Dutch Celebes

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Dutch Celebes
Celebes en Onderhoorigheden (nl)
Celebes Belanda (id)
Flag of Celebes
Coat of arms
Status Dutch colony
Capital Makassar
Common languages Dutch, Malay, Indonesian
Governor of Makassar/Governor of Celebes  
Historical era Imperialism
• Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Makassar
Currency Netherlands Indies gulden
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Portuguese Empire

Dutch Celebes refers to the period of colonial governance on the island of Sulawesi - as a commandment of the Dutch East India Company from 1699[1] until its demise in the early 1800s, and then as a part of the Netherlands Indies or Dutch East Indies until 1945. Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Sulawesi from the Portuguese, and ended by the declaration of independence by Indonesia. Celebes is now referred to as Sulawesi. Makassar, the capital, was also referred to as: Macassar, Makassar, Macaçar, Mancaçar, or Goa, Gowa (not to be confused with Goa, the capital of Portuguese India).[2]


Sulawesi prior to Dutch governance had been a part of the Sultanate of Gowa. In 1660 a large fleet under Johan van Dam bombarded Makassar. From 1667 onward the VOC held Fort Rotterdam in the port of Makassar. The fortress was established in 1669.[3] After four months of conflict to force Sultan Hassanudin to submit, on 18 November 1667 the Treaty of Bongaya was signed, by which Dutch governance was accepted.[4] Celebes and Dependencies ("Celebes en Onderhoorigheden") was the name of a government of 1847-1924 and from 1925 of a residence of the Dutch East Indies, divided into sections. The capital was Makassar, which before 1847 had been the name of the government.[5][6]


See also


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  2. ^ "WHKMLA : History of Makassar". www.zum.de. 
  3. ^ D. F. Lach, E. J. Van Kley, Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 3: Southeast Asia. University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-46754-6
  4. ^ D. G. E. Hall, A history of South-East Asia. St Martin's Press, New York, 1981. ISBN 0-333-24164-9
  5. ^ Martinus Nijhoff en E.J. Brill, Encyclopædie van Nederlandsch-Indië. 's-Gravenhage en Leiden, 1917-1939
  6. ^ Cribb, Robert, Historical Atlas of Indonesia. Richmond Surrey: Curzon Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7007-0985-1
  7. ^ H. Hägerdal, Hindu rulers, Muslim subjects: Lombok and Bali in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. White Lotus Press, 2001. ISBN 974-7534-11-8
  8. ^ W. Cummings, Makassar Annals. University of Hawaii Press, 2011. ISBN 90-6718-366-0
  9. ^ A. J. P. Raat, The Life of Governor Joan Gideon Loten (1710 - 1789). A Personal History of a Dutch Virtuoso. Verloren, 2010. ISBN 90-8704-151-9
  10. ^ http://www.defensie.nl%2Fnimh%2Fcollecties%2Fdocumentatie%2Fcollectie_nederlands_indie%2F&ei=oIkeT_PVLIPi4QTC_uG9Dw&usg=AFQjCNFnoH8Ncy0vxLjA2bBUg1BvqaZeOw&sig2=-0muz-SfYF8TWI3tQTLYPQ
  11. ^ B. F. Matthes, Boeginesch Heldendicht Op Daeng Kalaboe, Waarin Onder Andere De Dood Van Den Ambtenaar T. Baron Collot D' Escury ... Bezongen Worden: (door Abdoe-r-rasjied.). Nabu Press, 2011. ISBN 1-245-03226-7.
  12. ^ E. L. Poelinggomangm, Trade policy of the colonial government in Makassar in the 19th century. KPG, 2002. ISBN 979-9023-81-5
  13. ^ a b c d K. Sutherland, Jaarboekje Celebes. 1864

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