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Devil

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Statue of the devil in the Žmuidzinavičius Museum or Devil's Museum in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Satan (the Dragon) gives to the Beast of the sea (on the right) power represented by a sceptre in a detail of panel III.40 of the medieval French Apocalypse Tapestry, produced between 1377 and 1382.
A fresco detail from the Rila Monastery, in which demons are depicted as having grotesque faces and bodies.

A devil is the personification of evil as it is is conceived in many and various cultures and religious traditions.[1]

It is seen as the objectification of a hostile and destructive force.[2] The history of this concept intertwines with theology, mythology, psychiatry, art and literature, maintaining a validity, and developing independently within each of the traditions.[3] It occurs historically in many contexts and cultures, and is given many different names — Satan, Lucifer, Beelzebub, Mephistopheles — and attributes: It is portrayed as blue, black, or red; It is portrayed as having horns on its head, and without horns, and so on.[4][5] The idea of the devil has been taken seriously often, but not always, for example when devil figures are used in advertising and on candy wrappers.[6][7] It is difficult to specify a particular definition of any complexity, that will cover all of the traditions, beyond that it is a personification of evil. It is meaningful to consider the devil through the lens of each of the cultures and religions that have the devil as part of their mythos.[8]

In some traditions, divinities can become demons. The Teutonic gods demonized the Giants. Christians considered the Roman and Greek deities devils, and Muslims held that the pre-Islamic Jinn, tutelary deities, became subject under Islam to the judgment of God, and that those who did not submit to the law of God are demons.[9]

Etymology

The Modern English word devil derives from the Middle English devel, from Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus. This in turn was borrowed from Greek: διάβολος diábolos, "slanderer",[10] from διαβάλλειν diabállein, "to slander" from διά diá, "across, through" and βάλλειν bállein, "to hurl", probably akin to the Sanskrit gurate, "he lifts up".[11]

Theological and philosophical beliefs

Hinduism

The earliest Hindu texts do not offer further explanations for evil, regarding evil as something natural.[12] However, later texts offer various explanations for evil. According to an explanation given by the Brahmins, both demons and gods spoke truth and untruth, but the demons relinquished the truth and the gods relinquished the untruth.[12] But both spirits are regarded as different aspects of one supreme god. Even some fierce deities like Kali are not thought of as devils but just as darker aspects of God[13] and may even manifest benevolence.[12]

Zoroastrianism

In Zoroastrianism, good and evil derive from two ultimately opposed forces.[14] The force of good is called Ahura Mazda and the "destructive spirit" in Avestan-language called Angra Mainyu. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. They are in eternal struggle and none of these is all-powerful, especially Angra Mainyu is limited to space and time: in the end of time, he will be finally defeated. While Ahura Mazda creates that is good, Angra Mainyu is responsible for every evil and suffering in the world, such as toads and scorpions.[1]

Ancient Egypt

Apep (/ˈæpɛp, ˈɑː-/) or Apophis (/ˈæpəfɪs/; Ancient Greek: Ἄποφις; also spelled Apepi or Aapep) was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He appears in art as a giant serpent. His name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāpī, as it was written ꜥꜣpp(y) and survived in later Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph.[15]

The deity Set was originally associated with both positive and negative roles: a protector of Ra on the solar boat from the Serpent of Chaos, and a usurper who killed and mutilated his brother in order to assume the throne. However, he was later demonized and he became quite unpopular. According to Herman te Velde, the demonization of Set took place after Egypt's conquest by several foreign nations in the Third Intermediate and Late Periods. Set, who had traditionally been the god of foreigners, thus also became associated with foreign oppressors, including the Assyrian and Persian empires. It was during this time that Set was particularly vilified, and his defeat by Horus widely celebrated. Set's negative aspects were emphasized during this period. Set was the killer of Osiris, having hacked Osiris' body into pieces and dispersed it so that he could not be resurrected. The Greeks later linked Set with Typhon because both were evil forces, storm deities, and sons of the Earth that attacked the main gods.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, throughout this period, in some outlying regions of Egypt Set was still regarded as the heroic chief deity.[citation needed]

