Dornier Do 228

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Do 228
Do228NG - RIAT 2012 (18649688613).jpg
a RUAG Dornier Do 228NG in 2012
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Dornier GmbH
RUAG
First flight March 28, 1981
Introduction July 1982
Status Active service
Primary users Indian Air Force
Indian Coast Guard
Produced Dornier: 1982–1997
HAL: 1985-present
RUAG: 2010-present
Number built Dornier: 245[1]
HAL: 125.[2]
Unit cost
from $8.7 million (2011)[3]
Developed from Dornier Do 28

The Dornier Do 228 is a twin-turboprop STOL utility aircraft, manufactured by Dornier GmbH (later DASA Dornier, Fairchild-Dornier) from 1981 until 1998. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) bought a production licence and manufactured 125 aircraft. In Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, 245 were built, and 125 in Kanpur, India. In July 2017, 63 aircraft were in airline service.

In 2009, RUAG started building a Dornier 228 New Generation in Germany with the fuselage, wings and tail unit manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in Kanpur (India) and transported to Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich, where RUAG Aviation carries out aircraft final assembly, customized equipment installation, product conformity inspection and aircraft delivery. It is basically the same aircraft with improved technologies and performances, such as a new five blade propeller, glass cockpit and longer range.[4] The first delivery was made in September 2010 to a Japanese operator.[5]

Development

Origins

Experimental Do-28D modified with the Do-228 supercritical wing

In the late 1970s, Dornier GmbH developed a new kind of wing, the TNT (Tragflügel neuer Technologie – Aerofoil new technology), subsidized by the German Government.[6] Dornier tested it on a modified Do 28D-2 Skyservant and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-110 turboprop engines. Finally, Dornier changed the engine and tested the new aircraft, which was named Do 128 with two Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-5 engines.[7] The company developed a new fuselage for the TNT and TPE 331–5 in two variants (15- and 19-passenger) and named both project-aircraft E-1 (later Do 228-100) and E-2 (later Do 228-200). At the ILA Berlin Air Show in 1980, Dornier presented the new aircraft to the public. Both of the prototypes were flown on 28 March 1981 and 9 May 1981 for the first time.[7][8]

After German certification was granted on 18 December 1981, the first Do 228-100 entered service in the fleet of Norving in July 1982.[7] The first operator of the larger Do 228-200 entered service with Jet Charters in late 1982.[9] Certification from both British and American aviation authorities followed on 17 April and 11 May 1984 respectively.[8] By 1983, the production rate of the Do 228 had risen to three aircraft per month; at this point, Dornier had targeted that 300 Do 228s would be produced by the end of the 1980s.[9] In November 1983, a major license-production and phased technology-transfer agreement was signed between Dornier and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was signed; a separate production line was established and produced its first aircraft in 1985. By 2014, a total of 125 Do 228s had been produced in India.[10]

Over the years, Dornier offered the 228 in upgraded variants and fitted with optional equipment for performing various special missions. In 1996, it was announced that all manufacturing operations would be transferred to India. In 1998, activity on the German production line was halted, in part to concentrate on the production of the larger Fairchild-Dornier 328 and in response to Dornier's wider financial difficulties.[10]

Do 228NG

The main outside change of the 228NG is the five bladed propeller

RUAG acquired the Do 228 type certificate in 2003.[11] In December 2007, RUAG announced their intention to launch a modernized version of the aircraft, designated as the Do 228 Next Generation, or Do 228 NG.[10][1][12] At the 2008 Berlin Air Show, HAL agreed on supplying the first three components sets — fuselage, wings and tail — for €5 million, as a part of a €80 million ($123 million) ten-year contract.[13] In June 2010, the passenger aircraft was priced at €5.2 million ($7 million), €5.8-5.9 million with JAR-Ops equipment; restarting its production cost €20 million.[14]

On 18 August 2010, the Do 228NG received its airworthiness certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).[15] The majority of manufacturing activity for the type is located in Germany; however, most airframe subassemblies, such as the wings, tail and fuselage, are produced by HAL in India.[1][16][17] The main changes from the previous Dornier 228-212 model were a new five-blade propeller made of composite material, more powerful engines and an advanced glass cockpit featuring electronic instrument displays and other avionics improvements.[11][18]

The first delivery, to the Japanese operator New Central Aviation, took place in September 2010.[19] RUAG decided to suspend production of the Do 228 NG after the completion of an initial batch of eight aircraft in 2013. In 2014, RUAG and Tata Group signed an agreement for the latter to become a key supplier of the program.[20] Production was restarted in 2015, with deliveries of four per year planned from 2016.[21] In February 2016, RUAG announced that they were set to begin serial production of the Do 228 NG at its German production line in mid-2016;[20][22] the assembly line is reportedly capable of producing a maximum of 12 aircraft per year.[23]

