Demographics of the Ottoman Empire

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Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1520 11,692,480 —    
1566 15,000,000 +28.3%
1683 30,000,000 +100.0%
1831 27,230,660 −9.2%
1856 35,350,000 +29.8%
1881–93 17,388,604 −50.8%
1905 20,884,000 +20.1%
1906 20,975,345 +0.4%
1919 14,629,000 −30.3%

This article is about the demographics of the Ottoman Empire, including population density, ethnicity, education level, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Census

Demographic data for most of the history of the Ottoman Empire is not quite precise. For most of the five centuries of its existence, the empire did not have easily computable valid data except figures for the number of employed citizens. Until the first official census (1881–1893), data was derived from extending the taxation values to the total population. Because of the use of taxation data to infer population size, detailed data for numerous Ottoman urban centers - towns with more than 5,000 inhabitants - is accurate. This data was collaborated with data on wages and prices. Another source was used for the numbers of landlords of households in the Ottoman Empire- every household was assumed to have 5 residents.[1]

1831 Ottoman census

Entire villages remained uncounted. Taxable population was enumerated, i.e. healthy men over 15 years old. For some settlements the rest of the male population was the majority.

[2]
Area Muslim E. Orthodox All Gypsies Jews Armenians
Rumeli Eyalet 337001 686991 25126 9955 2099
Çatalca rural 848 2592
Silivri 887
Midya 127
Terkos 794
Çekmeceıkebır 464
Çekmeceısagır 403
Tiirkeşçıttiığı 29
Tekturdağı 3773 7727 57
Inecik 812 836 24
Malkara 1511 4010 64
Gelibolu 4179 6613
Şarköy 962 7752
Bergos 1860 3154 32 51
Çorlu 971 1938 45 73
Marmara Ereğlisi 177 554 24
Babayiatik 542 1253
Havas Mahmutpaşa 684 896
Hayrabolu 2203 1051
Evreşe 666 956 39
Inoz 274 2327 62
Keşan 850 4557 72
Çisriergene 1929 8886
Ipsala 955 1512
Edirne 18487 16789 750 1541 1443
Ada rural 1090 5214
Çdke rural 1990 4803
Üsküdar and Manastır rural 2333 17040
Tırfelli rural 181
Çisri Muştafa Paşa 914 1329
Çirmen 1910 1262
Çirpan 938 4619
Ahlçelebi 6080 4107
Akçakizanllk 7195 8097 748
Zağraiatık 5586 12782
Dimetoka 7525 10852
Ferecık 2385 3473
Meğri 692 833
Gumülcine 30517 5339 1712
Yenıceikerasu 7582 2540 1273
Uzuncaabat Hasköy 9941 10118 633
Sultanyeri 6251 51 89
Drama 8618 3077 1007
Cığlacik and San Şaban 4986 131 54
Tırnova 3051
Hutaliç rural 7543
Torluk rural 5108
Sahra rural 2678
Filibe 10920 44959 2021 344 344
Pazarcik 3269 14083 3653 119
Ihtaman 408 1501 83
Sofya 4161 39692 886
Şehirköy 1341 27643 379
Pravişte 4718 2596 259
Bereketlu 967 170
Kavala 1514 102
Berkofca 1125 13549 382
Cuma Pazari 3733 916
Egri Bucak 1482 1294
Çarşamba 2350 1717
Serfıce 682 2260
Tikveş 4454 6104
Petriç 3893 3869
Radovişte 3504 4907
Nevrekop 8539 8620 739
Melnik 918 4182 260
Timurhisar 3229 6611 494
Zihne 2867 10017 642
Siroz 4459 16596 1761 248
Selanik 12368 21669 511 5667
Yenice Vardar 6811 4766
Vodine 3996 3883
Karaferiye 1680 11052
Ağustos 151 737
Perzinek 215 4436
Iznebol 131 5152 151
Ustrumca 3674 5344 546
Toyran 4631 3076 334
Karadağ 2722 1452 108
Avrathisar 3176 6949 332
Dupniçe 3528 11642
Radomir 789 7211
Ivraca 1463 14282 262
Kratova, Ivraniye, Palangai, Eğridere 4749 21068 627
Vidin, Akçar, Karalom, Belgratçik, Çunarka, Godgoskaca and Esterlik rural 6695 24846 1289
Köprülü 4767 12718 390
Perlepe 3683 14489 450
Samokov 816 11973 11 94
Köstendil 3032 14070 232 145
Behişte 3202 2176 89
Kesriye 3313 16124 335
Persepe 568 2162
Manastir 6723 24550 705 1163
Florina 5596 5253 365
Istrova 1658 1176 57
Hotpeşte 2081 3630 43
Nasliç 2693 5748 275
Iştip 6920 9826
Koçana 3374 6112
Kumanova 2276 10819
Silistre Eyalet 150970 96342 8779 178
Niğbolu Sancak 110304 81489 5804 178
Selvı 7734
Izladi 2580
Etripolu 545
Lofça 12404
Plevne 6031
Rahova 1831
Sipre 235
Niğbolu 3893 8598 1190
Ziştovi 3897 5760 629
Rusçuk 16165 7196 1437
Yanbolu 1942 1507
Nevahii Yanbolu 1444 1237
Zağraicedıt 3292 4745
Yenicei Kızılağaç, Hatunili 499 1502
Niš 1862 18378 575 178
Prizren 9488 2867 366
Yehud 2768 2479 44
Tırguvişte 2404 2323 3
Gude 7574 100
Usküp 9660 11700 900
Kalkandelen 11766 8043 472
Kirçova 2286 5154 88
Silistre Sancak 40666 14853 2975
Varna 3427 1573 167
Isakçi 553 605 39
Minkalye 694 15 37
Balçik and Kuvarna 1766 630 125
Karkkala rural 52
Maçin 991 821 25
Köstence 1417 386 41
Hırsova 1391 986 21
Tulça 472 592 19
Kannabad 5065 1454 358
Babadağ 1171 1661 38
Doskasri 1114 596 273
Aydos 5790 845 449
Yenipazar 3482 948 300
Pravadı 4530 1465 231
Umurfakih 1140 146
Kozluca 1840 1163 146
Pazarcık 3515 761 287
Çardak 2308 300 223
Republic of Bulgaria borders[3] 181455 296769 17474 702 344