Set has also been classed as a Trickster deity who, as a god of disorder, resorts to deception to achieve bad ends.[16]

Buddhism

Buddhism contains a devil-like figure called Mara[17] (Sanskrit: māra; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Tibetan Wylie: bdud; Khmer: មារ; Burmese: မာရ်နတ်; Thai: มาร; Sinhalese: මාරයා), who is a tempter figure in Buddhism, distracting humans from practicing the spiritual life by making mundane things alluring, or the negative seem positive. He tempted Gautama Buddha by trying to seduce him with the vision of beautiful women who, in various legends, are often said to be Mara's daughters.[18] In Buddhist cosmology, Mara personifies unwholesome impulses, unskillfulness, the "death"[19] of the spiritual life.[citation needed]

Judaism

Yahweh, the god in pre-exilic Judaism, created both good and evil, as stated in Isaiah 45:7: "I create the light, I create the darkness." The Devil did not exist in early Jewish scriptures. However, the influence of Zoroastrianism during the Achaemenid Empire introduced evil as a separate principle into the Jewish belief-system, which gradually externalized the opposition until the Hebrew term satan developed into a specific type of supernatural entity, changing the monistic view of Judaism into a dualistic one.[20] Later Rabbinic Judaism rejected[when?] the Enochian books (written during the Second Temple period under Persian influence), which depicted the Devil as an independent force of evil besides God.[21] After the apocalyptic period, references to Satan in the Tanakh are thought[by whom?] to be allegorical.[22]

Christianity

In Christianity, evil is incarnate in the Devil or Satan, a fallen angel who is the primary opponent of God.[17][23]

Christianity identifies the Devil with the serpent who tempted Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, and describes him as a fallen angel who terrorizes the world through evil,[17] is the antithesis of Truth,[24] and shall be condemned, together with the fallen angels who follow him, to eternal fire at the Last Judgement.[17] In mainstream Christianity the devil is usually referred to as Satan. Some modern Christians[who?] consider the devil to be an angel who, along with one-third of the angelic host (the demons) rebelled against God and has consequently been condemned to the Lake of Fire. He is described[attribution needed] as hating all humanity (or more accurately creation), opposing God, spreading lies and wreaking havoc on their souls.

Horns of a goat and a ram, goat's fur and ears, nose and canines of a pig, a typical depiction of the devil in Christian art. The goat, ram and pig are consistently associated with the Devil.[25] Detail of a 16th-century painting by Jacob de Backer in the National Museum in Warsaw.

Satan is often identified[by whom?] as the serpent who convinced Eve to eat the forbidden fruit; thus, Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Although this identification is not present in the Adam and Eve narrative, this interpretation goes back at least as far as the time of the writing of the Book of Revelation, which specifically identifies Satan as being the serpent (Rev. 20:2).

In the Bible, the devil is identified with "the dragon" and "the old serpent" in the Book of Revelation 12:9, 20:2 have also been identified with Satan, as has "the prince of this world" in the Gospel of John 12:31, 14:30; and "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience" in the Epistle to the Ephesians 2:2; and "the god of this world" in 2 Corinthians 4:4.[26] He is also identified as the dragon in the Book of Revelation (e.g.[27]), and the tempter of the Gospels (e.g.[28]).

The devil is sometimes called Lucifer, particularly when describing him as an angel before his fall, although the reference in Isaiah 14:12 to Lucifer, or the Son of the Morning, is a reference to a Babylonian king.[29]

Beelzebub is originally the name of a Philistine god (more specifically a certain type of Baal, from Ba‘al Zebûb, lit. "Lord of Flies") but is also used in the New Testament as a synonym for Satan. A corrupted version, "Belzeboub", appears in The Divine Comedy (Inferno XXXIV).