Design

Head-on view showing the rectangular fuselage
two across seating
Analogue flight deck pre-228NG

The Dornier 228 is a twin-engine general purpose aircraft, capable of transporting up to 19 passengers or various cargoes. It is powered by a pair of Garrett TPE331 turboprop engines. The Do 228 is commonly classified as a Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL)-capable aircraft, being capable of operating from rough runways and in hot climates, this capability has been largely attributed to the type's supercritical wing which generates large amounts of lift at slow speeds.[9][16] The Do 228 is typically promoted for its versatility, low operational costs, and a high level of reliability – possessing a dispatch reliability of 99%. RUAG Aviation have claimed that no other aircraft in the same class may carry as much cargo or as many passengers over a comparable distance as fast as the Do 228 NG.[16]

The rectangular shape of the Do 228's fuselage section and large side-loading doors make it particularly suitable for utility operators, which is a market that Dornier had targeted with the type from the onset.[9] According to Flight International, one of the more distinguishing features of the Do 228 is the supercritical wing used.[9][24] The structure of the wing is atypical, consisting of a box formed from four integrally-milled alloy panels, while kevlar is used for the ribs, stringers, trailing edge and fowler flaps, the wing's leading edge is conventional alloy sheet metal.[6][25] Benefits of this wing over conventional methodology reportedly include a 15% reduction in weight, the elimination of the 12,000 rivets over, and lowering the per aircraft manufacturing workload by roughly 340 man hours. Both the fuselage and tail are of a conventional design, but made use of chemical milling in order to save weight.[9]

Radar console for maritime patrol

The Do 228 has been promoted in various capacities, including as a commuter aircraft, a military transporter, cargo hauler, or as a special missions aircraft. Special missions include maritime surveillance, border patrol, medevac, search and rescue, paradrop and environmental research missions, in which capacity the type has proven useful due to a ten-hour flight endurance, a wide operating range, low operational cost, and varied equipment range.[6][16][26][27] Special equipment available to be installed include a 360-degree surveillance radar, side-looking airborne radar, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, search light, operator station, real-time datalink, enlarged fuel tanks, satellite uplink, stretches, air-openable roller door, and infrared/ultraviolet sensors.[16] In addition to a 19-seat commuter configuration for airlines, a VIP cabin configuration is also offered; the cabin can also be customized as per each client's specifications. The Do 228 is the only aircraft of its class to be fitted with air conditioning as standard.[16][28]

Do 228NG

More than 350 design changes are present between the Do 228 and the re-launched Do 228 NG. Amongst the principal changes is the adoption of Universal's UNS-1 glass cockpit, which means that standard aircraft are equipped to be flown under single-pilot instrument flight rules (IFR) in addition to visual flight rules (VFR); according to RUAG Aviation, the Do 228 NG is the first aircraft in its class to be certified with equivalent electronics.[16][29] A total of four large displays are used in the cockpit, two primary flight displays and two multifunction displays, to present all key flight data.[6] The navigation system includes VHF omnidirectional range (VOR), distance measuring equipment (DME), automatic direction finder (ADF), radar altimeter, Global Positioning System (GPS), air data computer, and a flight management system. A three-axis autopilot can be optionally incorporated, as can a weather radar and high frequency (HF) radio.[16][28] While designed for two-pilot operation, the Dornier 228 can be flown by only one crewmember.[9]

Additional changes include the Garrett TPE331-10 engines, which have been optimized to work with the redesigned five-bladed fibre-composite propellers now used by the type, which are more efficient, quick to start, and produces substantially less vibration and noise than the original metal four-bladed predecessor.[16][9][30] Through its engines, the Do 228 NG has the longest time between overhaul (TBO) of any 19-seat aircraft, reportedly up to 7,000 hours. An engine-indicating and crew-alerting system (EICAS) is also present for safety purposes; additional optional safety equipment akin to much larger passenger aircraft, including airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) and terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS), can be incorporated as well.[16]

Operators

In July 2018, 57 aircraft were in airline service.[31] Other operators include police, law enforcement, para-military operators and military operators.

