EOKA

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EOKA
ΕΟΚΑ
Participant in Cyprus Emergency and Cypriot intercommunal violence
EOKA.jpg
Active 1955–1959
Ideology Anti-imperialism
Greek nationalism
Enosis
Anti-communism
Leaders Georgios Grivas(Digenis)
Headquarters Cyprus
Size 250 regulars and 1000 active underground[1]
Allies Greece
Opponent(s) British Empire
Turkish Resistance Organisation

EOKA (/ˈkə/; Greek: ΕΟΚΑ), acronym for Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston [a] was a Greek Cypriot nationalist guerrilla organisation that fought a campaign for the end of British rule in Cyprus, for the island's self-determination and for eventual union with Greece.[3]

Background

Cyprus, an island in eastern Mediterranean, inhabited mostly by Greek and Turkish populations, was part of the Ottoman empire until 4 June 1878, when in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, it was handed to the British empire.[4] As nationalistic tendencies were growing in both communities of Cyprus, Greek Cypriots were leaning towards Enosis (Union with Greece) which was a part of Megali idea. The origins of Enosis date back to 1821, the year when the Greek War of Independence commenced, and the archbishop of Cyprus, his archdeacon, and three bishops were beheaded, amongst other atrocities. In 1828, Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first governor of Greece, asked for the union of Cyprus with Greece, while small-scale uprisings also occurred.[5] In 1878, when British general Wolsely came to Cyprus to formally establish British rule, he was met by the archbishop of Kition who, after welcoming him, requested that Britain cede Cyprus to Greece.[5] Initially, the Greek Cypriots welcomed British rule because they were aware that the British had returned the Ionian Islands to Greece in 1864, and they were also hoping for British investment in Cyprus.[6] In 1912 the British government offered Greece to exchange Cyprus for a naval base in Argostoli, Kefalonia, in order to gain control of the Ionian sea an offer which was repeated in 1913. In 1915, the British offered several times Cyprus to Greece, in exchange for Greece's participation in World War I. But while Greece was undecided whether it should enter the War, the British government withdrew its offer.[7] By 1915, the Greek Cypriots seeing that neither the British investment, nor Enosis, had materialised, increased their opposition to British rule.[6] In the beginning, the Enosis movement had only few supporters mainly from the upper classes.[8][9][10][11] But that was about to change as two groups of disappointed with the new ruler began to form: the Church and the Usurers. In the following years a growing number of Cypriots were studying in Greece, and upon their return, they became strong advocates of Enosis.[11][12] On the other hand, the Turkish Cypriot community started to develop its own nationalism in the early 20th century, as news arrived in the island about the persecutions faced by Muslims in the countries that formed after the collapse of Ottoman Empire.[13][14]

In the 1950s, EOKA was established with the specific aim of mounting a military campaign to end the status of Cyprus as a British crown colony and achieving the island's unification with Greece. The leadership of AKEL at the time, the island's communist party, opposed EOKA's military action, advocating a "Gandhiesque approach" of civil disobedience, such as workers' strikes and demonstrations.[15]

Initially, the struggle was political, as opposed to military. EOKA, in Grivas' words, wanted to attract the attention of the world through high-profile operations that would make headlines.[16]

Characteristics of EOKA

Ideology

The ideology of EOKA was nationalistic, conservative, anti-communist and religious.[17][18] Grivas's ideas resonated because they were compatible with the ideas cultivated by Greek Cypriots in education, the Orthodox Church, the press and the political elites. EOKA was characterized by religiosity. OXEN, PEON and ThOI[b] were sources of fighters. [19][20] The Orthodox Church supported the objectives of EOKA and the clergy in rural Cyprus often blessed the weapons.[21] As such both Grivas and the Church transmitted their ideology to the members of the organization. There was a widespread impression that leftists were national traitors and should not have a share on national matters. Moreover, it was thought that the communist ideology is an obstacle for a struggle that would lead to the end of the colonial regime.[22]

In sharp difference with other anticolonial insurgencies in Africa or Asia, where marxist movements led the struggle, in Cyprus it was the right-wing EOKA that carried the armed campaign, while the communist party of AKEL kept a neutral stance.[23]

EOKA also used intimidation towards local population. A number of scholars characterize EOKA as a terrorist organization due attack on civilians or public utilities[24]