In other, non-mainstream, Christian beliefs (e.g. the beliefs of the Christadelphians) the word "satan" in the Bible is not regarded as referring to a supernatural, personal being but to any 'adversary' and figuratively refers to human sin and temptation.[30]

Apocrypha/Deuterocanon

In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the one who brought death into the world.[31] The Second Book of Enoch contains references to a Watcher angel called Satanael,[32] describing him as the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of heaven[33] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful".[34]

In the Book of Jubilees, Satan rules over a host of angels.[35] Mastema, who induced God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac, is identical with Satan in both name and nature.[36] The Book of Enoch contains references to Sathariel, thought also[by whom?] to be Sataniel and Satan'el. The similar spellings mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel and Gabriel, previous to his expulsion from Heaven.[citation needed]

Dualism in Christianity

The idea of dualism in Christianity takes different forms: The belief that there is a distinction between God and the world, or between God and humankind, or between God’s omnipotence and humankind’s free will. In the 12th century in Europe the Christian sect known as the Cathars, who were rooted in Gnosticism, dealt with the problem of evil, the figure of Lucifer, and they developed ideas of dualism and demonology. The Cathars were seen as a serious potential challenge to the Catholic church of the time. The Cathars wanted to protect the goodness of God by diminishing God’s power, and to explain the conflict of good and evil that is found in God’s creation. The Cathars split into two camps. The first is absolute dualism, which held that evil was completely separate from the good God, and that God and the devil each had power. The second camp is mitigated dualism, which considers Lucifer to be a son of God, and a brother to Christ. To explain this they used the parable of the prodigal son, with Christ as the good soon, and Lucifer as the son that strayed into evilness. The Catholic church responded to dualism in 1215 AD in the Fourth Lateran Council, saying that God created everything from nothing, and the Devil was good when he was created, but he made himself bad by his own free will.[37][38]

Mandaean

According to Mandaean mythology, Ruha Qadishta fell apart from the "world of light" and gave birth to the "Lord of Darkness" (malka dhshuka)[39] named Ur. According to one tradition, Ur is an androgyne lion-headed dragon with the wings of an eagle. Together they create serveral evil demons, liliths and vampires. Ruha Qadishta is described as a liar and sorcerer. Several Abrahamitic prophets are regarded as servants of these devils or their subordinates such as Adonai, including Moses.[40] Jesus appears as another son of Ruha Qadishta and Ur, who distorted the Baptism-ritual thaught by John the Baptist.[41][42] Eventually Ruha will be rehabilitated and return to the world of light.

Islam

Iblis (top right on the picture) refuses to prostrate before the newly created Adam

In Islam, the principle of evil is expressed by two terms referring to the same entity:[43][44][45] Shaitan (meaning astray, distant or devil) and Iblis. Iblis is the proper name of the Devil representing the characteristics of evil.[46] Iblis is mentioned in the Quranic narrative about the creation of humanity. When God created Adam, he ordered the angels to prostrate themselves before him. All did, but Iblis refused and claimed to be superior to Adam out of pride.[Quran 7:12] Therefore, pride but also envy became a sign of "unbelief" in Islam.[47] Thereafter Iblis was condemned to hell, but God granted him a request to lead humanity astray[48], knowing the righteous will resist Iblis' attempts to misguide them. In Islam, both good and evil are ultimately created by God. But since God's will is good, the evil in the world must be part of God's plan.[49] Actually, God allowed the Devil to seduce humanity. Evil and suffering are regarded as a test or a chance to proof confidence in God.[50] Some philosophers and mystics emphasized Iblis himself as a role model of confidence in God because God ordered the angels to prostrate themselves, Iblis was forced to choose between God's command and God's will (not to praise someone else than God). He successfully passed the test, yet his disobedience caused his punishment and therefore suffering. However, he stays patient and is rewarded in the end.[51]

