Dictator

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adolf Hitler (right), dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Benito Mussolini (left), dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943.

A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power and wields it in an oppressive or abusive manner. A state ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium).[1]

Like the term "tyrant" (which was originally a respectable Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet it had rare modern titular use.

In modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power, especially the power to make laws without effective restraint by a legislative assembly[not verified in body]. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following traits: suspension of elections and civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents without abiding by the rule of law procedures; these include one-party state, and cult of personality.[2][3]

The term "dictator" is comparable to – but not synonymous with – the ancient concept of a tyrant; initially "tyrant", like "dictator", did not carry negative connotations. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in a number of different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states and civilian governments under personal rule, have been described as dictators. They may hold left or right-wing views, or they may be apolitical.

Etymology

Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome.

Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now. A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing.

The term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in more than a century (during which the office was ostensibly abolished) as well as de facto eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation, although he avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla's example in 49 BC and in February 44 BC was proclaimed Dictator perpetuo, "Dictator in perpetuity", officially doing away with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his assassination the following month.

Following Julius' assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, but he declined it. Later successors also declined the title of dictator, and usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers.

Modern era

Country ratings from Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2017 survey, concerning the state of world freedom in 2016.[4]
  Free (86)   Partly Free (59)   Not Free (50)
Democracy Index by the UK based magazine The Economist, 2016. Countries marked in different shades of red of are considered undemocratic, with many being dictatorships.[5]

As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications. For example, when creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi officially assumed the title of "Dictator" (see Dictatorship of Garibaldi). Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was also the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski.

Past that time, however, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is often associated with brutality and oppression. As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have also come to grant themselves increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours. For instance, Idi Amin Dada, who had been a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor[A] Idi Amin Dada, VC,[B] DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular".[6] In the movie The Great Dictator (1940), Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself.

The association between a dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and they often wear military uniforms. In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain; Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces. In other cases, the association is mere pretense.

Modern usage in formal titles

Because of its negative associations, modern leaders very rarely (if ever) use the term dictator in their formal titles. In the 19th century, however, its official usage was more common:

  • Hungary
  • Italy
    • In the former city-state of Venice, and while it was a republic resisting annexation by either the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia or the Austrian empire, a former Chief Executive (president, 23 March 1848 – 5 July 1848), Daniele Manin (b. 1804 – d. 1857), was styled Dictator 11–13 August 1848 before joining the 13 August 1848 – 7 March 1849 Triumvirate.[7]
    • The Dictatorial Government of Sicily (27 May – 4 November 1860) was a provisional executive government appointed by Giuseppe Garibaldi to rule Sicily. The government ended when Sicily's annexation into the Kingdom of Italy was ratified by plebiscite.
  • Philippines
    • Emilio Aguinaldo, the last President of the Supreme Government Council 23 March 1897 – 16 December 1897 and chairman of the Revolutionary Government from 23 June to 1 November 1897, was president of the "Dictatorial Council" from 12 June 1898 – 23 January 1899.[8]
  • Poland
    • Józef Chłopicki was styled Dictator from 5 December 1830 – December 1830 and again in December 1830 – 25 January 1831
    • Jan Tyssowski was Dictator from 24 February 1846 – 2 March 1846.
    • Ludwik Mierosławski was Dictator from 22 January 1863 – 10 March 1863
    • Marian Langiewicz was Dictator from 10 March 1863 – 19 March 1863
    • An Executive Dictatorial Commission of three members existed from 19 March 1863 – 20 March 1863
    • Romuald Traugutt was Dictator from 17 October 1863 – 10 April 1864

Russia during the Civil War

Human rights abuses

Joseph Stalin, dictator of the Soviet Union from 1929 to 1953.

Under the Soviet leaders Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, government policy was enforced by extrajudicial killings, secret police (originally known as the Cheka) and the notorious Gulag system of concentration camps. Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time. Data collected from Soviet archives gives the death toll from Gulags at 1,053,829.[10] Other human rights abuses by the Soviet state included human experimentation, the use of psychiatry as a political weapon and the denial of freedoms of religion, assembly, speech and association.

Pol Pot became leader of Cambodia in 1975. In all, an estimated 1.7 million people (out of a population of 7 million) died due to the policies of his four-year dictatorship.[11] As a result, Pol Pot is sometimes described as "the Hitler of Cambodia" and "a genocidal tyrant".[12]

The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Sudan's military dictator Omar al-Bashir over alleged war crimes in Darfur.[13]

North Korea is known for notorious human rights abuses, such as gulag-esque prison camps, the "three generations of punishment" rule, and numerous instances of kidnapping South Koreans near the border and tourists.

In game theory

In social choice theory, the notion of a dictator is formally defined as a person who can achieve any feasible social outcome he/she wishes. The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators.

  • The strong dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind (e.g. raise taxes, having someone killed, etc.), a definite way of achieving that goal. This can be seen as having explicit absolute power, like Sulla.
  • The weak dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind, and for any political scenario, a course of action that would bring about the desired goal. For the weak dictator, it is usually not enough to "give their orders", rather he/she has to manipulate the political scene appropriately. This means that the weak dictator might actually be lurking in the shadows, working within a political setup that seems to be non-dictatorial. An example of such a figure is Lorenzo the Magnificent, who controlled Renaissance Florence.

Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion. Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers (the nobility or the army).

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ "dictator – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  2. ^ Papaioannou, Kostadis; vanZanden, Jan Luiten (2015). "The Dictator Effect: How long years in office affect economic development". Journal of Institutional Economics. 11 (1). doi:10.1017/S1744137414000356. 
  3. ^ Olson, Mancur (1993). "Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development". American Political Science Review. 87 (3). 
  4. ^ Freedom in The World 2017 - Populists and Autocrats: The Dual Threat to Global Democracy by Freedom House, January 31, 2017
  5. ^ "Liberty and justice for some". The Economist. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  6. ^ Keatley, Patrick (18 August 2003). "Obituary: Idi Amin". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  7. ^ "Daniele Manin Facts". Biography. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  8. ^ Philippine Legislature:100 Years, Cesar Pobre
  9. ^ Dune, Eduard Martynovich; Koenker, Diane; Smith, S. A. (April 1993). Notes of a Red Guard. Urbana Illinois, U.S.A.: University of Illinois Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0252062773. ISBN 0252062779. 
  10. ^ "Gulag Prisoner Population Statistics from 1934 to 1953." Wasatch.edu. Wasatch, n.d. Web. 16 July 2016: "According to a 1993 study of archival Soviet data, a total of 1,053,829 people died in the Gulag from 1934 to 1953. However, taking into account that it was common practice to release prisoners who were either suffering from incurable diseases or on the point of death, the actual Gulag death toll was somewhat higher, amounting to 1,258,537 in 1934-53, or 1.6 million deaths during the whole period from 1929 to 1953.."
  11. ^ ""Top 15 Toppled Dictators". Time. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  12. ^ William Branigin, Architect of Genocide Was Unrepentant to the End The Washington Post, April 17, 1998
  13. ^ "Sudanese dictator Omar al-Bashir faces war crimes charges". The Daily Telegraph. July 14, 2008.
  14. ^ "Idi Amin: a byword for brutality". News24. 2003-07-21. Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  15. ^ Lloyd, Lorna (2007) p.239

Bibliography

External links

  • The dictionary definition of dictator at Wiktionary
  • Current Dictators of the World
  • WorldStatesmen
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