1844 Ottoman Census

District Muslims[4]
Rumelia 29%

1881-1893 Ottoman Census

The first official census (1881–1893) took 10 years to finish. In 1893 the results were compiled and presented. This census is the first modern, general and standardized census accomplished not for taxation nor for military purposes, but to acquire demographic data. The population was divided into ethno-religious and gender characteristics. Numbers of both male and female subjects are given in ethno-religious categories including Muslims, Greeks (including Greek Macedonians, Asia Minor Greeks, Pontic Greeks, and Caucasus Greeks, all Orthodox Christians under the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople from extremely distinct ethnic origin), Armenians, Bulgarians, Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Latins, Syriacs and Gypsies.[5][6]

In 1867 the Council of States took charge of drawing population tables, increasing the precision of population records. They introduced new measures of recording population counts in 1874. This led to the establishment of a General Population Administration, attached to the Ministry of Interior in 1881-1882. Somehow, these changes politicized the population counts.

Ottoman Census Values
Administrative Unit Total Pop Armenian Pop Armenian %
Van Vilayet 132,007 55,051 41.70%
Bitlis Vilayet 338,642 108,050 31.91%
Izmit 228,443 44,953 19.68%
Erzurum Vilayet 637,015 120,147 18.86%
Dersaadet 903,482 166,185 18.39%
Vilayet of Mamuret-ul-Aziz 466,579 83,394 17.87%
Diyarbekir Vilayet 414,657 60,175 14.51%
Sivas Vilayet 980,876 129,085 13.16%
Adana Vilayet 398,764 36,695 9.20%
Halep Vilayet 819,238 70,663 8.63%
Ankara Vilayet 1,018,744 81,437 7.99%
Hüdavendigar Vilayet 1,454,294 70,262 4.83%
Trabzon Vilayet 1,164,595 49,782 4.27%
Sehremanati Mülhakati 88,306 3,074 3.48%
Edirne 985,962 18,458 1.87%
Çatalca 61,001 979 1.60%
Biga 143,904 1,842 1.28%
Konya 1,022,834 10,972 1.07%
Aydin 1,478,424 15,229 1.03%
Zor 51,270 474 0.92%
Kastamonu 968,884 6,652 0.69%
Kudüs 258,860 1,610 0.62%
Beyrut 620,763 2,921 0.47%
Suriye 551,135 1,478 0.27%
Selanik 1,038,953 51 0.00%
Cezayir-i Bahri Sefid 286,736 10 0.00%
Manastir 711,466 22 0.00%
1,139,651

1905-1906 Ottoman census

After 1893 the Ottoman Empire established a statistics authority (Istatistik-i Umumi Idaresi) under which results of another official census was published in 1899.

Istatistik-i Umumi Idaresi conducted a new census survey for which field work lasted two years (1905–06). 2-3 million people in Iraq and Syria remained unregistered and uncounted.[7] As a factual note this survey's complete (total) documentation was not published. Results of regional studies on this data were published later, which were sorted by their publication date. Included in the publication and subsequent ones was the Ottoman Empire's population as of 1911, 1912, and 1914. The substantial archival documentation on the census has been used in many modern studies and international publications. After 1906 the Ottoman Empire began to disband and a chain of violent wars such as the Italo-Turkish War, Balkan Wars and World War I drastically changed the region, its borders, and its demographics.

Population distribution of the Millets in the Ottoman Empire in 1906, according to the official census[8]-[9]
Millet Inhabitants % of total
Muslimsa 15,498,747 - 15,518,478 76.09% - 74.23%
Greeksb 2,823,065 - 2,833,370 13.86% - 13.56%
Armeniansc 1,031,708 - 1,140,563 5.07% - 5.46%
Bulgarians 761,530 - 762,754 3.74% - 3.65%
Jews 253,435 - 256,003 1.24% - 1.23%
Protestantsd 53,880 0.26%
Othersd 332,569 1.59%
Total 20,368,485 - 20,897,617 100.00%
Notes: a The Muslim Millet includes all Muslims. The largest of them being Turks, Arabs and Kurds.
b The Greek Millet includes all Christians part of the Greek Orthodox Church. This includes Slavs and Albanians.
c This includes the various Assyrian Churches.
d The first source doesn't include Protestants and "others".