Like in Christianity, Iblis was once a pious creature of God, but later cast out of heaven, due to his pride. However, to maintain God's absolute sovereignty[52], Islam adopts the line taken by Irenaeus, instead of the later Christian consensus, that the Devil did not rebel against God, but against humanity.[9][53] Further, although Iblis is generally regarded as a real bodily entity,[54] he plays a less significant role as the personification of evil than in Christianity. Iblis is merely a tempter, notable for inciting humans into sin by whispering into humans minds (waswās), akin to the Jewish idea of the Devil as yetzer hara.[55][56]

On the other hand, Shaitan refers unilaterally to forces of evil, including the Devil Iblis, then he causes mischief[57]. Shaitan is also linked to humans psychological nature, appearing in dreams, causing anger or interrupting the mental preparation for prayer.[58] Furthermore, the term Shaitan also refers to beings, who follow the evil suggestions of Iblis. Furthermore, the principle of "Shaitan" is in many ways a symbol of spiritual impurity, representing humans own deficits, in contrast to a "true Muslim", who is free from anger, lust and other devilish desires.[59]

In Sufism and Mysticsm

In contrast to Occidental philosophy, the Sufi idea of seeing "Many as One" and considering the creation in their essence as the Absolute, leads to the idea of the dissolution of any dualism between the ego substance and the "external" substinantial objects. The rebellion against God, mentioned in the Quran, takes place on the level of the psyche, that must be trained and disciplined for its union with the spirit that is pure. Since psyche drives the body, flesh is not the obstacle to human, but an unawarness that allowed the impulsive forces to cause rebellion against God on the level of the psyche. Yet, it is not a dualism between body, psyche and spirit, since the spirit embraces both psyche and corperal aspects of human.[60] Since the world is hold as the mirror in which God's attributes are reflected, participation in worldly affairs is not necessarily seen as opposed to God.[61] The Devil activates the selfish desires of the psyche, leading him astray from the Divine.[62]

In Salafism

Salafi strands of Islam commonly emphasize a dualistic worldview between the believers and the unbelievers,[63] with the Devil as the enemy of God's path. Even though the Devil will be finally defeated by God, he is a serious and dangerous opponent of humans[64]. While in classical hadiths, the demons (Shayateen) and the jinn are responsible for impurity and possibly endanger people, in Salafi thought, it is the Devil himself, who lurks on the believers,[65] always striving to lead them astray from God. The Devil is regarded as an omnipresent entity, permanently inciting humans into sin, but can be pushed away by remembering the name God.[66] The Devil is regarded as an external entity, threatening the everyday life of the believer, even in social aspects of life.[67] Thus for example, it is the Devil, who is responsible for Western emancipation.[68]

Yazidism

According to Yazidism there is no entity that represents evil in opposition to God; such dualism is rejected by Yazidis,[69] and evil is regarded as non-existent.[70] Yazidis adhere to strict monism and are prohibited from uttering the word "devil" and from speaking of anything related to hell.[71]

Bahá'í Faith

In the Bahá'í Faith, a malevolent, superhuman entity such as a devil or satan is not believed to exist.[72] These terms do, however, appear in the Bahá'í writings, where they are used as metaphors for the lower nature of man. Human beings are seen to have free will, and are thus able to turn towards God and develop spiritual qualities or turn away from God and become immersed in their self-centered desires. Individuals who follow the temptations of the self and do not develop spiritual virtues are often described in the Bahá'í writings with the word satanic.[72] The Bahá'í writings also state that the devil is a metaphor for the "insistent self" or "lower self" which is a self-serving inclination within each individual. Those who follow their lower nature are also described as followers of "the Evil One".[73][74]

Other names

Demons

The Baphomet, adopted symbol of some Left-Hand Path systems, including Theistic Satanism.

