Demographics of Turkey

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Demographics of Republic of Turkey
Turkey-demography.png
1961–2016
Population Increase 80,810,525
(31 December 2017)
Growth rate Increase 1.24% (2017)
Birth rate Decrease 16.9 births/1,000
population (2015)
Life expectancy Increase 78 years (2014)
 • male Increase 75.3 years (2014)
 • female Increase 80.7 years (2014)
Fertility rate Decrease 2.14 children born/woman (2015)
Infant mortality rate Positive decrease 11.6 deaths/1000 infants (2012)
Age structure
0–14 years Decrease 23.6% (2017)
15–64 years Increase 67.9% (2017)
65 and over Negative increase 8.5% (2017)
Sex ratio
Total 1.02 male(s)/female
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.84 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Turk(s) adjective: Turkish
Major ethnic Turks, Kurds
Minor ethnic Albanians, Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Azerbaijanis, Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Chechens, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Lazi
Language
Official Turkish
Spoken Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Circassian, Crimean Tatar, Georgian, Laz, Greek, Kurdish, Zazaki, Ladino, Neo-Aramaic

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Turkey, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

In 2017, the population of Turkey was estimated to be 80.8 million with a growth rate of 1.24% per annum.[1]

The population is relatively young with 23.6% falling in the 0–14 age bracket.[1] According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics, from 1990 to 2008 the population growth in Turkey was 16 million or 29%.[2]

Population

Historical population[3] [4]
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1927 13,648,270 —    
1935 16,158,018 +2.13%
1940 17,820,950 +1.98%
1945 18,790,174 +1.06%
1950 20,947,188 +2.20%
1955 24,064,763 +2.81%
1960 27,754,820 +2.89%
1965 31,391,421 +2.49%
1970 35,605,176 +2.55%
1975 40,347,719 +2.53%
1980 44,736,957 +2.09%
1985 50,664,458 +2.52%
1990 56,473,035 +2.19%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
2000 67,803,927 +1.85%
2007 70,586,256 +0.58%
2008 71,517,100 +1.32%
2009 72,561,312 +1.46%
2010 73,722,988 +1.60%
2011 74,724,269 +1.36%
2012 75,627,384 +1.21%
2013 76,667,864 +1.38%
2014 77,695,904 +1.34%
2015 78,741,053 +1.35%
2016 79,814,871 +1.36%
2017 80,810,525 +1.25%

Life expectancy

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 41.01 1985–1990 63.04
1955–1960 43.69 1990–1995 65.49
1960–1965 47.22 1995–2000 68.49
1965–1970 50.78 2000–2005 71.37
1970–1975 53.75 2005–2010 73.37
1975–1980 57.05 2010–2015 74.83
1980–1985 60.22

Source: UN[5]

Vital statistics

UN estimates

The figures from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs:[6]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 1,127,000 551,000 677,000 48.4 18.8 29.6 6.69 167.4
1955–1960 1,216,000 564,000 752,000 46.9 18.4 28.5 6.5 163.9
1960–1965 1,277,000 547,000 799,000 44.3 17.6 26.7 6.2 160.5
1965–1970 1,343,000 527,000 792,000 40.3 16.7 23.6 5.80 156.9
1970–1975 1,451,000 523,000 887,000 38.7 15.0 23.7 5.39 141.3
1975–1980 1,497,000 505,000 977,000 36.4 13.0 23.4 4.69 119.4
1980–1985 1,527,000 481,000 1,074,000 33.8 10.8 23.0 4.11 96.7
1985–1990 1,431,000 454,000 976,000 27.7 8.8 18.9 3.39 78.0
1990–1995 1,375,000 438,000 987,000 25.1 7.7 17.4 2.90 63.0
1995–2000 1,389,000 418,000 983,000 22.8 6.9 15.9 2.65 45.5
2000–2005 1,345,000 404,000 923,000 20.5 6.2 14.3 2.37 31.4
2005–2010 1,309,000 415,000 932,000 18.7 5.9 12.8 2.20 24.0
2010–2015 1,302,000 439,000 914,000 17.3 5.8 11.5 2.12 13.0
2015–2020 1,281,000 473,000 15.8 5.8 10.0 2.02
2020–2025 1,242,000 509,000 14.6 6.0 8.6 1.94
2025–2030 1,191,000 543,000 13.6 6.2 7.4 1.88
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Registered births and deaths

Birth statistics of Turkey from 2001 onward are from The Central Population Administrative System (MERNIS) data base which is available on-line.[7] Birth statistics are updated continually because MERNIS has dynamic structure.[8]

In 2010 Turkey had a crude birth rate of 17.2 per 1000, in 2011 16.7, down from 20.3 in 2001. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2010 was 2.05 children per woman, in 2011 2.02. The crude birth rate in 2010 ranged from 11.5 in West Marmara (TFR 1.52) (11,5;1.55 in 2011), similar to Bulgaria, to 27.9 in Southeast Anatolia (TFR 3.53) (27.1;3,42 in 2011), similar to Syria. Similarly, in 2012, the TFR ranged from 1.43 in Kırklareli, to 4.39 in Şanlıurfa.[9] Deaths statistics from MERNIS are available as of 2009. Mortality data prior to 2009 are incomplete.

Population (31.12.) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death (per 1000) Natural increase (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR)
2001 1,323,341 175,137 1,148,204 20.3 2.37
2002 1,229,555 175,434 1,054,121 18.6 2.17
2003 1,198,927 184,330 1,014,597 17.9 2.09
2004 1,222,484 187,086 1,035,398 18.0 2.11
2005 1,244,041 197,520 1,046,521 18.1 2.12
2006 1,255,432 210,146 1,045,286 18.1 2.12
2007 70,586,256 1,289,992 212,731 1,077,261 18.3 2.16
2008 71,517,100 1,295,511 215,562 1,079,949 18.2 2.15
2009 72,561,312 1,266,751 368,390 898,361 17.6 5.1 12.5 2.10
2010 73,722,988 1,261,169 365,190 894,687 17.2 5.0 12.2 2.08
2011 74,724,269 1,248,550 375,923 871,158 16.8 5.1 11.7 2.05
2012 75,627,384 1,292,380 376,000 914,387 17.2 5.0 12.2 2.11
2013 76,667,864 1,294,088 372,686 918,531 17.0 4.9 12.1 2.10
2014 77,695,904 1,345,286 391,009 954,277 17.4 5.1 12.3 2.18
2015 78,741,053 1,333,329 405,202 928,127 17.0 5.2 11.8 2.15
2016 79,814,871 1,311,895 422,726 889,169 16.5 5.3 11.2 2.11
2017 80,810,525 1,291,055 425,781 865,274 16.1 5.3 10.8 2.07

