East Asia

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East Asia
Location of East Asia
Major cities
Area[note 1]
 • Total 11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)
Population (2016)[note 2]
 • Total 1,641,908,531
 • Density 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Languages and language families
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese 東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet Đông Á
Korean name
Hangul 동아시아/동아세아/동아
Hanja 東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞
Mongolian name
Mongolian Зүүн Ази (Dzuun Azi)
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Kanji 東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜
Kana ひがしアジア/とうあ
Kyūjitai 東亞細亞/東亞
Uyghur name
شەرقىي ئاسىي
Russian name
Russian Восточная Азия
Romanization Vostochnaja Azija

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan; it covers about 12,000,000 km2 (4,600,000 sq mi), or about 28% of the Asian continent. GDP(PPP) of East Asia is 32.4 trillion while Nominal GDP is 19.1 trillion USD.

East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia and 22%, or over one fifth, of world's population lives in East Asia. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. Major religions include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[5]), Confucianism or Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese folk religion in China and Taiwan, Shinto in Japan, Korean shamanism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongolians and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus and Ewenki.[6][7] Islam is popular in Northwest China and Kazaks in Mongolia.The Chinese calendar is the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived.


The Chinese Dynasties dominated this region culturally and militarily for a lengthy period of time. Cultural and religious exchange between the Chinese and other regional East Asian Dynasties and Kingdoms occurred.

As connections with the Western world strengthened, China's power began to diminish. Around the same time, Japan solidified itself as a nation state. During World War II, Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China, Hong Kong, and Vietnam all fell under Japanese control. Following Japan's defeat in the war, the Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states, while Taiwan became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China after the latter lost mainland China to the People's Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War.

United Nations Statistics Division

East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[8]
  East Asia

The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience,[8] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the entirety of China (including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau) Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.[3][9]

Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia (East Asian cultural sphere).[4][10][11][12]

Alternative definitions

There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is often more appropriate which covers ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[13][14][15] The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.[16]


The economy of East Asia is one of the most developed and high-tech economies of the world, being home to some of the world's largest, most technologically advanced, productive and most prosperous economies such as the industrialized developed countries of South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. Major positive factors have ranged from favorable political-legal environments for industry and commerce, through abundant natural resources of various kinds, to plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost, skilled and adaptable labor.[citation needed]

In modern high-technology dependent societies, a high level of structural differentiation, functional specialization, and autonomy of the economic system from an efficient government is a major contributor to industrial-commercial growth and prosperity. Currently in East Asia, trading systems are relatively open; and zero or low duties on imports of consumer and capital goods etc. have considerably helped stimulate cost-efficiency and change. Free and flexible labor and other markets are other important factors making for high levels of business-economic performance. East Asian populations have demonstrated highly positive work ethics. There are relatively large and fast-growing markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds.[citation needed]

State/Territory GDP nominal
billions of USD[17]
GDP nominal per capita
billions of USD[17]
GDP PPP per capita
 China 17,100.063 12,117 28,920.974 20,493
 Hong Kong 405.781 53,813 525.547 69,695
 Macau 55.502 91,376 80.765 142,599
 Japan 4,746.880 38,174 5,512.220 44,329
 North Korea 25.000 1,000 40.000 1,800
 South Korea 1,898.763 36,749 2,408.301 46,611
 Mongolia 17.871 5,586 53.003 16,569
 Taiwan 650.902 27,350 1,413.195 59,381

Territorial and regional data


Flag Common Name Official Name
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym
China China 中国 People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国
Hong Kong Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
Macau Macau 澳門 Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
Japan Japan 日本 State of Japan 日本国
Mongolia Mongolia Монгол Улс Mongolia Монгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ
North Korea North Korea 조선 Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)
South Korea South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea 대한민국 (大韓民國)
Taiwan Taiwan[18] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China 中華民國


State/Territory Area km2 Population[19]
Population density
per km2
HDI Capital
 China 9,640,011[20] 1,403,500,365 138 0.727 Beijing
 Hong Kong 1,104 7,302,843 6,390 0.912 Hong Kong
 Macau 30 612,167 18,662 0.892 Macau
 Japan 377,930 127,748,513 337 0.891 Tokyo
 North Korea 120,538 25,368,620 198 0.595 Pyongyang[21]
 South Korea 100,210 50,791,919 500 0.898 Seoul
 Mongolia 1,564,100 3,027,398 2 0.698 Ulaanbaatar
 Taiwan 36,188 23,556,706 639 0.884 Taipei[22]