In some religions and traditions, these titles are separate demons; others identify these names as guises of the devil. Even when thought of as individual demons, some are often thought of being under the Devil's direct control. This identifies only those thought of as the devil; List of demons has a more general listing.

(2 Corinthians 6:15)

Titles

These are titles that almost always refer to devil-figures.

  • Al-Shaitan, another Arabic term referring to the Devil
  • Angra Mainyu, Ahriman: "malign spirit", "unholy spirit"
  • Der Leibhaftige [Teufel] (German): "[the devil] in the flesh, corporeal"[75]
  • Diabolus, Diabolos (Greek: Διάβολος)
  • The Evil One
  • Father of Lies (John 8:44), in contrast to Jesus ("I am the truth").
  • Iblis, name of the Devil in Islam
  • Lord of the underworld / Lord of Hell / Lord of this World
  • Lucifer / The Morning Star (Greek and Roman): bringer of light, illuminator; the planet Venus, often portrayed as Satan's name in Christianity
  • Kölski (Iceland)[76]
  • Mephistopheles
  • Old Scratch, The Stranger, Old Nick: a colloquialism for the devil, as indicated by the name of the character in the story The Devil and Tom Walker
  • Prince of Darkness
  • Satan / The Adversary, Accuser, Prosecutor; in Christianity, the Devil
  • (The ancient/old/crooked/coiling) Serpent
  • Voland (fictional character in Goethe's Faust)

The devil as Creator-deity

Several religious authors throughout history have advanced the notion that the god of the Old Testament is consistent in character with the devil. They make the case that the Biblical God is a divine force that wreaks suffering, death and destruction and that tempts or commands humanity into committing mayhem and genocide. Tertullian accuses Marcion of Sinope, the first great heretic of Christianity in the 1st century, that he

[held that] the Old Testament was a scandal to the faithful … and … accounted for it by postulating [that Jehovah was] a secondary deity, a demiurgus, who was god, in a sense, but not the supreme God; he was just, rigidly just, he had his good qualities, but he was not the good god, who was Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ.[77]

The Church condemned his writings as heretical. John Arendzen (1909) in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) mentions that Eusebius accused Apelles, the 2nd-century AD Gnostic, of considering the Inspirer of Old-Testament prophecies to be not a god, but an evil angel.[78] Hegemonius (4th century) accuses the Persian prophet Mani, founder of the Manichaean sect in the 3rd century AD, identified Jehovah as "the devil god which created the world"[79] and said that "he who spoke with Moses, the Jews, and the priests … is the [Prince] of Darkness, … not the god of truth."[80][81]