1914 Ottoman census

1914 Official Census Values (Male-Female Aggregated)[10]
Province Muslim Armenian Greek
Adana 341.903 (74.8%) 52.650 (13%) 8.974 (2.2%)
Ankara 877.285 (92.5%) 51.556 (5.4%) 20.240 (2.1%)
Antalya 235.762 (95.01%) 630 (.02%) 12.385 (4.97%)
Aydın (İzmir) 1.249.067 20.287 299.097
Bitlis 309.999 (72.5%) 117.492 (27.5%) 0
Bolu 399.281 2.970 5.115
Canik 265.950 27.319 98.739
Çatalca 20.048 842 36.791 (63.78%)
Diyarbekir 492.101 65.850 1.935
Edirne 360.411 19.773 224.680
Erzurum 673.297 134.377 4.864
Eskişehir 140.678 8.592 2.613
Halep 576.320 40.843 21.954
Harput 446.379 79.821 971
Hüdavendigâr 474.114 60.119 74.927
İçil 102.034 341 2.507
İzmit 226.859 55.852 40.048
Kale-i Sultaniye 149.903 2.474 8.550
Kastamonu 737.302 8.959 20.958
Karahisar-ı Sahib 277.659 7.439 632
Karesi 359.804 8.653 97.497
Kayseri 184.292 50.174 26.590
Konya 750.712 12.971 25.150
Kostantiniyye 560.434 82.880 205.752
Menteşe 188.916 12 19.923
Kütahya 303.348 4.548 8.755
Maraş 152.645 32.322 34
Niğde 227.100 4.936 58.312
Sivas 939.735 147.099 75.324
Trabzon 921.128 38.899 161.574
Urfa 149.384 16.718 2
Van 179.380 67.792 1
Zor 65.770 232 45
Total 13.390.000 1.173.422 1.564.939

1866 Danube Vilayet census

In 1865, 658600 (40,51%) Muslims and 967058 (59,49%) non-Muslims, including females, were living in the province excluding Niş sanjak and 569.868 (34,68%) Muslims, apart from the immigrants and 1.073.496 (65,32%) non-Muslims in 1859-1860.[11] Half the Muslims were refugees from a population exchange of Christians and Muslims with Russia. Before the establishment of the Danube Vilayet, some 250000-300000 Muslim immigrants from Crimea and Caucasus had been settled in this region from 1855 to 1864. Another 200-300,000 male and female Circassian and Crimean Tatar refugees settled in 1862-1878 were to a degree excluded from the 1866 census count.[4]

Male population of the taxable population of the Danube Vilayet:

1866 census[4]
sancak Muslim Non-Muslim
Rusçuk 138692 95834
Varna 58689 20769
Vidin 25338 124567
Sofya 24410 147095
Tirnova 71645 104273
Tulça 39133 17929
Niş 54510 100425
Total 412417 610892

Percentage of communities in towns from the male population in 1866 according to Ottoman teskere:[12]

Town Bulgarians Muslims Gypsies Armenians Jews
Vidin 34 52 6 8
Sofya 38 39 4 20
Lom 58 35 3 5
Dupnice 38 46 5 11
Plevne 47 45 5 2
Rusçuk 38 52 2 4 5
Şumnu 40 51 1 5 2
Varna 49 40 1 8 2
Silistre 30 62 2 4 1

In 1873, 17,96% of the population of the province were living in the urban areas.

1874 Danube Vilayet census

According to the 1874 census,there were 963596 (42,22%) Muslims and 1318506 (57,78%) non-Muslims in the Danube Province excluding Nış sanjak. Together with the sanjak of Nish the population consisted of 1055650 (40,68%) Muslims and 1539278 (59,32%) non-Muslims in 1874. Muslims were the majority in the sanjaks of Rusçuk, Varna and Tulça, while the non-Muslims were in majority in the rest of the sanjaks.[13]

Eastern Rumelia census

Census in Eastern Rumelia of 1878:[14]

Community (1878 census) Population Percentage
Bulgarians 571231 70.3%
Muslims 174759 21.4%
Greeks 42516 5.2%
Roma (Gypsies) 19524
Jews 4177
Armenians 1306

Census of Eastern Rumelia in 1880:[15]

Ethnicity (1880 census) Population Percentage
Bulgarians 590000 72.3%
Turks 158000 19.4%
Roma (Gypsies) 19500 2.4%
others 48000 5.9%

The ethnic composition of the population of Eastern Rumelia, according to the provincial census taken in 1884, was the following:[16]

Ethnicity (1884 census) Population Percentage
Bulgarians 681,734 70.0%
Turks 200,489 20.6%
Greeks 53,028 5.4%
Roma (Gypsies) 27,190 2.8%
Jews 6,982 0.7%
Armenians 1,865 0.2%

Population of Eastern Rumelia according to the 1880 census:[17]

kaza Bulgarians Turks Greeks Roma Jews Armenians
Plovdiv 127.619 36.848 14.265 4736 1185 806
Haskovo 74.656 55.334 1138 2116 246
Stara Zagora 124.666 27.115 35 2811 431
Sliven 96.425 12.463 14.184 3685 845 276
Pazardzhik 94.873 14.898 676 3487 1112 152
Burgas 36.997 28.091 11.798 2686 358 71

1903-1904 census of Salonika Vilayet

Population of the Salonika vilayet: [12]

sanjak Muslims Greeks Bulgarians Vlachs Jews
Saloniki 220.000 190.000 85.000 15.000 48.000
Serres 145.000 78.000 130.000 4000 2000
Drama 119.000 22.000 4000 1000

Ethnoreligious estimates and registered population

Eyalets

The Muslim population in Silistra subprovince was most numerous (55.17%), while in the Vidin and Nis subprovinces the non-Muslim population constituted 75.59% and 81.18% respectively. Population of the eyalets(Silistra, Vidin and Niş) which constituted the establishment of the Danube Vilayet, according to the 1858 report of the British consul Edward Neale:[18]