Major ethnic groups

Ethnicity Native name Population Mother Tongues (No Second Language Listed) Native Writing languages Major states/territories* Appearance
Han/Chinese 漢人 or 汉人, 漢族 or 汉族 1,310,000,000[23] Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters China (Hong KongMacau) Taiwan
Yellow and green hanfu.jpg
Yamato/Japanese 日本族 (にほんぞく)
大和民族 (やまとみんぞく)
125,117,000[24] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana Japan
Kimono lady at Gion, Kyoto.jpg
Joseon/Korean 한민족 (韓民族)
조선족 (朝鮮族)
79,432,225[25] Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja) South KoreaNorth KoreaChinaJapan
KOCIS Korea Hanbok-AoDai FashionShow 43 (9766406474).jpg
Mongols Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
8,942,528[26] Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script ChinaMongolia
Hamtdaa Mongolian Arts Culture Masks - 0064 (5568565844).jpg
Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh 18,000,000[27] Zhuang, Cantonese, Southwestern Mandarin, etc. Simplified Han characters, Latin script China
Zhuang's beautiful maiden in Chongzuo Fusui.jpg
Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ 10,422,873[28] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc. Simplified Han characters, Mongol script China
Manchu bride. John Thomson. China, 1871-1872. The Wellcome Collection, London.jpg
Hui 回族/回回 10,586,087[29] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects,Huihui language etc. Simplified Han characters China
Uyghurs ئۇيغۇر 10,069,346[30] Uyghur Arabic script,Latin script(auxiliary)[31] China[32]
Hmong Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb 9,426,007[33] Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters China
贵州黔东南苗族女性(a Miao woman in Qiandongnan,Guizhou).jpg
Tibetans བོད་པ་ 6,500,000[34] Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script China
People of Tibet46.jpg
Bai 白族 1,858,063[35] Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters China
Bai 5.JPG
Yi ꆈꌠ/彝族 8,714,393[36] Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters China
Ethnic Yi China Costume.jpg
Tujia 土家族 8,353,912[37] Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia Simplified Han characters China
Tujia women.jpg
Kam Gaeml 2,879,974[38] Gaeml Latin script China
Ethic Dong Liping Guizhou China.jpg
Tu 土族/Monguor 289,565 Tu, Northwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters China
Nadun Picture 1.jpg
Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ 131,992[39] Daur, Northeastern Mandarin Mongol script, Simplified Han characters ChinaMongolia
Daur woman smiling.jpg
Russians русские 15,393[40] Russian, Northwestern Mandarin Cyrillic script, Simplified Han characters China
Three different nationalities on Kitaiskaia Street.JPG
Mountain Tajiks تاجيک 3,556[41] Sarikoli, Wakhi Arabic script China
Taiwanese Aborigines Pangcah, etc. 533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc. Latin script, Traditional Han characters Taiwan

*Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.



The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages.[42] Evidence of this can be seen in the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, architectural style, diet, lexicon, Buddhism, political and legal systems, and historically a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.[43][44][45] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order.[46] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over 2000 years due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[47] The relationship between China and it's cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.[44]


Religion Native name Denomination Major book Type Est. Followers Major ethnicities Major states/territories
Taoism 道教 Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Polytheism 303,320,000[48] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia, Li China(Hong KongMacau) South Korea Taiwan
Confucianism 儒教 Cheng-Zhu, Lu-Wang Analects Non-God 6,300,000[49] Han, Joseon, Yamato etc. China(Hong KongMacau) Japan South Korea Taiwan
Sino-Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教 Mahayana, Hinayana Diamond Sutra Non-God 250,000,000[50] Han, Joseon, Yamato, Manchus etc. China (Hong KongMacau) Japan South Korea Taiwan
Tibetan Buddhism བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Mahayana anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God 5,000,000[51] Tibetan, Manchus, Mongols, Han etc. ChinaMongolia
Shamanism N/A N/A N/A Primitive 50,000[52] Tibetan, Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen, Han etc. ChinaMongolia
Shinto 神道 N/A N/A Primitive 2,700,000[53] Yamato Japan
Islam إسلام Sunni, Shia Quran Monotheism 24,690,000[48] Hui, Tajik, Uyghurs, Kazakh, Dongxiang etc. ChinaMongoliaTaiwan