These writings refer to the Jewish God variously as "a demiurgus",[77] "an evil angel",[78] "the devil god",[79] "the Prince of Darkness",[80][81] "the source of all evil",[82] "the Devil",[83] "a demon",[84] "a cruel, wrathful, warlike tyrant",[85] "Satan"[86] and "the first beast of the book of Revelation".[87]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 pages 11 & 34
  2. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity’'. Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 34
  3. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 44 & 51
  4. ^ Arp, Robert. The Devil and Philosophy: The Nature of His Game. Open Court, 2014. ISBN 9780812698800 p. 30-50
  5. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 66
  6. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity’'. Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 41 & 75
  7. ^ Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in History. Cornell University Press (1992). ISBN 978-0801480560 p. 2
  8. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity’'. Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 p. 41-75
  9. ^ a b Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 58
  10. ^ διάβολος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  11. ^ "Definition of DEVIL". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
  12. ^ a b c Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 56
  13. ^ Seema Mohanty, Seema The Book of Kali Penguin Books India 2009 ISBN 978-0-143-06764-1 page 115
  14. ^ John R. Hinnells The Zoroastrian Diaspora: Religion and Migration OUP Oxford 2005 ISBN 978-0-191-51350-3 page 108
  15. ^ Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow, eds. 1926–1953. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. 6 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'schen Buchhandlungen. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH, 1971).
  16. ^ Dean Andrew Nicholas (2009). "The Trickster Revisited: Deception as a Motif in the Pentateuch". Studies in Biblical Literature. 117: 16–17. ISSN 1089-0645.
  17. ^ a b c d Leeming, David (2005-11-17). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 9780195156690.
  18. ^ See, for instance, SN 4.25, entitled, "Māra's Daughters" (Bodhi, 2000, pp. 217-20), as well as Sn 835 (Saddhatissa, 1998, page 98). In each of these texts, Mara's daughters (Māradhītā) are personified by sensual Craving (taṇhā), Aversion (arati) and Passion (rāga).
  19. ^ Mara-the god of death
  20. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 58
  21. ^ Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International. pp. 2–4. ISBN 0826470890
  22. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell: The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Cornell University Press, 1987, ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3, page 29.
  23. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 174
  24. ^ "Definition of DEVIL". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
  25. ^ Fritscher, Jack (2004). Popular Witchcraft: Straight from the Witch's Mouth. Popular Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-299-20304-2. The pig, goat, ram — all of these creatures are consistently associated with the Devil.
  26. ^ 2 Corinthians 2:2
  27. ^ Rev. 12:9
  28. ^ Mat. 4:1
  29. ^ See, for example, the entries in Nave's Topical Bible, the Holman Bible Dictionary and the Adam Clarke Commentary.
  30. ^ "Do you Believe in a Devil? Bible Teaching on Temptation". Retrieved 2007-05-29.
  31. ^ "But by the envy of the devil, death came into the world" - Book of Wisdom II. 24
  32. ^ 2 Enoch 18:3
  33. ^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air continuously above the bottomless" - 2 Enoch 29:4
  34. ^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" - 2 Enoch 31:4
  35. ^ Martyrdom of Isaiah, 2:2; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 16)
  36. ^ Book of Jubilees, xvii. 18
  37. ^ Rouner, Leroy (1983). The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-664-22748-7.
  38. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1 page 187-188
  39. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 552
  40. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 553
  41. ^ Nesta H. Webster Secret Societies and Subversive Movements Book Tree 2000 ISBN 978-1-585-09092-1 page 71
  42. ^ Kurt Rudolph Mandaeism. [Mit Fig.] BRILL 1978 ISBN 978-9-004-05252-9 page 4
  43. ^ Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān Brill 2001 ISBN 9789004147645 p. 526
  44. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1 page 57
  45. ^ Benjamin W. McCraw, Robert Arp Philosophical Approaches to the Devil Routledge 2015 ISBN 9781317392217
  46. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 250
  47. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 250
  48. ^ [Quran 17:62]
  49. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 249
  50. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 249
  51. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 254-255
  52. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 45
  53. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1 page 57
  54. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1399
  55. ^ Fereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 page 79