Birth and Death Rate by Region and Year

Birth and Death Rate by Region and Year
Birth Rate by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2017) Birth Rate (TFR)/2016 Birth Rate (TFR)/2015 Birth Rate (TFR)/2014 Birth Rate (TFR)/2013 Birth Rate (TFR)/2012 Birth Rate (TFR)/2011 Birth Rate (TFR)/2010 Birth Rate (TFR)/2009
Turkey 80,810,525 16.5 (2.10) 17.0 (2.15) 17.4 (2.18) 17.0 (2.10) 17.2 (2.11) 16.8 (2.05) 17.2 (2.08) 17.6 (2.12)
İstanbul 15,029,231 16.2 (1.85) 16.7 (1.88) 16.9 (1.89) 16.3 (1.81) 16.5 (1.80) 15.8 (1.72) 16.3 (1.77) 16.4 (1.77)
West Marmara 3,503,609 11.8 (1.68) 12.0 (1.69) 12.1 (1.68) 11.9 (1.64) 11.9 (1.63) 11.6 (1.57) 11.5 (1.54) 11.7 (1.54)
Aegean 10,367,867 13.1 (1.76) 13.6 (1.80) 13.8 (1.80) 13.4 (1.73) 13.7 (1.74) 13.2 (1.66) 13.3 (1.66) 13.7 (1.69)
East Marmara 7,808,819 14.9 (1.88) 15.2 (1.89) 15.3 (1.88) 14.8 (1.80) 15.0 (1.80) 14.5 (1.71) 14.8 (1.74) 15.2 (1.77)
West Anatolia 7,871,847 15.1 (1.86) 15.5 (1.90) 15.8 (1.91) 15.4 (1.85) 15.4 (1.83) 15.2 (1.79) 15.4 (1.80) 15.8 (1.83)
Mediterranean 10,303,984 16.9 (2.23) 17.5 (2.28) 18.0 (2.32) 17.6 (2.24) 17.8 (2.23) 17.3 (2.14) 17.8 (2.18) 18.3 (2.20)
Central Anatolia 3,977,447 15.3 (2.03) 15.7 (2.08) 16.3 (2.13) 15.9 (2.05) 16.3 (2.07) 16.4 (2.06) 16.7 (2.08) 17.6 (2.16)
West Black Sea 4,574,182 11.8 (1.69) 12.2 (1.73) 12.7 (1.77) 12.8 (1.76) 13.0 (1.77) 13.0 (1.74) 13.6 (1.79) 14.2 (1.84)
East Black Sea 2,633,417 12.2 (1.76) 12.5 (1.78) 12.8 (1.80) 12.8 (1.77) 13.0 (1.78) 13.1 (1.77) 13.6 (1.81) 14.1 (1.86)
Northeast Anatolia 2,188,214 21.1 (2.70) 21.6 (2.79) 22.6 (2.90) 22.4 (2.85) 22.8 (2.90) 22.9 (2.90) 23.4 (2.97) 23.1 (2.91)
Central East Anatolia 3,854,869 21.1 (2.65) 21.9 (2.75) 22.9 (2.87) 22.5 (2.82) 22.5 (2.82) 22.9 (2.85) 23.6 (2.95) 23.9 (3.00)
Southeast Anatolia 8,665,165 26.6 (3.37) 27.7 (3.51) 28.7 (3.62) 27.6 (3.48) 28.0 (3.53) 27.7 (3.48) 28.2 (3.57) 28.3 (3.59)
Death Rate by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2017) Death Rate (2016) Death Rate (2015) Death Rate (2014) Death Rate (2013) Death Rate (2012) Death Rate (2011) Death Rate (2010) Death Rate (2009)
Turkey 80,810,525 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.1
İstanbul 15,029,231 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2
West Marmara 3,503,609 7.7 7.8 7.5 7.1 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3
Aegean 10,367,867 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9 6.2 6.2 5.9 6.0
East Marmara 7,808,819 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.6
West Anatolia 7,871,847 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.8
Mediterranean 10,303,984 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Central Anatolia 3,977,447 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.7
West Black Sea 4,574,182 7.6 7.4 7.3 6.9 7.0 7.0 6.8 7.0
East Black Sea 2,633,417 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.3 6.5 6.5 6.2 6.4
Northeast Anatolia 2,188,214 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.4 5.0 5.1
Central East Anatolia 3,854,869 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.5
Southeast Anatolia 8,665,165 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

Absolute Births and Deaths by Region and Year

Absolute Births and Deaths by Region and Year
Absolute Births by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2016) Births (2016) Births (2015) Births (2014) Births (2013) Births (2012) Births (2011) Births (2010) Births (2009)
Turkey 79,814,871 1,309,771 1,333,329 1,348,413 1,295,987 1,293,884 1,258,125 1,261,169 1,266,751
İstanbul 14,804,116 239,144 242,264 241,930 229,129 226,463 213,441 213,821 210,441
West Marmara 3,442,229 40,380 40,322 40,080 38,782 38,510 37,058 36,284 36,400
Aegean 10,265,111 133,567 136,895 137,199 132,170 133,359 127,833 128,112 129,927
East Marmara 7,684,187 113,263 112,425 110,974 105,667 105,156 99,704 100,386 100,928
West Anatolia 7,753,431 115,952 117,397 117,712 112,488 111,226 108,026 106,921 107,734
Mediterranean 10,182,776 170,727 174,462 176,965 170,506 169,901 163,817 166,123 167,506
Central Anatolia 3,948,240 59,829 61,243 63,216 61,538 62,575 62,989 64,216 67,174
West Black Sea 4,551,366 53,480 54,904 57,013 57,320 58,359 58,511 61,393 63,972
East Black Sea 2,645,584 31,885 32,063 32,753 32,529 32,759 32,836 34,272 35,565
Northeast Anatolia 2,201,368 46,301 47,572 49,899 49,557 50,761 50,779 51,578 50,778
Central East Anatolia 3,827,576 80,711 83,386 86,821 84,869 83,955 84,344 86,055 86,812
Southeast Anatolia 8,508,887 224,532 230,396 234,351 221,432 220,860 213,474 212,008 209,514
Absolute Deaths by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2016) Deaths (2016) Deaths (2015) Deaths (2014) Deaths (2013) Deaths (2012) Deaths (2011) Deaths (2010)
Turkey 79,814,871 422,135 405,202 391,009 372,920 376,520 375,367 365,707
İstanbul 14,804,116 62,464 60,062 58,016 54,766 54,696 53,109 52,775
West Marmara 3,442,229 26,399 26,139 24,864 23,228 23,496 23,161 23,001
Aegean 10,265,111 67,648 64,830 61,133 57,647 60,234 59,594 56,627
East Marmara 7,684,187 43,592 41,981 40,016 38,282 38,220 38,065 37,500
West Anatolia 7,753,431 37,759 35,806 34,587 33,217 33,369 33,076 32,251
Mediterranean 10,182,776 50,219 47,387 45,426 43,939 43,404 42,850 41,777
Central Anatolia 3,948,240 23,892 23,080 22,379 21,236 21,049 21,836 21,272
West Black Sea 4,551,366 34,327 33,352 32,772 31,007 31,476 31,619 30,511
East Black Sea 2,645,584 18,318 17,663 17,290 15,991 16,504 16,241 15,553
Northeast Anatolia 2,201,368 10,952 10,994 10,759 10,654 11,052 11,799 10,879
Central East Anatolia 3,827,576 15,978 15,625 15,478 15,410 15,419 16,358 15,936
Southeast Anatolia 8,508,887 30,587 28,283 28,339 27,543 27,601 27,659 27,625

