Demographics of Zambia

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Zambian people
Languages
English and Regional languages
Religion
Christianity
Zambia's population (1961-2008).

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Zambia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and others aspects of the population.

Ethnic groups

Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups are small, and only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. The majority of Zambians are subsistence farmers, but the country is also fairly urbanised, with 42% of the population being city residents. The predominant religion is a blend of traditional beliefs and Christianity.

Expatriates, mostly British or South African, as well as some white Zambian citizens (about 40,000), live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are either employed in mines, financial and related activities or retired. Zambia also has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians.

2000 census

African: 99.5% (includes Bemba, Tonga, Chewa, Lozi, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Lunda, and other African groups)
Other: 0.5% (includes Europeans, Asians, and Americans)

(2000 Census)

Population

According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[1][2] the total population of Zambia is 17,351,708 in 2018, compared to only 2 340 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 46.4%, 50.6% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.1% was 65 years or older.[3]

Total population[4] Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2 340 000 44.9 52.3 2.7
1955 2 653 000 44.7 52.7 2.6
1960 3 045 000 44.9 52.6 2.5
1965 3 537 000 45.2 52.2 2.6
1970 4 139 000 46.4 50.9 2.7
1975 4 900 000 47.0 50.3 2.7
1980 5 775 000 47.3 49.9 2.8
1985 6 785 000 46.6 50.6 2.8
1990 7 860 000 45.8 51.4 2.8
1995 8 919 000 45.3 51.8 2.9
2000 10 202 000 45.3 51.8 2.9
2005 11 462 000 45.9 51.0 3.0
2010 13 089 000 46.4 50.6 3.1

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is in Zambia not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [3]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 117 000 54 000 63 000 46.8 21.7 25.1 6.75 148
1955-1960 136 000 57 000 78 000 47.6 20.1 27.5 6.90 137
1960-1965 160 000 62 000 98 000 48.6 18.8 29.8 7.15 127
1965-1970 189 000 68 000 121 000 49.3 17.7 31.6 7.40 118
1970-1975 219 000 72 000 147 000 48.5 16.0 32.5 7.43 107
1975-1980 254 000 79 000 174 000 47.5 14.9 32.6 7.38 100
1980-1985 283 000 91 000 192 000 45.1 14.4 30.6 6.95 99
1985-1990 322 000 113 000 209 000 44.0 15.4 28.6 6.66 103
1990-1995 365 000 151 000 214 000 43.5 18.0 25.5 6.30 107
1995-2000 427 000 187 000 240 000 44.6 19.6 25.1 6.20 105
2000-2005 480 000 212 000 269 000 44.4 19.6 24.8 6.10 103
2005-2010 547 000 204 000 342 000 44.5 16.7 27.9 6.20 95
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [5]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2010 13 092 666 442 998 164 385 278 613 35,4 13,1 22,2

Fertility and Births

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR) :[6] [7]

Year CBR Total TFR (Wanted TFR) Total CBR Urban TFR (Wanted TFR) Urban CBR Rural TFR (Wanted TFR) Rural
1992 45 6.5 (5.4) 44 5.8 (4.7) 46 7.1 (6.2)
1996 45.2 6.08 (5.2) 43.7 5.08 (4.1) 46.1 6.86 (6.1)
2001-2002 43.3 5.9 (4.9) 36.7 4.3 (3.4) 47.0 6.9 (5.8)
2007 43.6 6.2 (5.2) 36.3 4.3 (3.6) 47.5 7.5 (6.3)
2013-2014 37.2 5.3 (4.5) 32.2 3.7 (3.3) 40.3 6.6 (5.6)
2018 35.3 4.7 30.9 3.4 38.4 5.8

Fertility data as of 2013-2014 (DHS Program):[8]

Province Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Central 5.9 8.1 6.8
Copperbelt 4.0 7.6 5.5
Eastern 5.8 8.7 6.9
Luapula 6.4 11.4 6.6
Lusaka 3.7 7.7 5.1
Muchinga 6.3 10.3 7.2
Northern 6.6 10.4 7.6
North Western 6.2 9.2 6.7
Southern 6.2 9.2 6.9
Western 5.6 8.1 6.0

Fertility rate by religion

At national level, the TFR was highest among women with no religious affiliation at 6.5. Among the women with religious affiliation Protestants had the highest TFR of 6.0, followed by Muslims with 5.9 and Catholics with 5.7.

Religious Affiliation [9] Total fertility rate
Protestantism 6.0
Catholicism 5.7
Islam 5.9
Hinduism 2.0
Other religions 5.8
Not religious 6.5
Zambia (total) 5.9

Life expectancy

Period Life expectancy in
Years[10]
1950–1955 42.07
1955–1960 Increase 44.13
1960–1965 Increase 46.08
1965–1970 Increase 47.83
1970–1975 Increase 50.16
1975–1980 Increase 51.47
1980–1985 Decrease 50.31
1985–1990 Decrease 46.74
1990–1995 Decrease 43.79
1995–2000 Decrease 43.53
2000–2005 Increase 46.86
2005–2010 Increase 52.93
2010–2015 Increase 59.73

Other demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics of Zambia in 2019 are from the World Population Review.[11]

  • One birth every 47 seconds
  • One death every 4 minutes
  • One net migrant every 65 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 1 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[12]

Population

16,445,079 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure

Population pyramid of Zambia in 2017
0-14 years: 45.95% (male 3,796,548 /female 3,759,624)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,643,364 /female 1,645,713)
25-54 years: 28.79% (male 2,384,765 /female 2,349,877)
55-64 years: 2.95% (male 225,586 /female 260,252)
65 years and over: 2.31% (male 166,224 /female 213,126) (2018 est.)

Median age

total: 16.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 222th
male: 16.7 years
female: 16.9 years (2018 est.)
total: 17.2 years
male: 17.1 years
female: 17.3 years (2010 est.)
total: 16.46 years
male: 16.26 years
female: 16.67 years (2005 est.)
total: 16.5 years
male: 16.4 years
female: 16.6 years (2002 est.)

Birth rate

41.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th

Death rate

12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)

Total fertility rate

5.58 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 8th

Population growth rate

2.91% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 10th

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.2 years (2013/14 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 100th

Contraceptive prevalence rate

49% (2013/14)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 91.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)

Population distribution

one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira

Urbanization

urban population: 43.5% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 53 years
male: 51.4 years
female: 54.7 years (2018 est.)
total population: 52.7 years
male: 51.1 years
female: 54.4 years (2017 est.)
total population:37.24 years
male:37.08 years
female:37.41 years (2000 est.)

Nationality

noun:Zambian(s)
adjective:Zambian

Demographic profile

Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood.[12]

Religions[13]

Languages[13]

Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)
note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 15.2%
male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)

See also

References

  1. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  3. ^ a b "2015 Revision of World Population Prospects". Esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  4. ^ De Wulf, Martin. "Zambia 2015". Population Pyramids of the World from 1950 to 2100.
  5. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  6. ^ "Cambodia - Demographic and Health Survey 2010". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  7. ^ "National Health Survey 1998" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  8. ^ "Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  11. ^ "Zambia Population 2019", World Population Review, June 6, 2018
  12. ^ a b Zambia: People, CIA World Factbook, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ a b "Africa :: ZAMBIA". CIA The World Factbook.
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