  56. ^ Nils G. Holm The Human Symbolic Construction of Reality: A Psycho-Phenomenological Study LIT Verlag Münster 2014 ISBN 978-3-643-90526-0 page 54
  57. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/shaitan
  58. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1399
  59. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 74
  60. ^ Fereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 page 81-82
  61. ^ Fereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 page 79
  62. ^ John O'Kane, Bernd Radtke The Concept of Sainthood in Early Islamic Mysticism: Two Works by Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidhi - An Annotated Translation with Introduction Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-79309-7 page 48
  63. ^ Thorsten Gerald Schneiders Salafismus in Deutschland: Ursprünge und Gefahren einer islamisch-fundamentalistischen Bewegung transcript Verlag 2014 ISBN 9783839427118 page p. 392 (German)
  64. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 67
  65. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 68
  66. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 69
  67. ^ Michael Kiefer, Jörg Hüttermann, Bacem Dziri, Rauf Ceylan, Viktoria Roth, Fabian Srowig, Andreas Zick „Lasset uns in shaʼa Allah ein Plan machen“: Fallgestützte Analyse der Radikalisierung einer WhatsApp-Gruppe Springer-Verlag 2017 ISBN 9783658179502 page 111
  68. ^ Janusz Biene, Christopher Daase, Julian Junk, Harald Müller Salafismus und Dschihadismus in Deutschland: Ursachen, Dynamiken, Handlungsempfehlungen Campus Verlag 2016 9783593506371 page 177 (german)
  69. ^ Birgül Açikyildiz The Yezidis: The History of a Community, Culture and Religion I.B.Tauris 2014 ISBN 978-0-857-72061-0 page 74
  70. ^ Wadie Jwaideh The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development Syracuse University Press 2006 ISBN 978-0-815-63093-7 page 20
  71. ^ Florin Curta, Andrew Holt Great Events in Religion: An Encyclopedia of Pivotal Events in Religious History [3 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2016 ISBN 978-1-610-69566-4 page 513
  72. ^ a b Smith, Peter (2000). "satan". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  73. ^ Bahá'u'lláh; Baháʼuʼlláh (1994) [1873–92]. "Tablet of the World". Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 87. ISBN 0-87743-174-4.
  74. ^ Shoghi Effendi quoted in Hornby, Helen (1983). Hornby, Helen (Ed.), ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. p. 513. ISBN 81-85091-46-3.
  75. ^ Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch s.v. "leibhaftig": "gern in bezug auf den teufel: dasz er kein mensch möchte sein, sondern ein leibhaftiger teufel. volksbuch von dr. Faust […] der auch blosz der leibhaftige heiszt, so in Tirol. Fromm. 6, 445; wenn ich dén sehe, wäre es mir immer, der leibhaftige wäre da und wolle mich nehmen. J. Gotthelf Uli d. pächter (1870) 345
  76. ^ "Vísindavefurinn: How many words are there in Icelandic for the devil?". Visindavefur.hi.is. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
  77. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Marcionites". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  78. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Gnosticism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  79. ^ a b Manichaeism by Alan G. Hefner in The Mystica, undated
  80. ^ a b Acta Archelai of Hegemonius, Chapter XII, c. AD 350, quoted in Translated Texts of Manicheism, compiled by Prods Oktor Skjærvø, page 68.
  81. ^ a b History of the Acta Archelai explained in the Introduction, page 11
  82. ^ Albigenses by Nicholas Weber in Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907
  83. ^ Martin Luther by Oswald Bayer in The Reformation Theologians: An Introduction to Theology in the Early Modern Period, edited by Carter Lindberg, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002 (partial text available at Google Books). See The Evil One; God as the Devil; God's Wrath, page 58..9.
  84. ^ The Age of Reason by Thomas Paine, 1794, Part I, Chapter VII, Examination of the Old Testament
  85. ^ A Book of Blood: Biblical atrocities on Ebon Musings, undated
  86. ^ Walter L. Williams Archived 27 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., private correspondence (quoted here with permission), 19 March 2009, referring to The Essential Teachings of Jesus and Mary by Walter L. Williams, unpublished manuscript, 24 December 2008, excerpts available at The Community Of Jesus And Mary
  87. ^ The Old Serpent Chained by "Son of man", Author House, 2006. (Full text of book available by clicking "Free Preview", then "Download the free eBook".)
  88. ^ Krampus: Gezähmter Teufel mit grotesker Männlichkeit, in Der Standard from 05.12.2017
  89. ^ Wo heut der Teufel los ist, in Kleine Zeitung from 25.11.2017
  90. ^ Krampusläufe: Tradition trifft Tourismus, in [[ORF (broadcaster)}ORF]] from 04.12.2016
  91. ^ Ein schiacher Krampen hat immer Saison, in Der Standard fronm 05.12.2017

External links

  • Entry from the Catholic Encyclopedia
  • Can you sell your soul to the Devil? A Jewish view on the Devil
  • The dictionary definition of Devil at Wiktionary
  • Media related to The Devil at Wikimedia Commons
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