By July 2018, the fleet accumulated over four million flight hours.[32]

Accidents and incidents

The Do 228 has been involved in 49 aviation accidents and incidents including 40 hull losses.[33] Those resulted in 187 fatalities.[34]

Accidents with fatalities[35]
Date Flight Fat. Location Country Event Surv.
26 Mar 1982 Dornier 3 near de:Igenhausen Germany prototype test flight, Loss of control 0
24 Feb 1985 AWI Polar 3 3 near Dakhla West Sahara shot down by the Polisario Front guerrilla[36] 0
23 Sep 1989 Vayudoot PF624 11 near Indapur India Loss of control 0
18 Apr 1991 Air Tahiti 805 10 near Nuku Hiva Airport French Polynesia engine failure in approach not acknowledged then ditching 12
2 Jan 1993 Indian Coast Guard 4 near Paradip India crashed in sea 2
28 Feb 1993 Formosa Airlines 6 near Orchid Island Taiwan Struck the sea while approaching Orchid Island in heavy rain 0
31 Jul 1993 Everest Air 19 near Bharatpur Airport Nepal Controlled Flight Into Terrain (Mountain) while on approach 0
10 Aug 1997 Formosa Airlines 16 near Matsu Airport Taiwan crashed while attempting to land 0
6 Sep 1997 Royal Brunei 238 10 near Miri Airport Malaysia crashed at Lambir Hills National Park on approach 0
30 Jul 1998 Alliance Air 503 9 Cochin airport India Poor stabilizer maintenance, loss of control, 3 killed on ground 0
7 Aug 1999 TACV Flight 5002 18 Santo Antão Airport Cape Verde Controlled Flight Into Terrain - Mountain 0
17 Sep 2006 Nigerian Air Force 13 near Vandeikya Nigeria Controlled Flight Into Terrain - Mountain 5
24 Aug 2010 Agni Air Flight 101 14 near Shikharpur, Narayani Nepal Controlled Flight Into Terrain - Mountain 0
14 May 2012 Agni Air 15 near Jomsom Airport Nepal crashed while attempting to land[37] 6
28 Sep 2012 Sita Air Flight 601 19 near Kathmandu Airport Nepal engine bird strike, crashed and burned shortly after takeoff 0
9 Sep 2013 CorpFlite 2 near Viña del Mar Airport Chile crashed into power lines whilst attempting to land in fog[38] 0
24 Mar 2015 Indian Navy 2 near Goa, India Indian Ocean believed to have plunged into the sea after technical problems[39][40] 0
8 Jun 2015 Indian Coast Guard 3 near Pichavaram Indian Ocean missed over sea, located on July 10, 16.5 nmi off coast 0
29 Aug 2015 Nigerian Air Force 7 Kaduna Nigeria crashed into a house and burned near departure airport[41] 0

Specifications (Do 228NG)

three-view silhouettes : the -100 has eight side windows while the longer -200 has ten

Data from RUAG[42]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two pilots
  • Capacity: 19 passengers
  • Payload: 2040 kg (4497 lb)
  • Length: 16.56 m (54 ft 4 in)
  • Wingspan: 16.97 m (55 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 4.86 m (15 ft 11 in)
  • Wing area: 32.0 m² (344.3 sq ft)
  • Airfoil: Do A-5
  • Empty weight: 3,900 kg with 2 Pilots (8,598 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 6,575 kg (14,550 lb)
  • Max. fuel: 1,885 kg (4,156 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Honeywell TPE-331-10 turboprop, 776 shp (579 kW) (Flat rated up to ISA + 30°C at SL) each
  • Propellers: MT-Propeller five blade propeller
    • Propeller diameter: 2500 mm[43] (98.4 inch)