Natural Increase by Region and Year

Natural Increase by Region and Year
Natural Increase by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2016) Natural Increase (2016) Natural Increase (2015) Natural Increase (2014) Natural Increase (2013) Natural Increase (2012) Natural Increase (2011) Natural Increase (2010)
Turkey 79,814,871 887,636 928,127 954,277 918,531 914,387 871,158 894,687
İstanbul 14,804,116 176,680 182,202 183,914 174,363 171,767 159,498 160,849
West Marmara 3,442,229 13,981 14,183 15,216 15,554 15,014 13,819 13,264
Aegean 10,265,111 65,919 72,065 76,066 74,523 73,125 67,860 71,395
East Marmara 7,684,187 69,671 70,444 70,958 67,385 66,936 61,311 62,820
West Anatolia 7,753,431 78,193 81,591 83,125 79,271 77,857 74,623 74,588
Mediterranean 10,182,776 120,508 127,075 131,539 126,567 126,497 120,384 124,206
Central Anatolia 3,948,240 35,937 38,163 40,837 40,302 41,526 40,785 42,856
West Black Sea 4,551,366 19,153 21,552 24,241 26,313 26,883 26,758 30,853
East Black Sea 2,645,584 13,567 14,400 15,463 16,538 16,255 16,488 18,696
Northeast Anatolia 2,201,368 35,349 36,578 39,140 38,903 39,709 38,697 40,621
Central East Anatolia 3,827,576 64,733 67,761 71,343 69,459 68,536 67,424 69,988
Southeast Anatolia 8,508,887 193,945 202,113 206,062 193,889 193,259 184,067 184,034
Rate of Natural Increase by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2016) Rate of Natural Increase (2016) Rate of Natural Increase (2015) Rate of Natural Increase (2014) Rate of Natural Increase (2013) Rate of Natural Increase (2012) Rate of Natural Increase (2011) Rate of Natural Increase (2010)
Turkey 79,814,871 11.2 11.8 12.3 12.1 12.2 11.7 12.2
İstanbul 14,804,116 12.0 12.6 12.8 12.4 12.5 11.8 12.3
West Marmara 3,442,229 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.2
Aegean 10,265,111 6.5 7.2 7.7 7.5 7.5 7.0 7.4
East Marmara 7,684,187 9.2 9.5 9.8 9.4 9.5 8.9 9.3
West Anatolia 7,753,431 10.2 10.8 11.1 10.9 10.8 10.5 10.8
Mediterranean 10,182,776 11.9 12.7 13.4 13.1 13.3 12.8 13.3
Central Anatolia 3,948,240 9.2 9.8 10.5 10.4 10.8 10.6 11.2
West Black Sea 4,551,366 4.2 4.8 5.4 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.8
East Black Sea 2,645,584 5.2 5.6 6.0 6.5 6.5 6.5 7.4
Northeast Anatolia 2,201,368 16.1 16.6 17.7 17.6 17.8 17.4 18.4
Central East Anatolia 3,827,576 16.9 17.8 18.8 18.4 18.4 18.3 19.2
Southeast Anatolia 8,508,887 23.0 24.3 25.2 24.2 24.5 23.9 24.4

Historical Fertility Rate

Total Fertility Rate

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):[10]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1993 22,9 2,7 (1,8) 21,7 2,4 (1,7) 24,0 3,1 (2,0)
1998 23,4 2,61 (1,9) 22,8 2,39 (1,9) 24,7 3,08 (2,1)
2003 19,7 2,23 (1,6) 19,0 2,06 (1,5) 21,1 2,65 (2,6)

Total fertility rate by region in Turkey by Turkish General Census(GNS) and Turkish population and health research(TNSA).[11]

South-East East Mediterranean Black Sea Central Aegean Marmara Turkey
TNSA 1978 6,31 3,77 4,99 4,26 2,89 4,33
GNS 1980 4,61 4,64 3,50 3,65 3,76 2,81 2,73 3,41
TNSA 1993 4,40 2,37 3,15 2,44 2,03 2,65
TNSA 1998 4,19 2,55 2,68 2,56 2,03 2,61
GNS 2000 4,31 3,72 2,43 2,28 2,29 1,96 1,88 2,53
TNSA 2003 3,65 2,30 1,94 1,86 1,88 2,23
GNS rural 2000 4,80 4,52 2,52 2,56 2,91 2,23 2,03 2,87
GNS urban 2000 4,05 3,08 2,38 2,01 2,05 1,80 1,85 2,20
GNS metropolitan 2000 3,81 2,34 2,41 1,87 1,89 1,60 1,83 2,03

Total fertility rate (TFR) by Province and Year

Total fertility rate (TFR) by Province and Year

Figures from Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat):[12]