Community Population
Bulgarian Orthodox 910,735 (65%)
Muslim 430,485 (31%)
Vlach 25,000 (2%)
Greek 10,100 (1%)
Jewish 5,000 (0%)
Others 9,535 (1%)
TOTAL 1,390,855 (100%)

Danube Vilayet

The Danube Province was founded in 1864 and consisted the subprovinces of Ruse, Varna, Tulcea, Tarnovo, Vidin, Sofia and Niş.[13] Two subprovinces (Sofia and Niş) were separated from the Danube Province, so that Niş sanjak was part of Prizren Vilayet in 1869-1874, while the detached Sofia Province was founded in 1876, and finally both Sofia and Niş were annexed to Adrianople and Kosovo Vilayets respectively in 1877.[13]

At least 1.100.000 Muslims as well as 1.700.000 non-Muslims lived in this province before the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, with the main national components consisting of Bulgarians and Turks.[13] New large communties of Circassians and Tatars were resettled in the province among the 250.000-300.000 Muslim refugees from Crimea and Caucasus from 1855 to 1864, however after the war of 1877-1878 both the Muslim and Turkish population dropped to almost the half of their previous quantity,[13] leaving only 63 Circassians recorded in Bulgaria by 1880.[19]

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet (excluding Niş sancak) in 1865 according to Kuyûd-ı Atîk (the Danube Vilayet printing press):[20]

Community Rusçuk Sanjak Vidin Sanjak Varna Sanjak Tırnova Sanjak Tulça Sanjak Sofya Sanjak Danube Vilayet
Bulgar Millet 85,268 (38%) 93,613 (80%) 9,553 (18%) 113,213 (59%) 12,961 (22%) 142,410 (86%) 457,018 (56%)
Islam Millet 138,017 (61%) 14,835 (13%) 38,230 (74%) 77,539 (40%) 38,479 (65%) 20,612 (12%) 327,712 (40%)
Ulah Millet 0 (0%) 7,446 (6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 7,446 (1%)
Ermeni Millet 926 (0%) 0 (0%) 368 (1%) 0 (0%) 5,720 (10%) 0 (0%) 7,014 (1%)
Rum Millet 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2,639 (5%) 0 (0%) 2,215 (4%) 0 (0%) 4,908 (1%)
Yahudi Millet 1,101 (0%) 630 (1%) 14 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (0%) 1,790 (1%) 3,536 (0%)
Muslim Gypsies 312 (0%) 245 (0%) 118 (0%) 128 (0%) 19 (0%) 766 (0%) 1,588 (0%)
Non-Muslim Gypsies 145 (0%) 130 (0%) 999 (2%) 1,455 (1%) 92 (0%) 786 (0%) 3,607 (0%)
TOTAL 225,769 (100%) 116,899 (100%) 51,975 (100%) 192,335 (100%) 59,487 (100%) 166,364 (100%) 812,829 (100%)

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet (excluding Niş sanjak) in 1866-1873 according to the editor of the Danube newspaper Ismail Kemal:[3]

Community Population
MUSLIMS 481,798 (42%)
- Established Muslims 392,369 (34%)
- Muslim settlers 64,398 (6%)
- Muslim Gypsies 25,031 (2%)
CHRISTIANS 646,215 (57%)
- Bulgarians 592,573 (52%)
- Greeks 7,655 (1%)
- Armenians 2,128 (0%)
- Catholics 3,556 (0%)
- other Christians 40,303 (4%)
JEWS 5,375 (0%)
NON-MUSLIM Gypsies 7,663 (1%)
TOTAL Danube Vilayet 1,141,051 (100%)

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet (excluding Niş sancak) in 1868 according to Kemal Karpat:[4]

Group Population
Christian Bulgarians 490.467
Muslims 359.907

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet (excluding Niş sanjak) in 1875 according to Tahrir-i Cedid (the Danube Vilayet printing press):[21]

Community Rusçuk Sanjak Vidin Sanjak Varna Sanjak Tırnova Sanjak Tulça Sanjak Sofya Sanjak Danube Vilayet
Bulgar Millet 114,792 (37%) 131,279 (73%) 21,261 (25%) 148,713 (60%) 10,553 (12%) 179,202 (84%) 605,800 (54%)
Islam Millet 164,455 (53%) 20,492 (11%) 52,742 (61%) 88,445 (36%) 53,059 (61%) 27,001 (13%) 406,194 (36%)
Ermeni Millet 991 (0%) 0 (0%) 808 (1%) 0 (0%) 3,885 (4%) 0 (0%) 5,684 (1%)
Rum Millet 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3,421 (4%) 494 (0%) 217 (0%) 0 (0%) 4,132 (0%)
Yahudi Millet 1,102 (0%) 1,009 (1%) 110 (0%) 0 (0%) 780 (1%) 2,374 (1%) 5,375 (0%)
Circassian Muhacirs 16,588 (5%) 6,522 (4%) 4,307 (5%) 0 (0%) 2,954 (3%) 202 (0%) 30,573 (3%)
Muslim Gypsies 9,579 (3%) 2,783 (2%) 2,825 (3%) 6,545 (3%) 139 (0%) 2,964 (1%) 24,835 (2%)
Non-Muslim Gypsies 1,790 (1%) 2,048 (1%) 331 (0%) 1,697 (1%) 356 (0%) 1,437 (1%) 7,659 (1%)
Vlachs, Catholics, etc. 500 (0%) 14,690 (8%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 15,512 (18%) 0 (0%) 30,702 (3%)
TOTAL 309,797 (100%) 178,823 (100%) 85,805 (100%) 245,894 (100%) 87,455 (100%) 213,180 (100%) 1,120,954 (100%)