Personnel

The organisation was headed by Georgios Grivas. A graduate of the Hellenic Military Academy, Grivas had served as an officer in the Greek Army. He had fought in both World Wars. During the German occupation of Greece in World War II, he led a small, anti-communist resistance[c] group, named Organization X.[25][26] Grivas assumed the nom de guerre Digenis in direct reference to the legendary Byzantine Digenis Akritas who repelled invaders from the Byzantine Empire.[27][28] Second in command in EOKA was Grigoris Afxentiou, also a former officer of the Greek army. Afxentiou had graduated from the reserves Officers Academy in 1950 without previous experience on battlefield.[29][30]

ΕΟΚΑ apart from the guerrilla fighters, who numbered a few hundred had the active support of many youngsters (most of them in their late teens to early 20's) that had joined EOKA associate organizations such as PEKA and ANE.[31]

Armed campaign

From April 1955 to the dismissal of governor Armitage (October)

The armed struggle started on the night of March 29-April, 1955. A total of 18 bomb attacks occurred in various locations across the island. Most notable incidents were those of Nicosia by the group of Markos Drakos as well as the demolition of the Cyprus Broadcasting Station's transmitter.[32][33][34] The attacks were accompanied by a revolutionary proclamation signed by "The leader, Digenes". Grivas decided to keep his involvement secret at the moment and used the name of a Byzantine general who had defended Cyprus in the medieval era.[32] The British, not expecting this turn of events, reinforced their local military bases (Dhekelia and Akrotiri) by transferring troops from Egypt.[34]

At the end of April EOKA attacks temporarily paused, giving time to Grivas to organize the youth.[35] A second offensive was launched on June 19 with coordinated bomb and grenade attacks against police stations, military installations and the homes of army officers and senior officials.[36][37][38] One of those bombings demolished the building of the Famagusta Police headquarters.[36] Those attacks were usually followed by sporadic incidents: shootings, bombings and increased public disorder.[36] This second wave of EOKA attacks lasted until the end of June, totaling 204 attacks since the beginning of the insurgency.[39][40]

In August, two Special Branch members were assassinated in separate incidents. The raising of the Greek flag during demonstrations usually led to clashes with the colonial authorities, the latter removing it by force if necessary.[36] Another major EOKA success was the escape from Kyrenia castle prison of 16 EOKA members including a number of key figures, such as Markos Drakos and Grigoris Afxentiou.[36]

British reactions

The situation seemed to be deteriorating out of control and the British authorities attempted to safeguard their position in Cyprus by diplomatic manoeuvring and a counterinsurgency offensive. The first involved playing the Greek and Turkish governments off against each other. Eden saw Turkey as "the key protecting British interests" in Cyprus.[36] By the end of September, as the crisis was escalating, the British Government decided to replace governor Armitage.[41]

In Turkey, the public opinion was uneased. Rumours were spreading in Turkish media that a slaughter of the Turkish Cypriot community was likely to occur. Though they were unfounded they led to nationalist reactions in the country and the government-sponsored anti-Greek Istanbul pogrom of September 1955.[42]. At the same time, during the Trilatet Conference among Britain, Turkey and Greece held in London, an agreement couldn't being reached while Turkey adopted a stubborn position.[43][44]

In this fashion, British policy also aimed at the dramatic increase in recruitment of Turkish Cypriots. By the start of 1956, they had come to dominate the police force numbering 4,000 compared to less than 1,000 Greek Cypriots. The Turkish Cypriots were very much in the front line against EOKA. Inevitably, the use of Turkish Cypriot policemen against the Greek Cypriot community exacerbated relations between the two communities.[45]

From October 1955 to March 1956 (Operation Forward Victory, phase I)

The new British governor John Harding arrived at October 3.[46] Harding sought to meet Archbishop Makarios, and both agreed on commencing what became known as Harding-Makarios negotiations.[47][48] Increased security and stepping up military might was of Hardings priorities.[49] On November 26, Harding declared stated of Emergency- that meant among other, implementation of the death penalty for non-fatality crimes. [50] Repressive legislation and troop reinforcements were not the answer however. The Greek Cypriot population was hostile and the Special Branch was neutered.[51] The British response was large-scale cordon and search operations which rarely resulted in arrests or the discovery of arms caches, but which invariably alienated those whose houses were searched or who were roughed up and dragged off to be screened. Collective punishments, far from undermining support for EOKA, only succeeded in making the Greek Cypriots more hostile to British rule.[51] Moreover, Harding viewed Cyprus very much as a pawn in the Cold War global situation: on December 13 he banned AKEL and detained 128 of its leading members, effectively crippling the only political party in Cyprus that opposed EOKA.[51]