Turkey total fertility rate by province 1980[12]
  5 – 6
  4 – 5
  3 – 4
  2 – 3
  1.5 – 2
  1 – 1.5
Turkey Total fertility rate by province (2013)[12]
Turkey Total fertility rate by province (2014)[12]
Turkey total fertility rate by province (2015)[12]
Turkey total fertility rate development by province 2009-2015[12]
  > 12%
  8 to 12%
  4 to 8%
  0 to 4%
  -4 to 0%
  -8 to -4%
  -12 to -8%
  < -12%
Province Population (2017)[13] TFR (1980)[11] TFR (2000) TFR (2009) TFR (2010) TFR (2011) TFR (2012) TFR (2013) TFR (2014) TFR (2015) TFR (2016) TFR (2017)
Turkey 80,810,525 2.12 2.08 2.05 2.11 2.10 2.18 2.15 2.11 2.07
İstanbul 15,029,231 1.77 1.77 1.72 1.80 1.81 1.89 1.88 1.85 1.79
West Marmara 3,503,609 1.54 1.54 1.57 1.63 1.64 1.69 1.69 1.68 1.69
Tekirdağ 1,005,463 1.83 1.69 1.67 1.72 1.79 1.82 1.88 1.94 1.93 1.93
Edirne 406,855 2.41 1.66 1.43 1.39 1.45 1.51 1.49 1.46 1.54 1.48 1.46
Kırklareli 356,050 1.70 1.38 1.39 1.35 1.45 1.45 1.56 1.55 1.48 1.53
Balıkesir 1,204,824 1.95 1.53 1.56 1.58 1.62 1.65 1.71 1.65 1.67 1.66
Çanakkale 530,417 1.68 1.50 1.44 1.53 1.58 1.52 1.57 1.55 1.56 1.57
Aegean 10,367,867 1.69 1.66 1.66 1.74 1.73 1.80 1.80 1.76 1.74
İzmir 4,279,677 1.75 1.57 1.54 1.56 1.66 1.64 1.72 1.72 1.68 1.65
Aydın 1,080,839 2.12 1.74 1.71 1.69 1.82 1.79 1.84 1.85 1.82 1.87
Denizli 1,018,735 2.19 1.73 1.66 1.70 1.74 1.76 1.87 1.86 1.80 1.79
Muğla 938,751 1.94 1.71 1.70 1.67 1.76 1.73 1.76 1.77 1.73 1.69
Manisa 1,396,945 2.14 1.78 1.77 1.79 1.86 1.89 1.94 1.93 1.91 1.86
Afyonkarahisar 715,693 3.74 2.82 2.06 2.01 2.01 2.03 1.98 2.09 2.08 2.00 1.95
Kütahya 572,256 2.19 1.55 1.60 1.53 1.55 1.52 1.58 1.59 1.52 1.50
Uşak 364,971 2.18 1.64 1.67 1.64 1.74 1.76 1.79 1.74 1.68 1.69
East Marmara 7,808,819 1.77 1.74 1.71 1.80 1.80 1.88 1.89 1.89 1.86
Bursa 2,936,803 1.98 1.78 1.77 1.73 1.85 1.85 1.90 1.92 1.91 1.88
Eskişehir 844,842 1.74 1.40 1.38 1.38 1.46 1.48 1.57 1.56 1.54 1.54
Bilecik 221,693 1.98 1.71 1.67 1.63 1.75 1.77 1.78 1.72 1.74 1.70
Kocaeli 1,883,270 3.23 2.13 1.90 1.87 1.82 1.91 1.91 2.04 2.07 2.04 2.01
Sakarya 990,214 2,23 1.87 1.82 1.78 1.85 1.83 1.91 1.93 1.95 1.94
Düzce 377,610 2.18 1.87 1.83 1.82 1.81 1.87 1.90 1.86 1.90 1.83
Bolu 303,184 1.93 1.60 1.57 1.64 1.59 1.64 1.66 1.60 1.62 1.56
Yalova 251,203 1.93 1.78 1.64 1.62 1.72 1.69 1.81 1.78 1.88 1.82
West Anatolia 7,871,847 1.83 1.80 1.79 1.83 1.85 1.91 1.90 1.86 1.83
Ankara 5,445,026 1.90 1.68 1.66 1.65 1.68 1.71 1.77 1.77 1.73 1.71
Konya 2,180,149 3.00 2.14 2.12 2.13 2.18 2.18 2.25 2.20 2.18 2.11
Karaman 246,672 2.77 2.15 1.95 1.98 2.02 2.09 2.04 2.12 2.09 2.06
Mediterranean 10,303,984 2.20 2.18 2.14 2.23 2.24 2.32 2.28 2.24 2.16
Antalya 2,364,396 1.93 1.91 1.87 1.84 1.93 1.91 1.96 1.98 1.93 1.82
Isparta 433,830 2.04 1.76 1.66 1.66 1.72 1.70 1.75 1.72 1.72 1.76
Burdur 264,779 2.12 1.74 1.73 1.68 1.66 1.68 1.79 1.79 1.74 1.66
Adana 2,216,475 2.68 2.18 2.14 2.12 2.21 2.25 2.34 2.32 2.26 2.22
Mersin 1,793,931 2.38 2.03 2.04 2.00 2.12 2.11 2.20 2.17 2.14 2.07
Hatay 1,575,226 2.97 2.57 2.54 2.51 2.63 2.62 2.82 2.74 2.69 2.58
Kahramanmaraş 1,127,623 3.54 2.70 2.68 2.66 2.68 2.74 2.74 2.64 2.60 2.53
Osmaniye 527,724 2.95 2.55 2.57 2.40 2.51 2.51 2.59 2.50 2.43 2.39
Central Anatolia 3,977,447 2.16 2.08 2.06 2.07 2.06 2.13 2.08 2.03 1.96
Kırıkkale 278,749 2.39 1.77 1.70 1.60 1.59 1.65 1.69 1.72 1.69 1.68
Aksaray 402,404 2.85 2.42 2.35 2.34 2.30 2.29 2.35 2.30 2.21 2.14
Niğde 352,727 2.98 2.40 2.28 2.23 2.32 2.25 2.33 2.19 2.20 2.08
Nevşehir 292,365 2.55 2.10 1.98 1.97 1.98 1.94 2.10 1.98 1.93 1.85
Kırşehir 234,529 2.40 1.72 1.69 1.69 1.75 1.78 1.86 1.82 1.78 1.74
Kayseri 1,376,722 2.62 2.21 2.14 2.16 2.18 2.17 2.25 2.19 2.13 2.02
Sivas 621,301 2.76 2.07 2.02 1.99 1.99 1.94 1.99 1.98 1.95 1.92
Yozgat 418,650 2.84 2.25 2.07 2.04 2.03 1.97 2.06 2.06 1.98 1.92
West Black Sea 4,574,182 1.84 1.79 1.74 1.77 1.76 1.77 1.73 1.69 1.66
Zonguldak 596,892 1.93 1.71 1.65 1.58 1.62 1.59 1.60 1.56 1.50 1.48
Karabük 244,453 1.99 1.67 1.60 1.62 1.54 1.59 1.56 1.57 1.46 1.50
Bartın 193,577 2.11 1.68 1.67 1.61 1.50 1.57 1.69 1.58 1.54 1.45
Kastamonu 372,373 3.44 2.18 1.70 1.69 1.64 1.69 1.68 1.59 1.63 1.59 1.50
Çankırı 186,074 2.27 1.97 1.93 1.91 1.84 1.78 1.86 1.78 1.84 1.75
Sinop 207,427 4.35 2.48 1.91 1.81 1.77 1.84 1.75 1.79 1.72 1.70 1.70
Samsun 1,312,990 2.55 1.87 1.81 1.77 1.83 1.83 1.85 1.82 1.79 1.78
Tokat 602,086 3.06 1.95 1.92 1.83 1.79 1.82 1.82 1.74 1.70 1.66
Çorum 528,422 2.66 1.93 1.90 1.86 1.96 1.89 1.97 1.85 1.86 1.79
Amasya 329,888 2.34 1.80 1.75 1.71 1.75 1.78 1.75 1.80 1.70 1.71
East Black Sea 2,633,417 1.86 1.81 1.77 1.78 1.77 1.80 1.78 1.76 1.71
Trabzon 786,326 2.10 1.87 1.82 1.78 1.80 1.79 1.84 1.86 1.85 1.82
Ordu 742,341 2.81 1.94 1.89 1.84 1.86 1.85 1.89 1.83 1.83 1.80
Giresun 437,393 2.31 1.74 1.74 1.65 1.66 1.64 1.65 1.64 1.56 1.55
Rize 331,041 2.01 1.80 1.76 1.75 1.73 1.80 1.79 1.79 1.79 1.75
Artvin 166,143 2.24 1.73 1.72 1.67 1.78 1.73 1.78 1.74 1.77 1.72
Gümüşhane 170,173 2.92 2.09 1.88 1.89 1.84 1.84 1.84 1.72 1.60 1.31
Northeast Anatolia 2,188,214 2.91 2.97 2.90 2.90 2.85 2.90 2.79 2.71 2.62
Erzurum 760,476 3.51 2.51 2.49 2.50 2.50 2.49 2.60 2.51 2.45 2.40
Erzincan 231,511 2.54 1.82 1.82 1.91 1.88 1.89 1.82 1.82 1.89 1.72
Bayburt 80,417 3.29 2.38 2.31 2.16 2.30 2.13 2.18 2.09 1.95 1.82
Ağrı 536,285 5.49 4.22 4.38 4.13 4.11 4.00 4.03 3.83 3.71 3.60
Kars 287,654 3.76 2.90 3.05 2.88 2.92 2.74 2.75 2.64 2.58 2.53
Iğdır 194,775 4.17 3.06 3.16 3.12 3.10 3.21 3.19 3.05 2.97 2.80
Ardahan 97,096 2.95 2.35 2.25 2.25 2.21 2.11 2.24 2.17 2.00 2.05
Central East Anatolia 3,854,869 3.00 2.95 2.85 2.82 2.82 2.87 2.75 2.66 2.63
Malatya 786,676 3.66 2.56 2.08 2.06 1.99 1.99 1.96 2.05 2.01 1.98 1.99
Elazığ 583,671 2.52 2.02 1.98 1.98 1.97 1.93 2.03 1.98 1.95 1.94
Bingöl 273,354 3.56 2.56 2.55 2.52 2.49 2.49 2.62 2.42 2.43 2.37
Tunceli 82,498 4.87 1.90 1.56 1.47 1.50 1.53 1.55 1.62 1.68 1.57 1.56
Van 1,106,891 6.00 3.93 3.84 3.66 3.58 3.64 3.54 3.37 3.19 3.14
Muş 404,544 4.18 3.93 3.94 3.66 3.65 3.59 3.71 3.48 3.36 3.39
Bitlis 341,474 6.01 5.03 3.80 3.71 3.52 3.49 3.44 3.47 3.40 3.29 3.22
Hakkâri 275,761 6.69 3.35 3.18 3.14 2.99 3.01 3.02 2.74 2.57 2.52
Southeast Anatolia 8,665,165 3.59 3.57 3.48 3.53 3.48 3.62 3.51 3.37 3.34
Gaziantep 2,005,515 3.83 3.15 3.07 3.04 3.15 3.16 3.28 3.18 3.05 2.91
Adıyaman 615,076 3.66 2.76 2.79 2.77 2.79 2.75 2.90 2.87 2.77 2.78
Kilis 136,319 3.54 2.93 3.01 2.83 2.99 2.96 3.11 3.01 2.84 2.78
Şanlıurfa 1,985,753 4.83 4.57 4.58 4.46 4.47 4.41 4.57 4.41 4.34 4.29
Diyarbakır 1,699,901 4.51 3.23 3.24 3.19 3.23 3.16 3.30 3.22 3.13 3.12
Mardin 809,719 4.98 3.46 3.53 3.35 3.46 3.33 3.54 3.45 3.24 3.25
Batman 585,252 5.27 3.70 3.64 3.43 3.42 3.34 3.41 3.25 3.10 3.07
Şırnak 503,236 7.06 4.69 4.51 4.26 4.21 4.18 4.25 4.07 3.48 3.72
Siirt 324,394 6.05 4.23 4.12 3.96 3.85 3.70 3.89 3.56 3.47 3.32

