Diplodocoidea

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Diplodocoids
Temporal range: Early JurassicLate Cretaceous, 174–93 Ma
Skeletons of Apatosaurus and Diplodocus
Holotype skeletons of Diplodocus carnegii and Apatosaurus louisae, Carnegie Museum of Natural History
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Clade: Sauropoda
Clade: Neosauropoda
Superfamily: Diplodocoidea
Marsh, 1884 vide Upchurch, 1995
Type species
Diplodocus longus
Marsh, 1878
Subgroups
Synonyms

Diplodocoidea is a superfamily of sauropod dinosaurs, which included some of the longest animals of all time, including slender giants like Supersaurus, Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, and Amphicoelias. Most had very long necks and long, whip-like tails; however, one family (the dicraeosaurids) are the only known sauropods to have re-evolved a short neck, presumably an adaptation for feeding low to the ground. This adaptation was taken to the extreme in the highly specialized sauropod Brachytrachelopan. A study of snout shape and dental microwear in diplodocoids showed that the square snouts, large proportion of pits, and fine subparallel scratches in Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Nigersaurus, and Rebbachisaurus suggest ground-height nonselective browsing; the narrow snouts of Dicraeosaurus, Suuwassea, and Tornieria and the coarse scratches and gouges on the teeth of Dicraeosaurus suggest mid-height selective browsing in those taxa.[1] This taxon is also noteworthy because diplodocoid sauropods had the highest tooth replacement rates of any vertebrates, as exemplified by Nigersaurus, which had new teeth erupting every 30 days.[2]

Taxonomy

The below taxonomy follows the study of Emanuel Tschopp, Octavio Mateus and Roger Benson, 2015:[3]

The phylogenetics of Diplodocoidea were reviewed in 2015 with a specimen-level phylogenetic analysis, as well as a species-level analysis. Their cladistic analysis is shown below.[3]

Diplodocoidea

Haplocanthosaurus priscus Haplocanthosaurus.jpg

Diplodocimorpha
Rebbachisauridae

Zapalasaurus bonapartei

Limaysaurinae

Cathartesaura anaerobica

Limaysaurus tessonei

Nigersaurinae

Nigersaurus taqueti Nigersaurus BW.jpg

Demandasaurus darwini

Flagellicaudata
Dicraeosauridae

Dyslocosaurus polyonychius

Suuwassea emilieae

Dystrophaeus viaemalae

Brachytrachelopan mesai Brachytrachelopan BW.jpg

Amargasaurus cazaui Amargasaurus NT small (mirrored).jpg

Dicraeosaurus hansemanni Dicraeosaurus hansemanni22 flipped.jpg

Diplodocidae

Amphicoelias altus

Apatosaurinae

?Apatosaurinae gen. et sp. nov.

Apatosaurus ajax Apatosaurus Silhouette.svg

Apatosaurus louisae Apatosaurus louisae by durbed flipped.jpg

Brontosaurus excelsus Brontosaurus by Tom Parker.png

Brontosaurus yahnahpin

Brontosaurus parvus Apatosaurus Clean.png

Diplodocinae

?Diplodocinae gen. et sp. nov.

Tornieria africana

Supersaurus lourinhanensis

Supersaurus vivianae Supersaurus dinosaur.png

Leinkupal laticauda

Galeamopus hayi

Diplodocus carnegiei Diplodocus carnegii flipped.jpg

Diplodocus hallorum

Kaatedocus siberi

Barosaurus lentus

References

  1. ^ John A. Whitlock (6 April 2011) Inferences of Diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) Feeding Behavior from Snout Shape and Microwear Analyses
  2. ^ Sereno, PC; Wilson, JA; Witmer, LM; Whitlock, JA; Maga, A; et al. (2007). "Structural Extremes in a Cretaceous Dinosaur". PLoS ONE. 2 (11): e1230. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001230. PMC 2077925. PMID 18030355.
  3. ^ a b Tschopp, E.; Mateus, O.; Benson, R.B.J. (2015). "A specimen-level phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Diplodocidae (Dinosauria, Sauropoda)". PeerJ. 3: e857. doi:10.7717/peerj.857. PMC 4393826. PMID 25870766. open access publication – free to read
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