Dreadnought-class submarine

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Class overview
Builders: BAE Systems, Barrow-in-Furness, England
Operators:  Royal Navy
Preceded by: Vanguard class
Built: First expected by 2028
Planned: 4
General characteristics
Type: Nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine
Displacement: 17,200 t (16,900 long tons; 19,000 short tons)
Length: 152.9 metres (502 ft)
Propulsion: Nuclear reactor, turbo-electric drive, pump-jet
Range: Unlimited
Complement: 130
Armament:

The Dreadnought class is the replacement for the Vanguard class of ballistic missile submarines which entered service in the United Kingdom in the 1990s with an intended service life of 25 years.[1] They will carry Trident II D-5 missiles like their predecessors.[2] Replacing the Vanguard submarines is necessary if the Royal Navy is to maintain a continuous at-sea deterrent (CASD), the principle of operation behind the Trident system.[3]

Provisionally named Successor class, it was officially announced on 21 October 2016 (to mark Trafalgar Day) that the first of class would be named Dreadnought, and that the class would be the Dreadnought class.[4][5] The next three boats will also be given names with "historical resonance".[6]

Background

A Trident missile launches from a submarine

Since the retirement of the last Royal Air Force WE.177 nuclear bomb in 1998, the British nuclear arsenal has been wholly submarine-based. It is intended to deter a potential enemy because they cannot ensure eliminating the entire stockpile in a first strike if a ballistic missile submarine remains undetected.

Since the Strategic Defence Review (SDR), the UK has maintained a stockpile of around 215 warheads, with around 120 active (usable). Under the continuous at sea deterrence policy, at least one Vanguard-class SSBN is kept on patrol with up to 16 Trident missiles sharing up to 48 warheads from the stockpile at any given time. The SDR considered this was the minimum number of warheads adequate for deterrence. It is collectively known as the Trident system.[7] The majority of this system is based in Scotland at HMNB Clyde (HMS Neptune), which includes the Faslane home of the Vanguard submarines, and at RNAD Coulport. The oldest Vanguard-class submarine is expected to remain in service until 2019[8] without a refit. Since 1998, the system has also provided the Government with the option of a lower-yield, "sub-strategic" nuclear strike capability.[9]

Decision

In May 2011 the government approved the initial assessment phase for the new submarines and authorised the purchase of long lead-time items including steel for the hulls. In May 2015 the Conservative Party won the UK General Election on a manifesto which included a commitment to maintaining a CASD with four Successor submarines.[10] The final decision to commit to the Successor programme was approved on 18 July 2016 when the House of Commons voted to renew Trident by 472 votes to 117.[11] Successor has generated controversy because of its cost,[12] and because some political parties and campaign groups such as the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) and Trident Ploughshares oppose the retention of CASD or any nuclear weapons by the UK on moral or financial grounds.[13][14]

Construction started in late 2016 at the Barrow-in-Furness shipyard operated by BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines. The first submarine is originally expected to enter service in 2028.[15] Provisionally named the Successor class, it was officially announced on 21 October 2016 (to mark Trafalgar Day) that the first of class would be named Dreadnought, and that the class would be the Dreadnought class.[16][17] The next three boats will also be given names with "historical resonance".[18] The start of construction of the second phase was announced in May 2018.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Successor submarine programme: factsheet". MoD. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  2. ^ "The Future of the United Kingdom's Nuclear Deterrent, Factsheet 4 The Current System" (PDF). Gov.uk. December 2006. Retrieved 2015-09-20. 
  3. ^ "Supporting the UK's deterrent". AWE. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  4. ^ "New Successor Submarines Named" (Press release). Gov.uk. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  5. ^ "First of Barrow's new Successor submarines given historically celebrated name". North West Evening Mail. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  6. ^ "New nuclear submarine given famous naval name". BBC News. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  7. ^ "The Future of the UK's Strategic Nuclear Deterrent" (PDF). House of Commons Defence Committee. 30 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  8. ^ "The Future of the UK's Strategic Nuclear Deterrent: the White Paper" (PDF). House of Commons Defence Committee. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  9. ^ Greenpeace (20 June 2006). "Annex A: Making Trident more usable and more threatening". Select Committee on Defence Written Evidence. House of Commons. Retrieved 2 June 2012. 
  10. ^ "Conservative Party Manifesto 2015" (PDF). Conservative Party. p. 77. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  11. ^ Mills, Claire (13 August 2013). "Update on the Trident Successor Programme - Commons Library Standard Note". Standard Notes. House of Commons Library. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  12. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Britain denies report nuclear deterrent to cost 167 billion pounds". Retrieved 7 March 2018. 
  13. ^ "Trident debate to top CND agenda". BBC News. 14 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  14. ^ "Unions oppose replacing Trident". BBC News. 13 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  15. ^ "Successor submarine shipyard gets £300m investment". BBC News. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  16. ^ "New Successor Submarines Named" (Press release). Gov.uk. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  17. ^ "First of Barrow's new Successor submarines given historically celebrated name". North West Evening Mail. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  18. ^ "New nuclear submarine given famous naval name". BBC News. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  19. ^ "Defence Secretary announces massive £2.5bn investment in UK nuclear submarines". Gov.UK. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 

Further reading

  • UK House of Commons, Select Committee on Defence The Future of the UK's Strategic Nuclear Deterrent: the White Paper: Ninth Report of Session 2006-07, House of Commons Papers, HC 225 [2005-2007]
  • UK House of Commons, Select Committee on Defence The Future of the UK’s Strategic Nuclear Deterrent: the Manufacturing and Skills Base: Fourth Report of Session 2006–07, House of Commons Papers, HC 59 [2005-2007]
  • "Ministry of Defence: The United Kingdom's Future Nuclear Deterrent Capability". National Audit Office. 5 November 2008. ISBN 978-0-10-295436-4. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  • Dreadnaught Class Guide - 21 October 2016
  • Meet the Dreadnought class, new nuclear submarines named - 16 December 2016

External links

  • Royal Navy Successor-class submarines
  • Atomic Weapons Establishment
  • Government White Paper Cm 6994 The Future of the United Kingdom’s Nuclear Deterrent (December 2006)
  • Archbishop of Canterbury's press release 4 December 2006 Trident White Paper must provoke wide debate
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