Performance

See also

An Agni Air Do 228 in front of a Twin Otter of Tara Air in Lukla Airport, Nepal

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

  1. ^ a b c Thomas Stocker (December 28, 2007). "Ruag to relaunch Do 228 production". AIN online.
  2. ^ "HAL Bags Rs. 1090 Crore Contract for Supplying 14 Do-228 Aircraft to IAF" (Press release). HAL. 5 Feb 2015.
  3. ^ Harry Weisberger (October 10, 2011). "Ruag Shows Off NextGen Dornier Do228NG". AIN.
  4. ^ Dornier 228 Archived June 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. RUAG Dornier 228 webpage. RUAG. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
  5. ^ Harry Weisberger (October 10, 2011). "Ruag Shows Off NextGen Dornier Do228NG". AIN.
  6. ^ a b c d "Dornier 228 Multirole (MR) Facts & Figures." Archived 2016-03-01 at the Wayback Machine. RUAG Aviation, Retrieved: 27 February 2016.
  7. ^ a b c "Dornier's Way With Commuters". Air International, October 1987, Vol 33 No 4. Bromley, UK:Fine Scroll. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 163–169, 201—202.
  8. ^ a b Taylor, John W.R. (editor). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5, p.87.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Whitaker, Richard. "Dornier 228: advanced technology commuter.", 1982, p. 288-290.
  10. ^ a b c Eriksson, Sören and Harm-Jan Steenhuis. The Global Commercial Aviation Industry. Routledge, 2015. ISBN 1-13667-239-7, pp.59-62, 241
  11. ^ a b Alcock, Charles. "Ruag Do228NG approval planned for first quarter." AIN Online, 28 December 2009.
  12. ^ Doyle, Andrew. "Surprise rebirth." Flight International, 19 May 2008.
  13. ^ Press Trust of India (Jun 5, 2008). "HAL signs deal for making new generation Dornier aircraft". The Economic Times.
  14. ^ Andrew Doyle (1 June 2010). "ILA: Ruag makes a splash with Dornier 228 New Generation". Flight International.
  15. ^ "EASA certifies modernised Dornier 228NG". Flight International. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Dornier 228 NG – Benefit from a New Generation." Archived 2016-03-01 at the Wayback Machine. RUAG Aviation, Retrieved: 27 February 2016.
  17. ^ Sarsfield, Kate. "Back to life: nine civil types revived." Flight International, 27 March 2015.
  18. ^ "First Dornier 228NG Shipset Supplied."[permanent dead link] BART International.
  19. ^ "New Generation Do228 Delivered". Air International, Vol. 79, No. 5, November 2010, p. 11.
  20. ^ a b Alcock, Charles. "Ruag to Kick Off Dornier 228NG Production in Mid-2016." AIN Online, 13 February 2016.
  21. ^ Broadbent, Mike. "RUAG Resumes Do 228NG Production". Air International, Vol. 89, No. 2, August 2015, p. 35.
  22. ^ Arthur, Gordon. "Singapore Airshow: Do 228 production ramps up." Shephard Media, 22 February 2016.
  23. ^ Batey, Angus. "RUAG, Dornier OEM, Sets Up 228 Production." Aviation Week, 15 June 2015.
  24. ^ "Dornier." Flight International, 21 March 1981. p. 845.
  25. ^ "Construction and Fuselage." Archived 2016-03-02 at the Wayback Machine. RUAG Aviation, Retrieved: 27 February 2016.
  26. ^ "Ensuring mission success. The Dornier 228 Multirole." RUAG Aviation, Retrieved: 27 February 2016.
  27. ^ "Dornier extends its range." Flight International, 29 May 1982. p. 1364.
  28. ^ a b c "Economical and flexible. The Dornier 228 Advanced Commuter." RUAG Aviation, Retrieved: 27 February 2016.
  29. ^ Collins, Peter. "FLIGHT TEST: Ruag's Dornier 228NG put to the test." Flight International, 31 August 2012.
  30. ^ "More Power for Dornier." Flying Magazine, November 1990. Vol. 117, No. 11. ISSN 0015-4806. p. 47.
  31. ^ "World Airline Census 2018". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  32. ^ James Wynbrandt (July 14, 2018). "Ruag Touts New-generation Dornier 228". AIN online.
  33. ^ "Dornier 228". Flight Safety Foundation. 4 March 2016.
  34. ^ "Dornier 228 Statistics". Flight Safety Foundation. 7 July 2018.
  35. ^ "occurrences in the ASN safety database". Flight Safety Foundation. 7 July 2018.
  36. ^ Aviation safety network – Report on Polar 3 accessed: 18 April 2009
  37. ^ "13 Indians among 15 killed in Nepal air crash". Hindustan Times. 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  38. ^ "Corpflite Dornier 228 CC-CNW crashes in Chile, two pilots killed". World Airline News. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  39. ^ "Indian Navy Dornier plane crashes in Goa; woman among 2 officers missing". The Indian Express. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  40. ^ "India navy plane crashes off Goa leaving two missing". BBC News. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  41. ^ "29 August 2015 NAF030 Accident". Aviation Safety Network. 9 July 2018.
  42. ^ "Dornier 228 Advanced Commuter (AC) Facts & Figures". RUAG.
  43. ^ a b "Type certificate data sheet A.359 - Dornier 228 Series" (PDF). European Aviation Safety Agency. 4 January 2017.

External links

External video
Do 228 conducting aerobatic maneuvers at the 1986 Reykjavik Airshow
Demonstration of Transportable Optical Ground Station using a Do 228
Walkaround of a Do 228 on the ground
  • RUAG: Dornier 228
  • HAL: Dornier
  • "DO228 Full-Flight-Simulator". Simtec GmbH.
  • "Aircraft technical data & specifications". Airliners.net.
  • "Fairchild Dornier 228". Forecast International. September 2009.
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