Festival Native Name Other name Calendar Date Gregorian date Activity Religious practices Food Major ethnicities Major states/territories
Chinese New Year 春節 or 春节 Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks Worship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Joseon, Manchus etc. China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Mongolia Taiwan
New Year 元旦 Yuan Dan Gregorian 1 Jan 1 Jan Fireworks N/A N/A N/A China(Hong KongMacau) Japan North Korea South Korea Mongolia Taiwan
Losar or Tsagaan Sar ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар White Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 1 25 Jan–2 Mar Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks N/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc. ChinaMongolia
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节 Upper Yuan Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb–6 Mar Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer Yuanxiao Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Qingming Festival 清明節 or 清明节 Tomb Sweeping Day Solar 15th day since March equinox 4 Apr–6 April Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Burning Hell money Cold Food Han, Joseon, Mongols China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Taiwan
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 Duanwu Festival Chinese Month 5 Day 5 Driving poisons & plague away, Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door. Worship various Gods Zongzi Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 Mid Yuan Festival Chinese Month 7 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节 中秋祭 Chinese Month 8 Day 15 Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view Worship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Double Ninth Festival 重陽節 or 重阳节 Double Negative Festival Chinese Month 9 Day 09 Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus. Worship various Gods Han, Joseon, Yamato China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Japan Taiwan*
Lower Yuan Festival 下元節 or 下元节 N/A Chinese Month 10 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Water-officer Ciba Han China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea South Korea Taiwan
Dec 23 Festival 小年 Small New Year Chinese Month 12 Day 23 Cleaning Houses Worship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols China(Hong KongMacau) Mongolia Taiwan
International Labor Day N/A N/A Gregorian 1 May 1 May N/A N/A N/A N/A China(Hong KongMacau) Mongolia Taiwan
International Women's Day N/A N/A Gregorian 8 Mar 8 Mar Taking care of women N/A N/A N/A China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea Mongolia Taiwan

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.

*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.


East Asian Youth Games

Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, theSoutheast Asian Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games. All nigh East Asian States/Territories join this Game.[54]

Free trade agreements

Name of agreement Parties Leaders at the time Negotiation begins Signing date Starting time Current status
China–South Korea FTA China South Korea Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012 Jun 01, 2015 Dec 30, 2015 Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA China Japan South Korea Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013 N/A N/A 10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA Japan Mongolia Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj - Feb 10, 2015 - Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA China Mongolia Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/A N/A N/A Officially proposed
Mainland-HK CEPA China Hong Kong Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa - Jun 29, 2003 - Enforced
Mainland-Macau CEPA China Macau Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah - Oct 18, 2003 - Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA Hong Kong Macau Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015 N/A N/A Negotiating
ECFA China Taiwan Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010 Jun 29, 2010 Aug 17, 2010 Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA) China Taiwan Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011 Jun 21, 2013 N/A Abolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA) China Taiwan Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011 N/A N/A Suspended

Military alliances

Name Abbr. Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO China(Hong KongMacau)
General Security of Military Information Agreement GSOMIA JapanSouth Korea
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty - China(Hong KongMacau) North Korea
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan - United States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands) Japan
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea - United States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands) South Korea
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980) TRA (SAMDT) United States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands) Taiwan
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO) - NATOUnited States(GuamNorthern Mariana Islands)CanadaJapanSouth KoreaMongoliaTaiwan

Major cities and towns

Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video.