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet in 1876 according to the Ottoman officer Stanislas Saint Clair:[3]

Community Population
Turk Muslims 457,018 (36%)
Other Muslims 104,639 (8%)
Bulgarian Christians 639,813 (50%)
Armenian Christians 2,128 (0%)
Vlach and Greek Christians 56,647 (4%)
Gypsies 8,220 (1%)
Jews 5,847 (0%)
TOTAL Danube Vilayet 1,274,282 (100%)

Total population of the Danube Vilayet(including Niş and Sofia sanjaks) according to the 1876 edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica:[22]

Group Population
Bulgarians 1,500,000 (63%)
Turks 500,000 (21%)
Tatars 100,000 (4%)
Circassians 90,000 (4%)
Albanians 70,000 (3%)
Romanians 40,000 (2%)
Gypsies 25,000 (1%)
Russians 10,000 (0%)
Armenians 10,000 (0%)
Jews 10,000 (0%)
Greeks 8,000 (0%)
Serbs 5,000 (0%)
Germans, Italians, Arabs and others 1,000 (0%)
TOTAL Danube Vilayet 2,369,000 (100%)
Distribution of the population of towns in the Danube Vilayet in 1876 according to Aubaret(excl. Niş sancak)

Total Population of the Danube Vilayet(excluding Niş sanjak) in 1876 estimated by the French counsel Aubaret from the register:[23][24]

Community Population
MUSLIMS 1,120,000 (48%)
incl. Turks 774,000 (33%)
incl. Circassians 200,000 (8%)
incl. Tatars 110,000 (5%)
incl. Gypsies 35,000 (1%)
NON-MUSLIMS 1,233,500 (52%)
incl. Bulgarians 1,130,000 (48%)
incl. Gypsies 12,000 (1%)
incl. Greeks 12,000 (1%)
incl. Jews 12,000 (1%)
incl. Armenians 2,500 (0%)
incl. Vlachs and others 65,000 (3%)
TOTAL Danube Vilayet 2,353,000 (100%)

Total Population of the two mainly Turkish sanjaks of the Danube Vilayet in 1876 according to the French counsel Aubaret:[25]

Community Varna Sanjak Rusçuk Sanjak
Turks 92,800 (68%) 388,000 (57%)
Bulgarians 32,200 (24%) 229,500 (34%)
Circassians 33,000 (5%)
Gypsies 2,900 (2%) 23,500 (3%)
Greeks 6,842 (5%)
Jews 2,200 (0%)
Armenians 2,000 (0%)
Vlachs 1,000 (0%)
TOTAL 136,000 (100%) 680,000 (100%)

Adrianople Vilayet

Total population of the Adrianople Vilayet in 1878 according to the Turkish author Kemal Karpat:[4]

Group POPULATION
Bulgarians 40% (526,691)
Other Christians 22% (283,603)
Muslims 39% (503,058) - TOTAL Adrianople Vilayet 100% (1,304,352)

Male population of the Filibe Sancak of the Adrianople Vilayet in 1876 according to the British R. J. Moore: [12] [26]

Turks Muslim Gypsies Christian Gypsies Bulgarians Greeks Armenians Jews KAZA TOTAL
Filibe kaza 28% (35,400) 4% (5,474) 0% (495) 63% (80,107) 3% (3,700) 0% (380) 1% (691) 100% (126,247)
Tatar Pazardzhik kaza 23% (10,805) 4% (2,120) 1% (579) 70% (33,395) 1% (300) 0% (94) 1% (344) 100% (47,637)
Hasköy kaza 55% (33,323) 3% (1,548) 0% (145) 42% (25,503) 0% (0) 0% (3) 0% (65) 100% (60,587)
Zagora kaza 20% (6,677) 3% (989) 0% (70) 75% (24,857) 0% (0) 0% (0) 2% (740) 100% (33,333)
Kazanlak kaza 46% (14,365) 4% (1,384) 0% (24) 48% (14,906) 0% (0) 0% (0) 1% (219) 100% (30,898)
Chirpan kaza 24% (5,157) 2% (420) 0% (88) 74% (15,959) 0% (0) 0% (0) 0% (0) 100% (21,624)
Sultan-Jeri kaza 97% (13,336) 1% (159) 0% (0) 2% (262) 0% (0) 0% (0) 0% (0) 100% (13,757)
Akcselebi kaza 59% (8,197) 3% (377) 0% (0) 38% (5,346) 0% (0) 0% (0) 0% (0) 100% (13,920)
TOTAL Filibe Sanjak 37% (127,260) 4% (12,471) 0% (1,401) 58% (200,335) 1% (4,000) 0% (477) 1% (2,059) 100% (348,000)

Male population of İslimiye sanjak of Adrianople Vilayet in 1873 according to Ottoman almanacs: [27]

Community Population
Muslims 37,200 (47%)
Non-Muslims 46,961 (53%)
TOTAL Islimiye sanjak 100% (84,161)

Male population of İslimiye sanjak of Adrianople Vilayet in 1875 according to British R.J. Moore: [3]

