bing of Song
Chinese 宋帝昺

Zhao Bing (12 February 1272 – 19 March 1279), also known as Emperor Bing of Song,[notes 1] was the 18th and last emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He was also the ninth and last emperor of the Southern Song dynasty. He reigned for about 313 days from 1278 to 1279 until his death.

Life

Zhao Bing was the seventh son of Zhao Qi (Emperor Duzong). His mother was Lady Yu (俞氏), a concubine of Emperor Duzong who held the rank of xiurong (修容). He was a younger half-brother of his predecessors, Zhao Xian (Emperor Gong) (r. 1275–1276) and Zhao Shi (Emperor Duanzong) (r. 1276–1278). He was enfeoffed as the "Prince of Xin" (信王) in 1274. His title was later changed to "Prince of Guang" (廣王).

On 4 February 1276, the Song capital, Lin'an (臨安; present-day Hangzhou), was conquered by forces of the Mongol-led Yuan regime commanded by the general Bayan. Emperor Gong was taken captive by the Mongols, but his two brothers, Zhao Shi and Zhao Bing, managed to escape to southern China with the help of officials such as Yang Liangjie (楊亮節), Lu Xiufu, Zhang Shijie, Chen Yizhong and Wen Tianxiang. They arrived in Jinhua, where Zhao Shi was appointed as Grand Marshal (天下兵馬都元帥) and Zhao Bing was appointed as Vice Grand Marshal (副元帥). Zhao Bing's title was also changed to "Prince of Wei" (衛王). On 14 June 1276, a seven-year-old Zhao Shi was enthroned in Fuzhou as the new emperor; he is historically known as Emperor Duanzong.

The Mongol general Bayan was bent on eliminating the threat posed by Song remnants, so he led his troops in pursuit and attacked southern China. After Emperor Duanzong died of illness in 1278, the Song forces' morale started to dwindle and soldiers began to desert the army. Lu Xiufu brought Zhao Bing to Meiwei (梅蔚), Gangzhou (碙州), which is in present-day Mui Wo, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. There, Zhao Bing was enthroned as the new emperor under the era name "Xiangxing" (祥興); Gangzhou was also renamed "Xianglong County" (祥龍縣). They moved to Yamen (in present-day Xinhui District, Jiangmen, Guangdong Province) to evade the Mongols.

The Mongols sent the general Zhang Hongfan to lead troops to attack Zhao Bing and the Song remnants, leading to the Battle of Yamen. The Song forces, led by Zhang Shijie, put up fierce resistance against the Mongols in a naval battle but were eventually all wiped out by the enemy. On 19 March 1279, after realising all was lost, Lu Xiufu carried the seven-year-old Emperor Zhao Bing to a cliff, where they committed suicide by throwing themselves into the sea.[1] Zhao Bing's death marked the end of the Song dynasty.

Zhao Bing's tomb is located in present-day Chiwan, Nanshan District, Shenzhen.

Patriotic Soup

Patriotic Soup
Song dynasty's 'Patriotic soup' (護國菜) .jpg
A bowl of homemade version of the Patriotic Soup, previously served to Emperor Bing at Chaozhou during the final year of the Song dynasty. Its main ingredients are leaf vegetable, edible mushrooms, and broth.
Alternative names Protect the Country Dish
Type Soup
Place of origin China
Region or state Chaoshan
Main ingredients Edible leaf vegetable (amaranth, spinach, ipomoea aquatica, potato leaf or other leafy greens), mushrooms (volvariella volvacea or other edible mushrooms), broth (vegetable, beef, chicken, pork, or other stocks)
Cookbook: Patriotic Soup  Media: Patriotic Soup
Patriotic Soup
Traditional Chinese 護國菜
Simplified Chinese 护国菜
Hanyu Pinyin hùguó cài
Literal meaning Protect the Country Dish

According to the locals at the Guangdong Province,[2] prior to the final battle with the Yuan forces at Yamen, Zhao Bing and the Song remnants sought shelter in a monastery at Chaozhou. The monastery's monks served a vegetarian soup made of leaf vegetable, edible mushrooms, and vegetable broth. The emperor loved the soup and named it "Protect the Country Dish" (護國菜). A later generation named it in English "Patriotic Soup". After Zhao Bing died, the preparation of the soup became a way to honor the last Song emperor.

The soup became a part of Chaozhou cuisine, and its recipe evolved over time. Although the Chinese since the Ming dynasty commonly use potato leaves, other varieties include amaranth, spinach, ipomoea aquatica and other leafy greens; and alternative broths such as beef or chicken.[3][4] Other ingredients are often added such as beaten eggs, shredded dry cured ham, tofu, or cellophane noodles. The soup is available in Guangdong Province's restaurants.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Note that the "Bing" refers to the emperor's personal given name. It is not a temple name (usually ending with -zu or -zong) unlike other Song emperors such as Emperor Duanzong, Emperor Duzong, Emperor Taizu, etc.

References

  1. ^ David C. Wright (2012). David Andrew Graff; Robin D. S. Higham, eds. A Military History of China. University Press of Kentucky. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-8131-3584-7. 
  2. ^ Fang Xiaolan; Chen Jilin (2012). Traditional Chaozhou Cuisine (in Chinese). Hong Kong: Wan Li Book Co. Ltd. pp. 90–91. ISBN 9789621446237. 
  3. ^ Chan, Kei-Lum (2016). China: The Cookbook. Phaidon Press Limited. p. 93edition=1. ISBN 9780714872247. 
  4. ^ "护国菜(菠菜羹)". 豆果. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
Zhao Bing
House of Zhao (960–1279)
Born: 1271 Died: 1279
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Duanzong
Emperor of the Song Dynasty
1278–1279
Succeeded by
Dynasty dissolved
Emperor of China
1278–1279
Succeeded by
Kublai Khan, Emperor Shizu of Yuan
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