The inevitable result was to increase sympathy for EOKA and to assist its recruitment efforts. The problem was that the Greek Cypriot community was overwhelmingly in favour of Enosis. Far from moderates emerging with whom Britain could do a deal.[52] It was this popular support, enabling Grivas and his small band of guerrillas to take on the growing security apparatus that Harding was marshalling against him, that sustained the armed struggle.[52] It became clear that EOKA did have an effective intelligence apparatus and that the guerrillas were often forewarned of security intentions. Schoolchildren, domestic servants, civilian personnel on the military bases, the police, all were enlisted by Grivas in the intelligence war while the security forces were operating in the dark.[52]

Operation "Forward to Victory" (Greek name) was launched on November 18 and was accompanied by several bomb attacks.[53] In the urban areas schoolchildren had a prominent role in the EOKA struggle. The Battle of Flags, escalated during the Autumn of 1955 and peaked in January and February of 1956- that kept British forces busy away from chasing down EOKA.[54][55] Schoolboys were not only participating in riots and stone-throwing against the police, but some of them were also trained to throw bombs and carry assassinations.[56] Bombs by guerrillas and youngsters were thrown at British personnel houses, police stations and army camps.[57][58] In some cases, EOKA members managed to steal some weaponry.[59] The British were never to succeed completely eliminating EOKA agents from the police force.[45]

Up in the mountains, the struggle continued as the guerrillas expanded their network in the Troodos mountains. However, due to harsh winter conditions in addition to certain British military pressure, the activity of EOKA temporarily eased.[60] By the end of February 1956 the British were involved in suppressing a veritable schoolchildren revolt that left one boy shot dead and the island's school system almost completely closed down.[45]

March 1956 to March 1957 (operation Victory, phase II)

After the failure of Makarios-Harding negotiations the British government in a sudden move, exiled Makarios to Seycheles on March 9, 1956.[61] This triggered a week long general strike followed by a dramatic increase in EOKA activity: 246 attacks until March 31 including an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Harding. The offensive continued into April and May and the British casualties averaged two killed every week.[62] While Harding's forces were making ground up in the mountains,[63] guerrillas and youngsters were trying to assassinate members of the security forces at their leisure time or alleged traitors.[64]

EOKA focused its activity to urban areas during this period. House bombings and riots, mostly by schoolboys, forced army to keep forces away from the mountains where EOKA's main fighters where hiding. Apart from individual citizens or soldiers in their leisure time, army and police facilities where attacked totaling 104 house bombings, 53 riots, 136 acts of Sabotage, 403 ambushes, 35 attacks on police, 38 attacks on soldiers and 43 raids on police stations.[d][70] But as the pressure of Harding mounted, Grivas began targeting Turkish Cypriot policemen effectively sparking inter-communal riots and a series of strikes[71][72]

Harding escalated his fight against EOKA organizing a series of operations in April-July[e] Harding also upgraded his intelligence network including the creation of the notorious X-platoon.[74] On May 10 the first two EOKA prisoners were hanged and Grivas responded with the execution of two British soldiers.[62] The British were concerned to counter EOKA's mountain units. Large scale operations were launched however Grivas managed to escape.[75] He decided to move to Limassol where he established his new headquarters. Although Grivas escaped, the Troodos operations had some success for the British: 20 guerrillas and 50 weapons were captured. However, they ended up with a disaster: at least 7 British soldiers were killed and additionally 21 were burned to death by accident. The last incident overshadowed the first real success against the EOKA guerrilla forces.[75]

On August 9 the British authorities hanged three more EOKA prisoners, however Grivas did not retaliate this time. Widespread strikes held in protest.[76] On November 1956 due to the Suez Crisis large numbers of British troops were transferred off Cyprus allowing Grivas to launch a new offensive. EOKA launched a wave of attacks in what would became for the British "Black November" with a total of 416 attacks, 39 killed 21 of them British. After the Suez debacle the British military strength was increased to 20,000 and Harding managed to direct a new offensive.[76]