Community Population
Muslims 42% (44,747)
Non-Muslims 58% (60,854)
TOTAL Islimiye sanjak 100% (105,601)

Total population of the Sanjak of Gümülcine of the Adrianople Vilayet In the 19th century:

Sanjak Muslims[28] Christian Bulgarians Christian Greeks
Gümülcine 206.914 20.671 15.241

Eastern Rumelia

Total population of the later Eastern Rumelia before and after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 (Drummons-Wolff to Salisbury, 26.09.1878) after forced migration:[4][12]

Population 1875 1878 1879
Muslim Turks 29% (220,000) 16% (90,000) +100.000
Muslim Pomaks 3% (25,000) 4% (25,000)
Muslim Tatars 1% (10,000) 1% (8,000)
Muslim Circassians 1% (10,000) 0% (0)
Muslim Gyspies 3% (25,000) 3% (16,000)
Jews 1% (9,000) 1% (8,000)
Bulgarian Catholics 1% (9,000) 2% (9,000)
Bulgarian Exarchists 53% (400,000) 66% (380,000)
Grecophile Bulgrians 5% (35,000) 5% (30,000)
Greeks 5% (35,000) 5% (30,000)
Greek Vlachs 0% (2,000) 0% (2,000)
Greek Albanians 0% (2,000) 0% (2,000)
Armenians 0% (2,000) 0% (2,000)
TOTAL 100% (760,000) 100% (580,000)

Constantinople Vilayet

Population of Istanbul in 1885 according to Stanford Shaw(Male:female):[4]

Group Born in Born outside
Muslim 143.586(M:F 1:2) 241.324(M:F 2:1)
Greek Orthodox 68.764 83.977
Armenian Orthodox 78.679 70.991
Bulgarian 46 4331
Catholic 3722 2720
Jewish 42.363 1998
Protestant 225 594
Latin 609 473

Salonika Vilayet

Male population of some sanjaks in 1880 according to Earl Granville:[12]

Sanjak Muslims Greeks Patriarchist Bulgarians Exarchist Bulgarians Vlachs Jews
Siroz 54.436 31.820 28.053 25.335 2859 988
Salonika 95.669 61.434 43.099-50.000 15.975 4462 25.473

Male population of some sanjaks in 1878 according to Bulgarian Kusev and Gruev:[12]

Sanjak Muslims Bulgarians Greeks Vlachs Gypsies Pomaks
Siroz 29.344 90.895 17.226 1812 1170 13873
Salonika 39.441 126.000 13.279 1751 2862-8697

Total population of some sanjaks in 1881 according to Italian Hondros:[12]

Sanjak Turks Greeks Bulgarians Jews Vlachs
Siroz 91.700 66.500 114.580 1520 4150

Total population of some sanjaks according to vice-consul Stanislas Recchioli in 1878:

Sanjak Muslims[4] incl. Turks Christians
Drama 270.998 249.165 43.549

Total

Total population according to Abdolonyme Ubicini who based the statistics on the Ottoman census of 1844:[4]

community in Europe in Asia in Africa
Turks 2,100,000 (14%) 10,700,000 (67%)
Greeks 1,000,000 (6%) 1,000,000 (6%)
Armenians 400,000 (3%) 2,000,000 (12%)
Jews 70,000 (0%) 80,000 (0%)
Slavs 6,200,000 (40%)
Romanians 4,000,000 (26%)
Albanians 1,500,000 (10%)
Tatars 16,000 (0%) 20,000 (0%)
Arabs 900,000 (6%) 3,800,000 (100%)
Assyrians and Chaldeans 235,000 (1%)
Druzes 30,000 (0%)
Kurds 1,000,000 (6%)
Turcomans 85,000 (1%)
Gypsies 214,000 (1%)
Muslims 4,550,000 (29%) 12,650,000 (79%) 3,800,000 (100%)
Christians 10,640,000 (69%) 3,260,000 (20%)
Jews 70,000 (0%) 80,000 (0%)
Total 15,500,000 (100%) 16,050,000 (100%) 3,800,000 (100%)
Major millets in the European sanjaks and vilayets in 1877.
A 1876 map of the Russian diplomat Teplov on the Muslim and Christian population in some kazas concerning the Constantinople Conference.

European part

Estimates in some eighteen sources show that the Muslims constituted about 35% of the total Balkan population during the first half of the 19th century, while in the second half of the century the proportion grew to 43%.[4] According to thirty three sources the proportion of Turks in the European provinces during the 19th century ranges from 11 to 24 percent; of Greeks from 9 to 16 percent; of Bulgarians from 24 to 39 percent.[4] The Turks made up two thirds of the Muslims in the Danube Vilayet and most of them in the Adrianople Vilayet and Salonika Vilayet.[4] In the more western vilayets the Muslims were a majority, which consisted usually of Slavs and Albanians. In the Ioannina Vilayet the Orthodox Christians were dominant, a majority of whom were ethnically Albanian according to Ottoman officials and were also three fourths of the Muslims.[29] In 1867 Salaheddin Bey estimated 595,000 Circassian newcomers in the European part and 400,000 Armenians in European part.[4] Practically all of the Circassians began migrating to Anatolia after the Russian military advances in the last quarter of the century.[4]

Total population of the European part in 1831 according to David Urquhart:[30][4]