Structure of the population

Structure of the population

Structure of the population (2015):[14][15][16]

Age Group Male Female Total Percent
Total 39,511,191 39,229,862 78,741,053 100
0–4 3,275,520 3,105,996 6,381,516 8.10
5–9 3,252,811 3,084,908 6,337,719 8.05
10–14 3,166,860 3,000,125 6,166,985 7.83
15–19 3,382,363 3,203,137 6,585,500 8.36
20–24 3,224,168 3,089,999 6,314,167 8.02
25–29 3,178,350 3,084,899 6,263,249 7.95
30–34 3,252,171 3,175,879 6,428,150 8.16
35–39 3,134,041 3,069,282 6,203,323 7.88
40–44 2,788,425 2,764,155 5,552,580 7.05
45–49 2,337,087 2,252,992 4,590,079 5.83
50–54 2,317,534 2,315,375 4,632,909 5.88
55–59 1,843,354 1,837,816 3,681,170 4.68
60–64 1,515,065 1,593,402 3,108,467 3.95
65–69 1,100,734 1,255,651 2,356,385 2.99
70–74 737,892 888,292 1,626,184 2.07
75–79 501,411 682,335 1,183,746 1.50
80–84 339,904 470,584 810,488 1.03
85–89 128,879 261,571 390,450 0.50
90+ 34,622 93,364 127,986 0.16
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9,695,191 9,191,029 18,886,220 23.99
15–64 26,972,558 26,387,036 53,359,594 67.77
65+ 2,843,442 3,651,797 6,495,239 8.25

Structure of the population (2016):

Age Group Male Female Total Percent
Total 40,043,650 39,771,221 79,814,871 100
0–4 3,314,542 3,144,753 6,459,295 8.09
5–9 3,253,345 3,084,099 6,337,444 7.94
10–14 3,147,133 2,981,910 6,129,043 7.68
15–19 3,400,443 3,222,876 6,623,319 8.30
20–24 3,247,764 3,117,959 6,365,723 7.98
25–29 3,169,360 3,076,681 6,246,041 7.83
30–34 3,196,645 3,113,766 6,310,411 7.91
35–39 3,275,175 3,219,158 6,494,333 8.14
40–44 2,833,655 2,800,662 5,634,317 7.06
45–49 2,412,875 2,335,639 4,748,514 5.95
50–54 2,381,640 2,374,604 4,756,244 5.96
55-59 1,855,171 1,860,565 3,715,736 4.66
60–64 1,636,510 1,706,438 3,342,948 4.19
65–69 1,132,464 1,280,073 2,412,537 3.02
70–74 763,121 917,371 1,680,492 2.11
75–79 512,607 689,443 1,202,050 1.51
80–84 336,206 473,119 809,325 1.01
85–89 136,238 265,520 401,758 0.50
90+ 38,756 106,585 145,341 0.18
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9,715,020 9,210,762 18,925,782 23.71
15–64 27,409,238 26,828,348 54,237,586 67.95
65+ 2,919,392 3,732,111 6,651,503 8.33

Structure of the population (2017):

Age Group Male Female Total Percent
Total 40 535 135 40 275 390 80 810 525 100
0–4 3 326 591 3 155 258 6 481 849 8.02
5–9 3 254 177 3 086 592 6 340 769 7.85
10–14 3 188 333 3 022 537 6 210 870 7.69
15–19 3 351 043 3 175 544 6 526 587 8.08
20–24 3 294 336 3 162 174 6 456 510 7.99
25–29 3 163 889 3 067 653 6 231 542 7.71
30–34 3 189 075 3 107 849 6 296 924 7.79
35–39 3 308 413 3 252 283 6 560 696 8.12
40–44 2 891 799 2 849 020 5 740 819 7.10
45–49 2 556 364 2 498 790 5 055 154 6.26
50–54 2 349 139 2 326 316 4 675 455 5.79
55-59 1 977 328 1 989 399 3 966 727 4.91
60–64 1 651 215 1 720 023 3 371 238 4.17
65–69 1 188 986 1 322 918 2 511 904 3.11
70–74 784 614 952 653 1 737 267 2.15
75–79 533 757 715 428 1 249 185 1.55
80–84 330 240 471 436 801 676 0.99
85–89 152 317 282 516 434 833 0.54
90+ 43 519 117 001 160 520 0.20
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 769 101 9 264 387 19 033 488 23.55
15–64 27 732 601 27 149 051 54 881 652 67.91
65+ 3 033 433 3 861 952 6 895 385 8.53

Immigration

Immigration to Turkey from the Balkans:[17]

Country 1923–1949 1950–1959 1960–1969 1970–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2007 TOTAL
Bulgaria 220,085 154,473 2,582 113,562 225,892 74,564 138 791,296
Greece 394,753 14,787 2,081 0 4 0 0 408,625
Yugoslavia 117,212 138,585 42,512 2,940 2,550 2,159 1,548 307,506
Romania 121,339 5 259 147 686 126 2 122,564
Others 10,109 4,222 1,047 139 4,457 773 49 20,796
TOTAL 825,022 312,072 48,481 16,788 233,589 77,622 1,731 1,650,787

Bursa Province and Yalova Province were the provinces with foreign born population greater than 5% in 2014. This figure possibly excludes the Syrians with refugee status as 76413 were the Syria-born people. Turkey hosts nearly 3 million registered Refugees of the Syrian Civil War.

Foreign-born population of Turkey:[17]

Place of birth 1955 1970 1990 2000 2015[18]
 Bulgaria 295,917 255,147 462,767 480,817 378,658
 Greece 257,035 201,123 101,752 59,217 26,928
 Yugoslavia 133,762 254,790 183,499
 Romania 68,112 60,398 20,736 9,512
 Macedonia 31,515 43,400
 Germany 176,820 273,535 263,318
 France 10,280 15,976 28,507
 Holland 9,916 32,345
 UK 18,914 32,140
 USA 5,997 17,179 12,868 24,026
 Russia 29,151 17,825 11,430 19,856 34,486
 Syria 7,156 76,413
 Iraq 27,303 97,528
 Albania 6,639 2,488
 Iran 5,950 6,283 10,463 36,226
 Saudi Arabia 4,109 7,886 14,573
 Cyprus/ Northern Cyprus 6,378 20,402
 Azerbaijan 16,787 52,836
 Uzbekistan 36,083
 Afghanistan 38,692
 Belgium 26,531
 Georgia 25,019
 Turkmenistan 24,937
 Kazakhstan 21,546
 Ukraine 20,547
 Austria 18,609
 Kyrgyzstan 17,235
 Libya 16,442
 Moldova 13,472
  Switzerland 13,453
 China 12,426
 Serbia and  Montenegro 9,201
TOTAL 846,042 889,170 1,133,152 1,260,530 1,592,437