Although EOKA received a severe blow in the mountains its armed activity continued in the urban areas while the British forces were apparently impotent.[77][75][78] Grivas declared truce on the 14th of March 1957 which would last nearly one year.[78]

General views

During the campaign, the British Army was the foremost target of EOKA and a total of 1,144 armed clashes, of which 53% were in the cities, took place between the two forces.Markides, Kyriakos C. (1974). "social change and the rise and decline of social movements: the case of Cyprus1". American Ethnologist. Wiley. 1 (2): 309–330. doi:10.1525/ae.1974.1.2.02a00070. ISSN 0094-0496. The campaign resulted in the deaths of 105 British servicemen (according to the official figure)[79] and 51 policemen.[80] EOKA also targeted civilian Britons in Cyprus, including women and children, due to their nationalities.[81]

EOKA also undertook a campaign of suppression against other Greek Cypriots they suspected of being allied to or informing the British. This included 230 assassination attempts, in which 148 were killed, 69 were wounded and only 13 escaped unharmed. As such, the operations against other Greek Cypriots were more efficient than the ones against the British, albeit on a smaller scale.Markides, Kyriakos C. (1974). "social change and the rise and decline of social movements: the case of Cyprus1". American Ethnologist. Wiley. 1 (2): 309–330. doi:10.1525/ae.1974.1.2.02a00070. ISSN 0094-0496. 23 out of the 148 killed have since been characterised as leftists and it has been debated whether EOKA targeted those who did not conform to Grivas' right-wing ideology on the basis of their political views or rather to settle personal differences.[82][83]

Dissolution and legacy

A memorial museum dedicated to the EOKA campaign was created in 1960. It is located in the centre of Nicosia.[84]

EOKA lawsuits against the British government

In 2012, EOKA veterans announced that lawsuits were being planned against British authorities.[85] The veterans association alleged that at least 14 Cypriots died and hundreds more could have been "tortured during interrogations" by the British during the 1955–1959 campaign. Two of those who allegedly died during interrogation were aged 17. The legal action comes on the back of the uncovering of secret documents released in 2011 which present similar practices during the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya, during the same period.[86][87]

In 2018, Cypriot veterans won the right to claim damages over UK torture claims at court. The presiding judge dismissed arguments by the British government that the case should be judged under Cypriot law, which, if true, would have meant that the statute of limitations applied in the case. The judge commented that "It seems to me that, in this case at any rate, where a state stands to be held to account for acts of violence against its citizens, it should be held to account in its own courts, by its own law and should not escape liability by reference to a colonial law it has itself made."[88]

Foreign Office declassified documents

In 2012, Foreign Office released highly classified documents which described claims of torture and abuse between 1955-1959. In the reports it is revealed that officers of the colonial administration admitted to torture and abuse. In the same papers, there are allegations against British soldiers and security personnel concerning the murder of a blind man, ordering a Greek Cypriot to dig his own grave, and hitting a pregnant woman who subsequently miscarried. Other allegations include the 1958 mass arrest and beating of 300 civilians by colonial forces. In the incident, it is alleged that the British forces left some civilians behind, thinking they were dead. A woman provided details of her rape in a forest by members of the British Special Forces, and her subsequent "brutal interrogation" regarding her connection to EOKA.[88]