See also


  1. ^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea & South Korea, Taiwan and Japan as listed at List of countries and outlying territories by total area.
  2. ^ The population figure is the combined populations of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Republic of China (Taiwan) as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects


  1. ^ Formally known as the Republic of China
  2. ^ Non-United Nations member state
  3. ^ a b "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of China (Hong Kong, Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. 
  4. ^ a b Columbia University – "East Asian cultural sphere" Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilisation of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
  5. ^ include Tibetan Buddhism
  6. ^ Chongho Kim, "Korean Shamanism", 2003 Ashgate Publishing
  7. ^ Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 Rodopi
  8. ^ a b "United Nations Statistics Division – Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". United Nations Statistics Division. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  9. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  10. ^ R. Keith Schopper's East Asia: Identities and Change in the Modern World
  11. ^ Joshua A. Fogel (UC Santa Barbara/University of Indiana) Nationalism, the Rise of the Vernacular, and the Conceptualization of Modernization in East Asian Comparative Perspective
  12. ^ United Nations Environment Programme (mentions sinosphere countries) Approaches to Solution of Eutrophication [1]
  13. ^ Christopher M. Dent (2008). East Asian regionalism. London: Routledge. pp. 1–8. 
  14. ^ Charles Harvie, Fukunari Kimura, and Hyun-Hoon Lee (2005), New East Asian regionalism. Cheltenham and Northamton: Edward Elgar, pp. 3–6.
  15. ^ Peter J. Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi (2006), Beyond Japan: the dynamics of East Asian regionalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 1–33
  16. ^ "Northeast Asia." Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
  17. ^ a b c d "SEA GDP". IMF. 
  18. ^ From 1949 to 1971, the ROC was referred as "China" or "Nationalist China".
  19. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  20. ^ Include all area which under PRC's government control(exclude "South Tibet" and disputed islands).
  21. ^ Seoul was the de jure capital of the DPRK from 1948 to 1972.
  22. ^ Taipei is the ROC's seat of government. Constitutionally, Nanjing is the official capital of the ROC.
  23. ^ "汉族". 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-03-29. 
  24. ^ "人口推計 – 平成 28年 12月 報" (PDF). 
  25. ^ "한민족". 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전 (in Korean). 2017-03-29. 
  26. ^ "Mongols". Wikipedia. 2017-03-18. 
  27. ^ "壮族". 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-03-25. 
  28. ^ "满族". 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-02-23. 
  29. ^ "Hui people". Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2016-02-18. 
  30. ^ "维吾尔族". 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-03-29. 
  31. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghur_Latin_alphabet
  32. ^ Khotons in Mongolia
  33. ^ "苗族". 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-02-19. 
  34. ^ "藏族". 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese). 2017-03-20. 
  35. ^ "Bai people". Wikipedia. 2017-04-15. 
  36. ^ "Yi people". Wikipedia. 2017-04-15. 
  37. ^ "Tujia people". Wikipedia. 2017-01-19. 
  38. ^ "Kam people". Wikipedia. 2017-04-06. 
  39. ^ people&oldid=685737832 "Daur people" Check |url= value (help). Wikipedia. 2017-03-18. 
  40. ^ "Russians". Wikipedia. 2017-05-03. 
  41. ^ "Tajiks of Xinjiang". Wikipedia. 2017-03-29. 
  42. ^ Lim, SK. Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 56. ISBN 978-9812295941. 
  43. ^ Lewis, Mark Edward (2012). China's Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty. Belknap Press (published April 9, 2012). p. 156. ISBN 978-0674064010. 
  44. ^ a b Edwin O. Reischauer, "The Sinic World in Perspective," Foreign Affairs 52.2 (January 1974): 341—348. JSTOR
  45. ^ Lim, SK. Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. ASIAPAC. p. 89. ISBN 978-9812295941. 
  46. ^ Vohra 1999, p. 22
  47. ^ Warren I. Cohen. East Asia at the Center : Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. ISBN 0231101082
  48. ^ a b "Religions in China". religions.findthedata.com. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  49. ^ "World Religions - Followers, Beliefs, and More". religions.findthedata.com. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  50. ^ "World Religions – Followers, Beliefs, and More". religions.findthedata.com. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  51. ^ "Tibetan people". Wikipedia. 2017-05-03. 
  52. ^ "Shamanism". Wikipedia. 2017-05-04. 
  53. ^ "World Religions - Followers, Beliefs, and More". religions.findthedata.com. Retrieved 2017-05-05. 
  54. ^ "East Asian Youth Games". Wikipedia. 2016-10-22. 

External links

  • East Asia travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • High resolution map of East Asian region
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