Ottoman Empire period

Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire welcomed altogether hundreds of thousands, maybe millions, of Spanish and Portuguese Jews after 1492; political and confessional refugees from Central Europe: Hungarian revolutionaries after 1848, Jews escaping the pogroms and later the Shoah, Circassians, Ossetians and Chechens from the Russian Empire, Trotskyists fleeing the USSR in the 1930s;

Republican Period (since 1923)

People moving into Turkey during the Republican Period include Muslim refugees (Muhajir) from formerly Muslim-dominated, like Crimean Tatars, Algerian followers of Abd-el-Kader, Mahdists from Sudan, Turkmens, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other Central Asian Turkic-speaking peoples fleeing the USSR and later the war-torn Afghanistan, Balkan Muslims, either Turkish-speaking or Bosniaks, Bulgarian Muslims, Albanians, Greek Muslims etc., fleeing either the reborn majority-Christian states or later the Communist regimes, in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria for instance.

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, there has been a considerable influx of Eastern Europeans to Turkey, particularly from the former USSR. Some of them have chosen to become Turkish citizens, while others continue to live and work in Turkey as foreigners. The district of Laleli in Istanbul is known with the nickname "Little Russia" due to its large Russian community and the numerous street signs, restaurant names, shop names and hotel names in the Russian language.

Property acquisition since the 1990s

After a change in the Turkish constitution increased minorities' right to purchase real estate in the country in 2005, a large number of people, mostly pensioners from Western Europe, bought houses in the popular tourist destinations and moved to Turkey. The largest groups, according to the volume of purchases, are the Germans, British, Dutch, Irish, Italians and Americans.

Internal migration

Place of origin (rows) versus place of residence (columns) for Turkish citizens in 2014[19]
Regions İstanbul West Marmara Aegean East Marmara West Anatolia Mediterranean Central Anatolia West Black Sea East Black Sea Northeast Anatolia Central East Anatolia Southeast Anatolia Total Population
İstanbul 2,162,588 79,009 72,123 84,689 38,802 38,673 4,858 11,976 9,147 3,533 3,667 4,754 2,513,819
West Marmara 523,725 2,378,938 187,256 135,364 44,409 27,376 5,140 10,238 4,513 5,273 7,110 8,861 3,338,203
Aegean 297,143 76,518 7,047,801 210,522 134,073 166,785 16,606 22,252 10,354 14,936 20,388 28,224 8,045,602
East Marmara 520,698 67,299 131,586 4,317,877 187,043 61,782 10,715 33.371 10,701 8,074 9,775 12,286 5,371,207
West Anatolia 272,835 35,919 259,387 127,794 3,721,634 192,934 49,942 29,545 8,468 10,360 13,727 20,850 4,743,395
Mediterranean 470,673 53,295 250,529 111,393 228,398 7,329,964 100,729 32,461 16,963 21,667 46,013 181,874 8,843,959
Central Anatolia 1,346,007 92,421 297,114 235,407 1,223,857 305,343 3,466,971 70,729 16,604 20,204 32,153 36,818 7,143,628
West Black Sea 2,637,016 186,103 252,628 458,730 956,151 133,053 54,578 3,982,185 42,935 18,878 21,757 27,735 8,771,749
East Black Sea 1,918,805 96,494 152,843 529,110 241,801 70,823 19,104 198,869 2,382,704 33,854 11,852 13,140 5,669,399
Northeast Anatolia 1,580,876 120,086 504,588 593,882 344,929 101,600 63,029 34,656 32,761 2,009,253 39,921 20,576 5,446,157
Central East Anatolia 1,293,157 86,315 359,161 299,390 167,451 393,102 31,612 22,064 11,070 31,709 3,438,577 133,862 6,267,470
Southeast Anatolia 1,197,959 65,538 445,279 174,765 156,489 1,002,771 33,876 23,666 11,689 22,036 150,028 7,738,941 11,023,037
Total Population 14,221,482 3,337,935 9,960,295 7,278,923 7,445,037 9,824,206 3,857,160 4,472,012 2,557,909 2,199,777 3,794,968 8,227,921 77,177,625

Ethnic groups and languages

Ethnolinguistic map (estimates)
Ethnic groups in Turkey (2008 )[20]
Ethnic groups
Turkish
73%
Kurdish
12%
Other minorities
15%

No exact data are available concerning the different ethnic groups in Turkey. The last census data according to language date from 1965 and major changes may have occurred since then. However, it is clear that the Turkish are in the majority, while the largest minority groups are Kurds and Arabs. Smaller minorities are the Armenians, Greeks. All ethnic groups are discussed below.

Population of Turkey according to language
Language Census 1935[21] Census 1945[22] Census 1965[22]
Number % Number % Number %
Turkish 13,828,000 87.5 16,598,037 88.3 28,175,579 90.2
Kurdish 1,473,000 9.3 1,476,562 7.9 2,108,721 6.9
Zazaki 147,707 0.5
Arabic 145,000 0.9 247,204 1.3 368.971 1.2
Greek 109,000 0.7 88,680 0.5 49.143 0.2
Circassian 92,000 0.6 66,691 0.4 57,337 0.2
Ladino 79,000 0.5 51,019 0.3 9,124 0.0
Armenian 77,000 0.5 56,179 0.3 32,484 0.1
Laz 46,987 0.3 27,715 0.1
Georgian 40,076 0.2 32,334 0.1
Abaza 8,602 0.0 10,643 0.0
others 110,137 0.6 157,449 0.5
Total 15,803,000 18,790,174 31,391,207
Muslim and non-Muslim population in Turkey, 1914–2005 (in thousands)[23]
Year 1914 1927 1945 1965 1990 2005
Muslims 12,941 13,290 18,511 31,139 56,860 71,997
Greeks 1,549 110 104 76 8 3
Armenians 1,204 77 60 64 67 50
Jews 128 82 77 38 29 27
Others 176 71 38 74 50 45
Total 15,997 13,630 18,790 31,391 57,005 72,120
% non-Muslim 19.1 2.5 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.2

The word Turk or Turkish also has a wider meaning in a historical context because, at times, especially in the past, it has been used to refer to all Muslim inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire irrespective of their ethnicity.[24] The question of ethnicity in modern Turkey is a highly debated and difficult issue. Figures published in several different sources prove this difficulty by varying greatly.