Monuments

There are various monuments dedicated to the members of EOKA who died during the years of combat who are largely regarded as war-time heroes by Greek-Cypriots. Part of the central jail of Nicosia established by British governor Harding functions after the Cypriot independence as a museum. This includes the prisons cells, the gallows and the "Incarcerated Graves" of 13 EOKA fighters who were either executed or killed by the colonial authorities.[89]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ More specific, EOKA is the acronym of the organisation's full name in Greek, Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters), sometimes expanded as Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπριακού Αγώνος, Ethnikí Orgánosis Kipriakoú Agónos ("National Organisation of Cypriot Struggle").[2]
  2. ^ OXEN, PEON and ThOI were Greek-Cypriot associations related to Church
  3. ^ There is some controversy surrounding the Xhi organization as some sources consider it or its members to be Nazi collaborators while others consider it patriotic and anti-communist
  4. ^ Some of the attacks of the attacks against civilians drew world attention and were used for propaganda purposes by the British authorities. Most notable attacks have been the killing of an army doctor while driving home,[65] the execution of Greek Cypriot Assistant Superintendent Kyriacos Aristotelous,[66][67] the killing of the son of a soldier in a beach near Dekelia base[68] a Maltese shop owner (fiance of a Greek Cypriot woman) was killed by shooting in the back. -the phot of the grieving wife reached mainstream media in UK- another couple, a British customs officer and his wife, was murdered while picnicked.[68]. On 16 June 1956, the bombing of a restaurant by EOKA led to the death of William P. Boteler, a CIA officer working under diplomatic cover. Grivas immediately issued a statement denying a deliberate attempt to target American citizens.[69]
  5. ^ These operations have been a) Operation ‘Kennett’b) Operation ‘Pepperpot’, c) Operation ‘Lucky Alphonse’ and d)Operation ‘Spread Eagle’. 21 soldiers died at a forest fire during Lucky Alphonse[73]

