Dutch-based creole languages

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Dutch-based creoles, pidgins, and contact vernaculars (map also includes Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch)

A Dutch creole is a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language.

Most Dutch-based creoles originated in Dutch colonies in the Americas and Southeast Asia, after the 17th century expansion of Dutch maritime power. Almost all of them are now extinct.


Some important Dutch creoles are the following:

Creole Location Status
Berbice Guyana extinct
Skepi Guyana extinct
Negerhollands U.S. Virgin Islands extinct
Petjo Indonesia, immigrant community in the Netherlands extinct or critically in danger
Javindo Indonesia extinct
Ceylon Portuguese–Dutch Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) extinct or critically in danger
Mohawk Dutch United States extinct
Jersey Dutch ("Negro Dutch") United States extinct

Dutch has also made a significant contribution to other creoles:

based mostly on Portuguese, spoken in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao.
based mostly on English, Portuguese and African languages, spoken in Suriname
based mostly on English, spoken in Suriname

Despite its name, Pennsylvania Dutch is not descended from Dutch, but is a variety of West Central German.

See also


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