Community Population
Muslim Turks 700,000 (7%)
Muslim Albanians 1,066,000 (10%)
Muslim Bosniaks, Tuleman, Pomaks 2,000,000 (19%)
Christian Greeks(excl. Greece) 1,180,000 (11%)
Christian Slavs 4,000,000 (37%)
Christian Albanians 530,000 (5%)
Christian Vlachs 600,000 (6%)
Jews, Armenians, etc. 600,000 (6%)
TOTAL 10,676,000 (100%)

Total population of the European part in the 1840s according to Auguste Viquesnel:[31]

Ethnic group Total Muslims Christians Jews
Moldo-Wallachians 4,112,105 (27%) 3,976,825 135,280
Bulgarians 3,000,000 (20%) 60,000 2,940,000
Ottomans, Yörüks, Tatars 2,100,000 (14%) 2,100,000
Albanians 1,400,000 (9%) 1,250,000 150,000
Bosnians and Herzegovians 1,300,000 (9%) 600,000 700,000
Serbs 1,004,000 (7%) 15,000 987,600 1,400
Greeks 975,000 (6%) 15,000 960,000
Armenians 400,000 (3%) 400,000
Gypsies 214,000 (1%) 140,000
Croats 200,000 (1%) 200,000
Montenegrins 100,000 (1%) 100,000
Jews 70,000 (0%) 70,000
Cossacks 9,000 (0%) 9,000
TOTAL 15,184,105 (100%) 4,180,000 10,723,425 206,680

Total population of European part in 1872 according to the military attaché in Constantinople Ritter zur Helle von Samo based on Ottoman province yearbooks:[4]

Vilayet Muslims Non-Muslims
Istanbul (Europe) 285,100 (42%) 400,100 (58%)
Adrianople 503,058 (39%) 801,294 (61%)
Scutari 100,000 (44%) 128,000 (56%)
Prizren 728,286 (61%) 470,868 (39%)
Danube 817,200 (41%) 1,199,230 (59%)
Janina 249,699 (35%) 460,802 (65%)
Salonica 429,410 (35%) 807,928 (65%)
Bosnia 630,456 (51%) 612,000 (49%)
Crete 90,000 (43%) 120,000 (57%)
Istanbul (Asia) 455,500 (57%) 340,500 (43%)
Serbia 4,965 (0%) 1,314,424 (100%)
United Principalities 3,000 (0%) 4,497,000 (100%)
Montenegro 0 (0%) 100,000 (100%)

Total population of the European part in 1876 according to Ernst Georg Ravenstein who relied on several sources including Ottoman statistics:[32][4]

Community Population
Muslim Turks and Tatars 1,388,000 (17%)
Muslim Bulgarians 790,000 (10%)
Muslim Albanians 723,000 (9%)
Muslim Serbs 442,000 (5%)
Muslim Circassians 144,000 (2%)
Muslim Gypsies 52,000 (1%)
Muslim Greeks 38,000 (0%)
Muslim Arabs 3,000 (0%)
Muslim foreigners 5,000 (0%)
Non-Muslim Bulgarians 2,071,000 (25%)
Non-Muslim Greeks 1,082,000 (13%)
Non-Muslim Serbs 672,000 (8%)
Non-Muslim Albanians 308,000 (4%)
Non-Muslim Romanians 200,000 (2%)
Non-Muslim Armenians 100,000 (1%)
Jews 72,000 (1%)
Non-Muslim foreigenrs 60,000 (1%)
Non-Muslim Gypsies 52,000 (1%)
Non-Muslim Russians 10,000 (0%)
TOTAL 8,207,000 (100%)

Total population of some sanjaks in 1877 according to Russian diplomat Teplov:[4][33]

Sanjak Bulgarians Non-Bulgarians Muslims Non-Muslims
Vidin 263.000 131.600 39.723 333.317
Tırnova 188.500 112.000 68.199 328.390
Niş 283.000 148.100 72.188 36.0559
Sofia 297.500 189.000 57.789 428.949
Rusçuk 201.025 354.324 268824 290626
Varna 36.000 74.100 64.621 45.875
Tulça 40.570 188.930 103.328 116.203
Total (Danube) 1.310.695 1.198.054 674.672 1.903.919
Islimiye 100.500 186.400 64.459 213.066
Philippopolis 382.500 564.600 318.052 628.770
Total 1.793.695 1.949.054 1.057.183 2.745.755

Population of the sanjaks according to a Greek author: [12]

Sanjak Greeks Bulgarians Muslims Others
Tekirdağ 117.600 19.000 32.000
Gelibolu 98.900 35.000 10.000
Adrianople 171.000 78.320 125.000 35.000
Islimiye 37.100 54.200 54.300 30.000
Filibe 32.000 180.000 120.000 38.000
Drama 42.000 1000 35.000 30.000
Salonika 210.500 59.500 140.000 70.000
Siroz 175.000 20.000 84.000 15.000
Bitola 278.000 60.000 90.000 20.000

Male Population of the parts of the Danube, Adrianople and Salonika vilayets corresponding to the modern Republic of Bulgaria in 1875 according to Totev:[3]

Place Muslims Non-Muslims
Total 687.998 1.053.387
Danube Vilayet 451.680 712.842

Special Reports

Arnold J. Toynbee

During the World War I; The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire was a book by Viscount Bryce and Arnold J. Toynbee which compiled statements from eyewitnesses from other countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland, who similarly attested to Armenians in the Ottoman Empire during 1915-1916. The publication presents Arnold J. Toynbee's analysis on Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire. A summary table of his analysis included in the page 199. In the "vilayet of Van", there were two portions, portions in modern use corresponds to county. As explained by Arnold J. Toynbee in the footprint at page 199, he developed his analysis by excluding certain portions of the province where he said "Armenians were a minor". Arnold Toynbee in finding the ratio of Armenians in vilayet of Van; he removed the values originating from portions of Van (listed in the foot print) where Armenians were in minority. The presented table in page 1999 shows the re-calculated values by Arnold J. Toynbee of these selected provinces using values of the parts (counties, sanjacks) which Armenians were not in minority. The presented map shows the re-calculated values of the stated provinces using values where Armenians are not in minority.