It is necessary to take into account all these difficulties and be cautious while evaluating the ethnic groups. A possible list of ethnic groups living in Turkey could be as follows:[25]

  1. Turkic-speaking peoples: Turks, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Karachays, Uzbeks, Crimean Tatars and Uyghurs
  2. Indo-European-speaking peoples: Kurds, Yazidis (Kurmanj), Zazas,[26][27] Bosniaks, Albanians, Pomaks, Ossetians, Armenians, Hamshenis, Goranis, Jews and Greeks
  3. Semitic-speaking peoples: Arabs and Assyrians/Syriacs
  4. Caucasian-speaking peoples: Circassians, Georgians, Lazs and Chechens

According to the 2012 edition of the CIA World Factbook, 70-75% of Turkey's population consists of ethnic Turks, with Kurds accounting for 18% and other minorities between 7 and 12%.[28] According to Milliyet, a 2008 report prepared for the National Security Council of Turkey by academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia suggested that there are approximately 55 million ethnic Turks, 9.6 million Kurds, 3 million Zazas, 2.5 million Circassians, 2 million Bosniaks, 500,000-1.3 million Albanians, 1,000,000 Georgians, 870,000 Arabs, 600,000, Pomaks, 80,000 Laz, 60,000 Armenians, 25,000 Assyrians/Syriacs, 20,000 Jews, and 15,000 Greeks, 500 Yazidis living in Turkey.[29]

Since the immigration to the big cities in the west of Turkey, interethnic marriage has become more common. A recent study estimates that there are 2,708,000 marriages between Turks and Kurds/Zaza.[30]

Ethnolinguistic estimates in 2014 by Ethnologue and Jacques Leclarc[31][32]

People Speakers Percentage Language Status
Anatolian Turks 53 402 000 70.6% Turkish 1 (National)
Kurmanji Kurds 8 127 000 Decrease 10.7% Kurmanji 3 (Wider communication)
Turcophones Kurds 5 881 000 7.7% Turkish 1 (National)
Zaza Kurds 1 155 000 1.5% Zaza 5 (Developing)
Lebanese Arabs 1 133 000 1,4 % Levantine Arabic
Kabardians Circassians 1 062 000 1,4 % Kabardian 5 (Developing)
Iraqi Arabs 722 000 0.9% Mesopotamian Arabic 6a (Vigorous)
Persians 618 000 0.8% Farsi
Azerbaijani 540 000 0.7% Azerbaijani 5 (Developing)
Romani 500 000 (1985) 0.7% Romani, Domari
Gagauzes 418 000 0.5% Balkan Gagauz Turkish 7 (Shifting)
Pomaks 351 000 0.4% Bulgarian 5 (Dispersed)
Pontic Greeks 321 000 0,4 % Pontic Greek 6a (Vigorous)
Adyghe Circassians 316 000 0.4% Adyghe 5 (Developing)
Alevi Kurds 184 000 0,2 % Zazaki
Georgians 151 000 0,1 % Georgian 6b (Threatened)
Bosniaks 101 000 0.1% Bosnian
Chechens 101 000 0.1% Chechen
Crimean Tatars 100 000 0.1% Crimean Tatar 5 (Developing)
Lazs 93 000 0.1% Laz language 6b (Threatened)
Karakalpaks 74 000 Karakalpak
Albanians 66 000 Tosk Albanian 6b (Threatened)
Armenians 61 000 Armenian 6b (Threatened)
Abkhazians 44 000 Abkhazian 6b (Threatened)
Han Chinese 38 000 Chinese
Ossetians 37 000 Ossetian
British 35 000 English
Macedonians 32 000 Macedonian
Jews 30 000 Turkish, Ladino 7 (Shifting)
Tatars 26 000 Tatar
Assyrians 25 000 Aramean
22 000 Urdu
Assyrians 15 000 Turoyo 6b (Threatened)
Turks other (Hemshin, Meskhetian Turks, Gajal) 57 000 Turkish
Kurds other (Herki and Shikaki) 62 000 Kurdish
Other 180 000
Total 75 566 800

Scale of Ethnologue:

a^ Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) of Ethnologue:
0 (International): "The language is widely used between nations in trade, knowledge exchange, and international policy."
1 (National): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level."
2 (Provincial): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government within major administrative subdivisions of a nation."
3 (Wider Communication): "The language is used in work and mass media without official status to transcend language differences across a region."
4 (Educational): "The language is in vigorous use, with standardization and literature being sustained through a widespread system of institutionally supported education."
5 (Developing): "The language is in vigorous use, with literature in a standardized form being used by some though this is not yet widespread or sustainable."
6a (Vigorous): "The language is used for face-to-face communication by all generations and the situation is sustainable."
6b (Threatened): "The language is used for face-to-face communication within all generations, but it is losing users."
7 (Shifting): "The child-bearing generation can use the language among themselves, but it is not being transmitted to children."
8a (Moribund): "The only remaining active users of the language are members of the grandparent generation and older."
8b (Nearly Extinct): "The only remaining users of the language are members of the grandparent generation or older who have little opportunity to use the language."
9 (Dormant): "The language serves as a reminder of heritage identity for an ethnic community, but no one has more than symbolic proficiency."
10 (Extinct): "The language is no longer used and no one retains a sense of ethnic identity associated with the language."

Turks

Turkish women and a school boy from Istanbul, 1873.

Although numerous modern genetic studies have indicated that the present-day Turkish population is primarily descended from historical Anatolian groups,[33][34][35][36][37][38][39] the first Turkic-speaking people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to Siberia and were palpable after the 6th century BC.[40] Seventh-century Chinese sources preserve the origins of the Turks stating that they were a branch of the Hsiung-nu (Huns) and living near the "West Sea", perhaps the Caspian Sea.[41] Modern sources tends to indicate that the Turks' ancestors lived within the state of the Hsiung-nu in the Transbaikal area and that they later, during the fifth century, migrated to the southern Altay.[41]

The word Türk was used only referring to Anatolian villagers back in the 19th century. The Ottoman elite identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks.[42][43] In the late 19th century, as European ideas of nationalism were adopted by the Ottoman elite, and as it became clear that the Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule, the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation.[44] During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers will commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith, and will consider Turkish-speaking Jews, Christians, or even Alevis to be non-Turks.[45] On the other hand, Kurdish-speaking or Arabic-speaking Sunnis of eastern Anatolia are sometimes considered to be Turks.[46] The imprecision of the appellation Türk can also be seen with other ethnic names, such as Kürt(Kurd), which is often applied by western Anatolians to anyone east of Adana, even those who speak only Turkish.[45] Thus, the category Türk, like other ethnic categories popularly used in Turkey, does not have a uniform usage. In recent years, centrist Turkish politicians have attempted to redefine this category in a more multi-cultural way, emphasizing that a Türk is anyone who is a citizen of the Republic of Turkey.[47] Currently, article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship".

Ethnic Turks are the majority in Turkey, numbering 55.5 to 60 million.[48][49][50][51]

Kurds

Percentage of Kurdish population in Turkey by region[52] Dark Red (Central Eastern Anatolia): 79.1% Red (Southeastern Anatolia): 64.1% Light Red (Northeast Anatolia): 32.0% Pink: 14.8 - 4.9% White: 1.3 - 0.1%

The Kurdish identity remains the strongest of the many minorities in modern Turkey. This is perhaps due to the mountainous terrain of the southeast of the country, where they predominate and represent a majority. They inhabit all major towns and cities across Turkey, however. No accurate up-to-date figures are available for the Kurdish population, because the Turkish government has outlawed ethnic or racial censuses. An estimate by the CIA World Factbook places their proportion of the population at approximately 18%.[53] Another estimate, according to Ibrahim Sirkeci, an ethnic Turk, in his book The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, based on the 1990 Turkish Census and 1993 Turkish Demographic Health Survey, is 17.8%.[54] Other estimates include 15.7% of the population according to the newspaper Milliyet,[29] and 23% by Kurdologist David McDowall.[55]

The Minority Rights Group report of 1985 (by Martin Short and Anthony McDermott) gave an estimate of 15% Kurds in the population of Turkey in 1980, i.e. 8,455,000 out of 44,500,000, with the preceding comment "Nothing, apart from the actual 'borders' of Kurdistan, generates as much heat in the Kurdish question as the estimate of the Kurdish population. Kurdish nationalists are tempted to exaggerate it, and governments of the region to understate it. In Turkey only those Kurds who do not speak Turkish are officially counted for census purposes as Kurds, yielding a very low figure." In Turkey: A Country Study, a 1995 online publication of the U.S. Library of Congress, there is a whole chapter about Kurds in Turkey where it is stated that "Turkey's censuses do not list Kurds as a separate ethnic group. Consequently, there are no reliable data on their total numbers. In 1995 estimates of the number of Kurds in Turkey is about 8.5 million" out of 61.2 million, or 13% of the population at that time.[56] Turkish government statistics show that Kurdish women in Turkey give birth to about four children, more than double the rate for the rest of the Turkish population.[57][58][59] [60] Prime Minister Erdogan stated that Kurds could become a majority by 2038.[61][62] In some Kurdish dominated provinces women give birth to 7.1 children on average. Even though many Kurds have been migrating to cities in Western Turkey or Western Europe, cities in south-east Turkey are still growing at a faster rate than others.[63] Women in Kurdish dominated provinces of eastern Turkey also have a illiteracy rate about three times higher than men, a factor which correlates with higher birth rates. In Şırnak 66 percent of 15-year old girls could not read or write. [64]

Kurdish national identity is far from being limited to the Kurmanji-language community, as many Kurds whose parents migrated towards Istanbul or other large non-Kurdish cities mostly speak Turkish, which is one of the languages used by the Kurdish nationalist publications.

