Elias Magnus Fries

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Elias Magnus Fries
Elias Magnus Fries.jpg
Born (1794-08-15)15 August 1794
Died 8 February 1878(1878-02-08) (aged 83)
Nationality Swedish
Alma mater Lund University
Known for Founder of modern fungal taxonomy
Scientific career
Fields Mycology, Botany
Institutions Lund University
Uppsala University
Author abbrev. (botany) Fr.
Elias Fries in old age

Elias Magnus Fries FRS FRSE FLS RAS (15 August 1794 – 8 February 1878) was a Swedish mycologist and botanist.


Fries was born at Femsjö (Hylte Municipality), Småland, the son of the pastor there.[1] He attended school in Wexio.

He acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants from his father. In 1811 Fries entered Lund University[2] where he obtained a doctorate in 1814. In the same year he was appointed an associate professorship in botany. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and in 1824, became a full professor. In 1834 he became Borgström professor (Swed. Borgströmianska professuren, a chair endowed by Eric Erichsson Borgström, 1708–1770) in applied economics at Uppsala University. The position was changed to "professor of botany and applied economics" in 1851. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849.[3] That year he was also appointed director of the Uppsala University Botanical Garden. In 1853, he became rector of the University.[4]

Fries most important works were the three-volume Systema mycologicum (1821–1832), Elenchus fungorum (1828), the two-volume Monographia hymenomycetum Sueciae (1857 and 1863) and Hymenomycetes Europaei (1874).[5]

Fries is considered to be, after Christian Hendrik Persoon, a founding father of the modern taxonomy of mushrooms. His taxonomy of mushrooms was influenced by Goethe and the German romantics. He utilized spore color and arrangement of the hymenophore (pores, gills, teeth etc.) as major taxonomic characteristics.[6][7]

He died in Uppsala on 8 February 1878.[8]

When he died, The Times commented: "His very numerous works, especially on fungi and lichens, give him a position as regards those groups of plants only comparable to that of Linnaeus".[9] Fries was succeeded in the Borgström professorship by Johan Erhard Areschoug, after whom Theodor Magnus Fries, the son of Elias, held the chair.[citation needed]


  • Monographia Pyrenomycetum Sueciae (1816)
  • Systema Mycologicum (1821)
  • Systema Orbis Vegetabilis (1825)
  • Elenchus Fungorem (1828)
  • Lichenographia Europaea Reformata (1831)
  • Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici: seu synopsis hymenomycetum (1838)

Botanical Reference


His son was Theodor Magnus Fries.


  1. ^ "Fries, Elias Magnus". Nordisk Familjebok (in Swedish). 8 (2 ed.). 1908. pp. 1393–1397. Retrieved 3 September 2010. 
  2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fries, Elias Magnus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  3. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter F" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 September 2016. 
  4. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Fries, Elias Magnus". Encyclopedia Americana. 
  5. ^ Gulden, Gro; Eckblad, Finn-Egil (2007). "Elias Magnus Fries". In Henriksen, Petter. Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 27 March 2009. 
  6. ^ http://www.first-nature.com/fungi/~biog-fries.php
  7. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Elias_Magnus_Fries.aspx
  8. ^ BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. 
  9. ^ The Times, Thursday, 21 February 1878; pg. 6; Issue 29184; col C
  10. ^ IPNI.  Fr. 

External links

  • "Elias Magnus Fries", Authors of fungal names, Mushroom, the Journal of Wild Mushrooming.
  • Web site of the Descendants of Elias Fries Association
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Fries, Elias Magnus". New International Encyclopedia. 1906. 
Cultural offices
Preceded by
Erik Gustaf Geijer
Swedish Academy,
Seat No.14

Succeeded by
Carl Rupert Nyblom

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