References

  1. ^ Kraemer 1971, p. 146.
  2. ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica 2015.
  3. ^ Karyos 2009.
  4. ^ Richter 2007, p. 23.
  5. ^ a b Mallinson 2005, p. 5.
  6. ^ a b Emerick 2014, p. 117-18.
  7. ^ Richter 2007, p. 157-194, chapter First World War.
  8. ^ Lange 2011, p. 93.
  9. ^ Bellingeri 2005, p. 21.
  10. ^ Isachenko 2012, p. 37.
  11. ^ a b Richter 2007, p. 114-15.
  12. ^ French 2015, p. 17: French writes: "But Greek Cypriot teachers and parents insisted that education should follow a classical curriculum that promoted a Greek ethnic identity and preserved the Greek character of the island, a curriculum that also instilled into pupils a sense of historical awareness that supported their claims for Enosis.27"
  13. ^ Κτωρής 2013, p. 80.
  14. ^ Kizilyürek 2011, p. 198 - 199:The Turkish Cypriot nationalism mainly developed in reaction to the Greek Cypriot national desire for union with Greece. In the desire of the Greek Cypriots to unify with Greece, the Turkish Cypriot community saw a danger to its own existence. This perception of threat is partly related to the historical experience of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in a period of national movements, which ended up in creating independent nation states. The experiences of the Muslim population in the Balkans, where national struggles caused atrocities and deportation, were the main points of reference in the construction of Turkish Cypriot nationalism. Particularly, the example of Crete was to become among the Turkish Cypriots what can be called a ‘‘Crete syndrome’’. Crete’s attempts to unify with Greece and, finally, the realization of this dream of union in 1912 had resulted in the deportation of the Muslim population of the island and its emigration to Turkey. A few years later (1922), the expedition of the Greek army to Asia Minor increased the fears of uprooting among the Turkish Cypriots
  15. ^ Mallinson 2005, p. 19.
  16. ^ Markides 1974.
  17. ^ Θρασυβούλου 2016, p. 298.
  18. ^ Novo 2012, p. 194T:he involvement of the church dictated the course of the EOKA struggle and imbued the cause of enosis with its own particular ideology: anti-communist, Greek, and Christian-Orthodox…(..) At the same time, the church’s ideological control and its uncompromising and exclusionary attitudes played an important role in setting Cyprus on its path to interethnic conflict and independence. Furthermore, traditional Greek-Cypriot accounts tend to downplay “[t]he role of religion in the Cyprus conflict,” but its influence cannot be denied (Hadjipavlou 2007:354). As in Mark Juergensmeyer’s Terror in the Mind of God, religion can play a role “as an ideology of public order” and be connected to “movements of religious nationalism.
  19. ^ Βαρνάβα 2000, p. 88-105, Church and EOKA youth.
  20. ^ Novo 2012, p. 195-196.
  21. ^ Θρασυβούλου 2016, p. 300-303.
  22. ^ Θρασυβούλου 2016, p. 316.
  23. ^ Novo 2010, p. 64-65: While the antagonism between AKEL and EOKA was real and eventually bloody, the alleged ‘cooperation’ between AKEL and the British authorities did not happen.(...) EOKA’s right-wing ideology made it the exception to the rule of post-Second World War insurgencies. Such movements were most often led by communists who aimed at establishing new Marxist societies. This was the case in China, Malaya, Vietnam, and Cuba. As a nationalist and anti-communist movement, EOKA had far more in common with the Irgun and Stern Gang in late-1940s Palestine.
  24. ^
    • David French (29 September 2011). The British Way in Counter-Insurgency, 1945-1967. OUP Oxford. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-958796-4.
    Other scholars that described EOKA as terrorist organization, or their members as terrorist are: (not all inclusive list}
    • Edwards, Aaron (February 28, 2018). "Securing the base : Defending the realm?". Home. Retrieved September 24, 2018. British military intervention in Cyprus reached a crescendo in the major counter-insurgency campaign fought by the island's Security Forces between 1955 and 1959. The terrorist group EOKA, led by Colonel George Grivas, immediately embarked on enosis (union with Greece) through an armed campaign. EOKA was backed politically by Archbishop Makarios III, leader of the Cyprus Orthodox Church, who, while not taking an active part in the terrorist campaign himself, ‘hinted that the Church would not shrink from violence if necessary’.
    • Shughart, William F. (July 21, 2006). "An analytical history of terrorism, 1945–2000". Public Choice. Springer Nature. 128 (1–2): 7–39. doi:10.1007/s11127-006-9043-y. ISSN 0048-5829. A series of similar events played out in Cyprus, where, by 1955, the EOKA had succeeded in throwing the island into complete chaos. Never more than 400 active terrorists strong, the Greek Cypriot organization employed hit-and-run tactics against the much larger British security force deployed on station...(...).... . Britain reacted to the terrorists’ “apparent ability to strike anywhere, anytime” and to the growing “public frustration caused by disruption to daily life” by interning and then exiling Makarios to the Seychelles in 1956.
    • Audrey Kurth Cronin (24 August 2009). "Chapter 3: Success, Achieving the objective". How Terrorism Ends: Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns. Princeton University Press. pp. 73–93. ISBN 1-4008-3114-8.
    • Abrahms, Max; Lula, Karolina (2012). "Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory". Perspectives on Terrorism. 6, no. 4/5: 46–62.
    • Arthur Mark Weisburd (25 April 1997). Use of Force: The Practice of States Since World War II. Penn State Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-271-04301-6.
    • Martha Crenshaw; John Pimlott (22 April 2015). "Terrorism in Cyprus". International Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-91966-5.