See also

Articles discussing the demographics of the Ottoman Empire:

References

  1. ^ Behar, Cem, ed. 1996. Osmanlı Đmparatorluğu'nun ve Türkiye'nin nüfusu, 1500-1927. Ankara: T.C. Basbakanlık Devlet Đstatistik Enstitüsü = State Institute of Statistics Prime Ministry Republic of Turkey.
  2. ^ Karpat, K.H. (1985). Ottoman population, 1830-1914: demographic and social characteristics. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Pres. 
  3. ^ a b c d e [Димитър Аркадиев. ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ В БРОЯ НА НАСЕЛЕНИЕТО ПО БЪЛГАРСКИТЕ ЗЕМИ В СЪСТАВА НА ОСМАНСКАТА ИМПЕРИЯ http://spisaniestatistika.nsi.bg/page/bg/details.php?article_id=84&tab=en] National Statistical Institute
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Karpat, K.H. (1985). Ottoman population, 1830-1914: demographic and social characteristics. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Pres. 
  5. ^ (Karpat, 1978 & pp.237-274)
  6. ^ (Shaw, 1978 & p.323-338)
  7. ^ Karpat 1985
  8. ^ Studies on Ottoman social and political history, Kemal H. Karpat, p.766, 2002
  9. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford Jay Shaw, p.241, 1977
  10. ^ "1914 Ottoman Census table from" (PDF). 
  11. ^ "Makale Takip Sistemi Mobile". 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Demeter, Gabor. "Ethnic maps as political advertisements and instruments of symbolic nation-building and their role in influencing decision-making from Berlin (1877-1881), to Bucharest (1913)". 
  13. ^ a b c d e KOYUNCU, Aşkın. "Population And Demographics In The Danube Province (1864-1877)". www.turkishstudies.net. 
  14. ^ Bŭlgarii︠a︡ 1300-institut︠s︡ii i dŭrzhavna tradit︠s︡ii︠a︡: dokladi na tretii︠a︡ Kongres na Bŭlgarskoto istorichesko druzhestvo, 3-5 oktomvri 1981, p. 326
  15. ^ "Eтнически състав на населението в България. Методологически постановки при установяване на етническия състав" (in Bulgarian). MIRIS - Minority Rights Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  16. ^ "6.1 European population committee (CDPO)". Council of Europe. p. II. The Demographic Situation of Ethnic/minority Groups 1. Population Size and Growth. 
  17. ^ "Full text of "Bulgarien und Ostrumelien: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Zeitraumes von 1878-1886, nebst ..."". 
  18. ^ (PDF). pp. 681–682 http://www.turkishstudies.net/Makaleler/880266314_38KoyuncuAşkın-trh-675-737.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ Kalionski, Alexei. Communities, Identities and Migrations in Southeast Europe Collected Articles. Anamnesis. ISBN 978-619-90188-4-2, p. 48
  20. ^ (PDF). p. 695 http://www.turkishstudies.net/Makaleler/880266314_38KoyuncuAşkın-trh-675-737.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ (PDF). p. 717 http://www.turkishstudies.net/Makaleler/880266314_38KoyuncuAşkın-trh-675-737.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ Kellogg, Day Otis (1876). Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. J.M. Stoddart. p. 462. 
  23. ^ Suleiman, Yasir. Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 9781136787843. 
  24. ^ ENGİN DENİZ TANIR. THE MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY OTTOMAN BULGARIA FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF THE FRENCH TRAVELERS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY. pp. 52–55. 
  25. ^ ENGİN DENİZ TANIR. THE MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY OTTOMAN BULGARIA FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF THE FRENCH TRAVELERS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY. 
  26. ^ More, R.J., Under the Balkans. Notes of a visit to the district of Philippopolis in 1876. London, 1877.
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ [2]
  29. ^ Gawrych, George. The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913, p.24
  30. ^ David Urquhart, Turkey and Its Resources, Its Municipal Organization and Free Trade (London, 1833), pp. 272-73,
  31. ^ ENGİN DENİZ TANIR. THE MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY OTTOMAN BULGARIA FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF THE FRENCH TRAVELERS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY. p. 49. 
  32. ^ E. G. Ravenstein, "Distribution of the Population in the Part of Europe Overrun by Turks," The Geographical Magazine 3 (October 1876)
  33. ^ 1877-1878 Osmanlı-Rus Harbi Öncesinde Şarkî Rumeli Nüfusu

Bibliography

  • Shaw, Stanford Jay; Shaw, Ezel Kural (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Shaw, Stanford. 1978. The Ottoman Census System and Population, 1831-1914. International Journal of Middle East Studies (9):323-338.
  • Karpat, Kemal. 1978. Ottoman Population Records and the Census of 1881/82-1893. International Journal of Middle East Studies (9):237-274.
  • L. Kinross, The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire, 1979
  • M. Kabadayı, Inventory for the Ottoman Empire / Turkish Republic 1500–2000 [3]
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