Dieng Plateau

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Kawah Sikidang (local name for the areas of sulfur vapor coming off the sulfur swamps), Diëng
Dieng temple complex

Dieng Plateau is a marshy plateau that forms the floor of a caldera complex on the Dieng Volcanic Complex near Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia.[1] Referred to as "Dieng" by Indonesians, it sits at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level, far from major population centres. The name "Dieng" comes from Di Hyang which means "Abode of the Gods".[2]

Part of General Sudirman's guerrilla campaign during the Indonesian War of Independence took place in the area.

Temples

A painting of Candi Bima in Dieng by Max Fleischer, 1912.

The Plateau is the location of eight small Hindu temples from the Kalingga Kingdom.[3]:79,90 It is unclear when they were built, estimated to range from mid 7th century to end of 8th century AD; they are the oldest known standing stone structures in Java.[4] They are originally thought to have numbered 400 but only eight remain. The temples are now believed to have been named after the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.[5]

Michell claims Dieng's misty location almost 2,093 m above sea level, its poisonous effusions and sulphur-coloured lakes make it a particularly auspicious place for religious tribute. The temples are small shrines built as monuments to the god-ancestors and dedicated to Shiva.[6] The Hindu shrines are miniature cosmic mountains based on plans in Indian religious texts, although Schoppert suggest the design motifs have little connection to India.[7]

"Tjandi Ardjoeno on the Dijeng Plateau" photo by Isidore van Kinsbergen

In 2011, in a review published by Romain,[4] the temple is now believed to be related to Dravida and Pallava style temples of South India. The theory that poisonous effusions make it auspicious is now disputed as volcanic activity in this area from 7th to 9th century is yet to established, and records suggest the temple was abandoned after volcanic eruptions became common in central Java.

Climate

Dieng has a wet, subtropical highland climate (Cwb). In "winter" there is much less rainfall than in "summer". The average annual temperature in Dieng is 14.0 °C. About 2652 mm of precipitation falls annually.

However, in the dry season, the temperature may drop to -2 to 2 °C in the nights in every July to August. This may last for one week in average. This cold temperature causes frost that destroys the agricultural plants, especially potato. Local people call this frost as "bun upas". "Bun" or "embun" means dew; "upas" means poison. Although "bun upas" or frost in Dieng is actually not poisonous, this term "upas" was created by local people due to its devastating effect on agricultural plants, in which, the plants die quickly as if as they were poisoned when the frost takes place.

Climate data for Dieng
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
18.5
(65.3)
18.6
(65.5)
18.4
(65.1)
18.5
(65.3)
18.5
(65.3)
18.2
(64.8)
18.0
(64.4)
18.5
(65.3)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
18.8
(65.8)
18.49
(65.28)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.9
(57)
14.3
(57.7)
14.4
(57.9)
14.4
(57.9)
14.3
(57.7)
13.8
(56.8)
13.2
(55.8)
12.8
(55)
13.6
(56.5)
14.2
(57.6)
14.7
(58.5)
14.4
(57.9)
14
(57.19)
Average low °C (°F) 10.0
(50)
10.1
(50.2)
10.3
(50.5)
10.4
(50.7)
10.1
(50.2)
9.2
(48.6)
8.3
(46.9)
7.6
(45.7)
8.7
(47.7)
9.6
(49.3)
10.3
(50.5)
10.1
(50.2)
9.56
(49.21)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 370
(14.57)
430
(16.93)
434
(17.09)
249
(9.8)
153
(6.02)
83
(3.27)
53
(2.09)
35
(1.38)
57
(2.24)
170
(6.69)
230
(9.06)
388
(15.28)
2,652
(104.42)
Source: [8]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Suherdjoko (28 April 2006). "Dieng tidies itself up to regain past glory". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. 
  4. ^ a b Romain, Julie (2011), "Indian Architecture in the ‘Sanskrit Cosmopolis’: The Temples of the Dieng Plateau", in Manguin, Pierre-Yves; Mani; Wade, Geoff, Early Interactions Between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on Cross-cultural Exchange, 2, Singapore: Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 299–316, ISBN 9789814345101 
  5. ^ Wright, A., & Smith, C. (2013). Volcanoes of Indonesia: Creators and Destroyers. Editions Didier Millet.
  6. ^ Michell, George, (1977) The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to its Meaning and Forms". pp. 160-161. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1 /
  7. ^ Schoppert, Peter (2012), Java Style, Editions Didier Millet, ISBN 9789814260602 
  8. ^ http://en.climate-data.org/location/623617/

References

  • Backshall, Stephan et al. (1999) Indonesia The Rough Guide London Penguin ISBN 1-85828-429-5 pp. 190–195
  • Dalton, Bill Indonesia Handbook fourth edition pp. 280–283
  • Dumarcay, J and Miksic J. Temples of the Dieng Plateau in Miksic, John 1996 (editor) 1996 Ancient History Volume 1 of Indonesian Heritage Series Archipleago Press, Singapore. ISBN 981-3018-26-7
  • Mertadiwangsa, S. Adisarwono, (1999) Dataran tinggi Dieng : objek wisata alam dan objek wisata budayanya = Dieng Plateau Yogyakarta: Kaliwangi Offset Yogyakarta, (In Indonesian)
  • Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia (7th edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 209–211. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 

Coordinates: 7°12′S 109°54′E / 7.2°S 109.9°E / -7.2; 109.9

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