  25. ^ Novo 2010, p. 66:Because of Grivas’s central role in the creation of EOKA, its political credentials and organisation were a legacy of the Greek Civil War and the ideals of Xhi. After the disintegration of the Greek army in 1941, Grivas formed Xhi as a resistance organisation to combat the Nazi occupation. Almost as soon as it was formed, however, Xhi engaged in violence against the rival communist underground.118 Once Germany withdrew its forces from Greece, Xhi played a small role in the civil war, where its anti-communist role was front and centre. As one historian writes: ‘Upon Liberation it [Xhi] suddenly blossomed out as an aggressive, anti-Communist body.’119 Xhi’s rather dull performance during the occupation and its invigorated activity after the liberation meant that a number ‘of its [Xhi’s] associates were tainted with the stigma of collaboration; and its weapons, on the Colonel’s [Grivas’s] own admission, were obtained from the enemy [Germany]. For this reason, the British refused X[hi]’s offer to help fight the Communists in 1944’
  26. ^ Ganser 2005, p. 213:The turn around of the British came as a shock to ELAS and its difficulties increased when former Nazi collaborators and right-wing special units, such as the fascist X Bands of Cypriot soldier George Grivas, with British support started to hunt and kill ELAS resistance fighters. Churchill, who observed the battle from a distance, noticed however that the X Bands, for complete lack of popular support, never numbered more than 600 Greeks and hence ELAS remained the strongest guerrilla on the territory
  27. ^ Roderick Beaton; Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History Language and Literature Roderick Beaton (2003). George Seferis: Waiting for the Angel : a Biography. Yale University Press. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-300-10135-5.
  28. ^ Susan Sherratt; John Bennett (30 November 2016). Archaeology and the Homeric Epic. Oxbow Books. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-78570-298-3.
  29. ^ Martin Bell (30 July 2015). The End of Empire: Cyprus: A Soldier's Story. Pen and Sword. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4738-4821-4.
  30. ^ Newsinger 2016, p. 106.
  31. ^ French 2015, p. 64-65.
  32. ^ a b Newsinger 2016, p. 95.
  33. ^ French 2015, p. 71.
  34. ^ a b Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 250.
  35. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 254: ANE (Valiant Youth of EOKA), a pupil's group was created, ANE had a branch in every school.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Newsinger 2016, p. 97.
  37. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 257-8.
  38. ^ French 2015, p. 72.
  39. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 259.
  40. ^ French 2015, p. 76.
  41. ^ French 2015, p. 82.
  42. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 315-321.
  43. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 299 & 313.
  44. ^ Holland 1998, p. 73.
  45. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 101.
  46. ^ Holland 1998, p. 83-84.
  47. ^ Holland 1998, p. 84-85.
  48. ^ Richter 2011, p. 370.
  49. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 370-72.
  50. ^ Richter 2011, p. 373.
  51. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 99.
  52. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 100.
  53. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 377: According to Richter, there were 50 bomb attacks that day.
  54. ^ French 2015, p. 86.
  55. ^ Richter 2011, p. 376.
  56. ^ Richter 2011, p. 383.
  57. ^ Richter 2011, p. 481-82.
  58. ^ French 2005, p. 86-88.
  59. ^ French 2005, p. 87.
  60. ^ French 2005, p. 88-89.
  61. ^ Richter 2011, p. 416-422.
  62. ^ a b Newsinger 2016, p. 102.
  63. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 501-512: In the subchapter "The British counter-attack"
  64. ^ Richter 2011, p. 496.
  65. ^ French 2015, p. 110.
  66. ^ French 2015, p. 111.
  67. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 489-491:Richter claims that the assassination took place in the hospital's ward, while Aristotelous was talking to the doctor. The doctor was injured, according to Richter
  68. ^ a b Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 493.
  69. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 496.
  70. ^ French 2015, p. 109.
  71. ^ French 2015, p. 152.
  72. ^ Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 491-92
  73. ^ French 2015, p. 135.
  74. ^ French 2015, p. 145-46.
  75. ^ a b c Newsinger 2016, p. 103.
  76. ^ a b Newsinger 2016, p. 104.
  77. ^ French 2015, p. 136.
  78. ^ a b Ρίχτερ 2011, p. 651.
  79. ^ Official statistics, unofficial estimates at around 371 (see Simpson, Alfred William Brian)
  80. ^ Simpson, Alfred William Brian (2001). Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention. Oxford University Press. p. 893. ISBN 978-0-19-926789-7.
  81. ^ The struggle for Cyprus. Charles Foley, W. I. Scobie, Hoover Institution Press, 1975
  82. ^ Hazou, Elias (April 12, 2005). "Christofias comments spark EOKA storm". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 2008-08-15. [permanent dead link]
  83. ^ Hadjistylianou, Michalis; Giorgos Ploutarhos (2005-04-07). "Οι δύο όψεις της ιστορίας για τους εκτελεσθέντες (The two views on the assassinations)". Simerini (in Greek). Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  84. ^ Leonidou, Leo (June 22, 2006). "The flag that marked the end of colonial rule". Cyprus Mail. Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  85. ^ "Cypriots to sue U.K. for alleged torture in '50s", Herald News, 1 November 2012
  86. ^ Theodoulou, Michael (13 April 2011). "Greek Cypriots intend to sue Britain over torture in 1950s uprising". The Times. Retrieved 2011-05-09.
  87. ^ Dewhurst, Patrick (14 April 2011). "EOKA fighters to sue Brits over torture". Cyprus Mail. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-09.
  88. ^ a b Eoka fighters win first historical torture battle in UK court
  89. ^ Brussel, Leen Van; Carpentier, Nico (2014). The Social Construction of Death: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Springer. p. 177. ISBN 9781137391919.

