Elections in Mexico

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Elections in Mexico determine who, on the national level, takes the position of the head of state – the president – as well as the legislature.

The President of Mexico is elected for a six-year term by the people. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even if he or she does not have an absolute majority.

Since no President can serve more than a single term in office, every presidential election in Mexico is a non-incumbent election.

The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) has 500 members, elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies.[1] The 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats (Parallel voting), but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats (a party must win 42% of the votes for the PR-seats to achieve an overall majority). There are two exceptions on this rule: first, a party can only lose PR-seats due to this rule (and no plurality-seats); second, a party can never get more than 300 seats overall (even if it has more than 52% of the votes for the PR-seats).

The Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies (corresponding to the nation's 31 states and one Federal District) and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis.[2] In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up.

At the local level, each of Mexico's 31 constituent states elects a governor to serve a six-year term; they also elect legislative deputies who sit in state congresses, and municipal presidents (presidentes municipales, or mayors). The Federal District (Mexico City) elects a Head of Government in lieu of a mayor, district assemblymen in lieu of state congressional deputies, and borough heads in lieu of municipal presidents.

Mexico has a multi-party system, with three dominant political parties, prior to 2000 Mexico had a Dominant-party system dominated by the Institutional Revolutionary Party, and a number of smaller ones. Alliances and coalitions are common; normally, they are local (state) affairs and involve one of the big three and any number of minor parties; on extraordinary occasions, two of the big three will ally themselves against the third (see, for example, 2003 Colima state election or 2004 Chihuahua state election).[3]



Position 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Type Presidential (July)
National Congress (June)
None Gubernatorial (October)
National Congress (July)
President and
vice president
President and vice president None
National Congress All seats None All seats None
Provinces, cities and municipalities None All positions None


Position 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Type Presidential (December)
National Congress (December)
None Gubernatorial (December)
National Congress (December)
President and
vice president
1 December None
National Congress 1 December None 1 December None
Provinces, cities and municipalities None 1 December None

Federal elections

Latest elections

2012 General election

Presidential election
Candidate Party Votes %
Enrique Peña Nieto Institutional Revolutionary Party 18,727,398 38.15
Andrés Manuel López Obrador Party of the Democratic Revolution 15,535,117 31.64
Josefina Vázquez Mota National Action Party 12,473,106 25.40
Gabriel Quadri de la Torre New Alliance Party 1,129,108 2.36
Non-registered candidates 31,660 0.07
Invalid/blank votes 1,191,057
Total 49,087,446 100
Registered voters/turnout 77,738,494 63.1
Source: PREP (98.95% of polling stations reporting)
Chamber of Deputies election
Total 48,673,937 100 200 48,768,591 100 300 500 0
Registered voters/turnout 77,547,511 62.76 77,547,511 62.44
Source: PREP (98.79% of polling stations reporting)
Senate election
Party Proportional representation Constituency Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Institutional Revolutionary Party 15,679,729 33.1 11 17,119,854 37.3 46 57 +19
National Action Party 13,245,088 27.9 9 12,783,068 27.8 29 38 –14
Party of the Democratic Revolution 9,353,879 19.7 6 13,288,983 28.9 17 23 –13
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 2,881,923 6.1 2 867,056 1.9 2 4 +4
Labor Party 2,339,923 4.9 2 2 4 +4
Citizens' Movement 2,025,045 4.3 1 1 +1
New Alliance Party (Mexico) 1,855,403 3.9 1 1,796,816 3.9 0 1 0
Non-registered candidates 32,567 0.1 0 51,936 0.11 0
Invalid/blank votes 2,897,668 2,701,179
Total 50,310,328 100 32 48,608,892 100 96 128 0
Registered voters/turnout 77,651,019 64.8 77,651,019 62.3
Source: Adam Carr

Past elections

State elections

See also


  1. ^ http://www.eleccion2012mexico.com/project-definition
  2. ^ http://www.eleccion2012mexico.com/project-definition
  3. ^ http://www.eleccion2012mexico.com/partidos-politicos

External links

  • Election 2012 Mexico official website.
  • IFE website
  • Mexico page of the ACE Project
  • Adam Carr's Election Archive
  • Electionworld
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