Sources

Books
In Greek
  • Βαρνάβα, Αντρέας (2000) Η νεολαία στον απελευθερωτικό αγώνα της ΕΟΚΑ, Λευκωσία, Συμβούλιο Ιστορικής Μνήμης ΕΟΚΑ
  • Richter, Heinz (2007). Ιστορία της Κύπρου, τόμος πρώτος (1878-1949). Αθήνα: Εστία. ISBN 9789600512946. translated from the original Heinz Richter (2006). Geschichte der Insel Zypern. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05975-6.
  • Kizilyurek, Niyazi (1990). Ολική Κύπρος. Λευκωσία: Κασουλίδη.
  • Κτωρής, Σώτος (2013). Τουρκοκύπριοι: από το περιθώριο στο συνεταιρισμό, 1923-196. Αθήνα: Παπαζήσης. ISBN 9789600228984.
  • Θρασυβούλου, Μάριος (2016). Ο εθνικισμός των Ελληνοκυπρίων, από την αποικιοκρατία στην Ανεξαρτησία. Θεσσαλονίκη: επίκεντρο. ISBN 978-960-458-686-8.
In English
  • Ganser, Daniele (2005). Nato's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe. Routledge. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-7146-5607-6.
  • French, David (2015). Fighting EOKA: The British Counter-Insurgency Campaign on Cyprus, 1955-1959. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-872934-1.
  • Mallinson, William; Bill Mallinson (22 July 2005). Cyprus: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-580-8.
  • Robert Tynes (20 August 2018). Tools of War, Tools of State: When Children Become Soldiers. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-7200-3.
  • Beckett, Ian Frederick William (2001). Modern Insurgencies and Counter-insurgencies: Guerrillas and Their Opponents Since 1750. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-23934-9.
  • Keith Emerick (2014). Conserving and Managing Ancient Monuments: Heritage, Democracy, and Inclusion. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84383-909-5.
  • Holland, Robert (26 November 1998). Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus, 1954-1959. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820538-8.
  • Matthew Lange (12 December 2011). Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139505444.
  • Giampiero Bellingeri; T. Kappler (2005). Cipro oggi. Casa editrice il Ponte. ISBN 978-88-89465-07-3.
  • Daria Isachenko (20 March 2012). The Making of Informal States: Statebuilding in Northern Cyprus and Transdniestria. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230360594.
  • John Newsinger (30 April 2016). British Counterinsurgency. Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN 978-1-137-31686-8.
  • Simpson, Alfred William Brian (2001). Human Rights and the End of Empire: Britain and the Genesis of the European Convention. Oxford University Press. p. 893. ISBN 978-0-19-926789-7.
  • Arthur Mark Weisburd (25 April 1997). Use of Force: The Practice of States Since World War II. Penn State Press. ISBN 0271043016.
  • Ted Gup (2000). Book of Honor: Covert Lives and Classified Deaths at the CIA. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-49293-5.
Journals
Encyclopedias
  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2015). "EOKA". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc.
  • Martha Crenshaw; John Pimlott (22 April 2015). "Terrorism in Cyprus". International Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-91966-5.
Thesis
  • Novo, A. R. (2010). On all fronts: EOKA and the Cyprus insurgency, 1955-1959 (PhD thesis). Oxford University, UK.
Web
  • Hadjistylianou, Michalis; Giorgos Ploutarhos (2005). "Οι δύο όψεις της ιστορίας για τους εκτελεσθέντες (The two views on the assassinations)". Simerini (in Greek). Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  • Hazou, Elias (April 12, 2005). "Christofias comments spark EOKA storm". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  • S. Corum, James (2006). "Training Indigenous Forces in Counterinsurgency: A Tale of Two Insurgencies" (pdf). Strategic Studies Institute. U.S. Army War College. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
  • Drousiotis, Makarios (2005-04-25). "Our Haunted Country". Politis Newspaper. Retrieved 2009-05-03.

Further reading

Primary Sources
  • Grivas, George; Charles Foley (1964). The Memoirs of General Grivas. London: Longmans.
  • Makarios (Kypros, Archiepiskopos, III.) (1991). Hapanta Archiepiskopou Kyprou Makariou 3. Hidryma Archiepiskopou Makariou 3. ISBN 978-9963-556-44-1.
Secondary Sources
  • Foleÿ, Charles; Scobie, W. I. (1975). The struggle for Cyprus. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-1371-7.


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