Albanians

Arabs

The population of Arabs in Turkey varies according to different sources. Al Jazeera and the Washington Institute for Near East Policy estimates the Arab population before the Syrian Civil War in 2011 from 1,500,000[65] to more than 2,000,000,[66] with recent Syrian refugees 2,748,367,[67][68] so Arabs in Turkey constituency now numbers anywhere from 4.5 to 5.1% of the population. Put another way, with nearly 4-5 million Arab inhabitants.[69][66]

Armenians

Armenians in Turkey are indigenous to Anatolia & Armenian highlands well over 3000 years, an estimated population of 40,000 (1995) to 70,000.[70][71] Most are concentrated around Istanbul. The Armenians support their own newspapers and schools. The majority belong to the Armenian Apostolic faith, with smaller numbers of Armenian Catholics and Armenian Evangelicals. Their original population during the dying days of the Ottoman Empire was estimated in excess of 3 million, from 1915 to early 1920's it is estimated that over 1.5 Million of them perished during the Armenian Genocide and forced relocations into the Syrian desert.

Assyrians/Syriacs

An estimated 40,000-50,000 Assyrians/Syriacs live in Turkey, with about 17,000 in Istanbul and the other 23-33,000 scattered in southeast Turkey primarily in Turabdin, Diyarbakir, Adiyaman, and Harput respectively. They belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Catholic Church, and Chaldean Catholic Church. Some Mhallami, a Muslim ethnic group who usually are described as Arabs, have Assyrian/Syriac ancestry. They live in the area between Mardin and Midyat, called in Syriac "I Mhalmayto" (ܗܝ ܡܚܠܡܝܬܐ).

Azerbaijanis

It is difficult to determine how many ethnic Azeris currently reside in Turkey, as ethnicity is a rather fluid concept in Turkey, especially amongst Turkic-speaking and Caucasian groups who have been more readily and easily assimilated into mainstream Turkish culture.[72] According to the Looklex Encyclopaedia, Azerbaijani people make up 800,000 of Turkey's population.[73] Up to 300,000 of Azeris who reside in Turkey are citizens of Azerbaijan.[74] In the Eastern Anatolia Region, Azeris are sometimes referred to as acem (see Ajam) or tat.[75] They currently are the largest ethnic group in the city of Iğdır[76] and second largest ethnic group in Kars.[77]

Since linguistically the two are so similar, the safest way to count or estimate the number of Azeris from the Turks in Turkey is to note the fact that Azeris are practically all Shia Muslims while their Turkish and Kurdish neighbors are Sunni Muslims

Bosniaks

Chechens

Towards the end of the Caucasian War (1817–1864), many Chechens fled their homelands in the North Caucasus and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Chechens number from tens or hundreds of thousands.

Circassians

Towards the end of the Russo-Circassian War (1763–1864), many Circassians fled their homelands in the North Caucasus and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Most ethnic Circassians have fully assimilated into Turkish culture, making it difficult to trace, count, or even estimate their ethnic presence.

Georgians

There are approximately 1 million people of Georgian ancestry in Turkey, according to the newspaper Milliyet.[29]

Greeks

The Greeks constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, including its district Princes' Islands, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada), and historically also in western Asia Minor (centred on Izmir/Smyrni), the Pontic Alps (centred on Trebzon and Sumelia, see Pontic Greeks), and central Anatolia (Cappadocia) and northeastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus region (Erzinjan, Erzerum, Kars, and Ardahan, see Caucasus Greeks). The Istanbul Greeks are the remnants of the estimated 200,000 Greeks permitted under the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) to remain in Turkey following the 1923 population exchange, which involved the forcible resettlement of approximately 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and East Thrace and of half a million Turks from all of Greece except for Western Thrace. After years of persecution (e.g. the Varlık Vergisi (1942–1944) and the Istanbul Pogrom of 1955), emigration of ethnic Greeks from the Istanbul region greatly accelerated, reducing the 120,000[78]-strong Greek minority to about 7,000 by 1978.[79] The 2008 figures released by the Turkish Foreign Ministry places the current number of Turkish citizens of Greek descent at the 2,000–3,000 mark.[80] According to Milliyet there are 15,000 Greeks in Turkey,[29] while according to Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey was estimated at 2,500 in 2006.[81]

Laz

Most Laz today live in Turkey, but the Laz minority group has no official status in Turkey. Their number today is estimated to be around 250,000[82][83][84] and 500,000.[85][86] Only a minority are bilingual in Turkish and their native Laz language which belongs to the South Caucasian group. The number of the Laz speakers is decreasing and is now limited chiefly to the Rize and Artvin areas. The historical term Lazistan — formerly referring to a narrow tract of land along the Black Sea inhabited by the Laz as well as by several other ethnic groups — has been banned from official use and replaced with Doğu Karadeniz (which includes Trabzon). During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the Muslim population of Russia near the war zones was subjected to ethnic cleansing; many Lazes living in Batum fled to the Ottoman Empire, settling along the southern Black Sea coast to the east of Samsun.

Persians

Roma people

A Gypsy camp near Istanbul (1901)

The Roma in Turkey descend from the times of the Byzantine Empire. According to some reports, there are about 500,000-700,000 Roma in Turkey.[29][87][88][89] The neighborhood of Sulukule, located in Western Istanbul, is the oldest Roma settlement in Europe.[citation needed]

Zazas

The Zazas[90][91] are a people in eastern Anatolia who natively speak the Zaza language. Their heartland, the Dersim region, consists of Tunceli, Bingöl provinces and parts of Elazığ, Erzincan and Diyarbakır provinces. The exact number of Zazas is unknown, due to the absence of recent and extensive census data. The most recent official statistics concerning native language are available for the year 1965, where 147,707 (0.5%) chose Zaza as their native language in Turkey.[22]

Summary

Number Ethnic Minimum Estimates Maximum Estimates Further information
Balkan
1  Albania 1,500,000 5,000,000 Albanians in Turkey / Albanians
2  Bosnia and Herzegovina 100,000 2,000,000 Bosniaks in Turkey / Bosnians
3  Bulgaria 350,000 750,000 Bulgarians in Turkey / Pomaks in Turkey / Bulgarians
4  Greece 2,000 30,000 Greeks in Turkey / Pontic Greeks / Caucasus Greeks / Greeks
5  Serbia 15,000 60,000 Serbs in Turkey / Serbs
1 Total 2,000,000 7,900,000 Balkan peoples
Caucasus
1  Abkhazia 600,000 600,000 Abkhazians / Abkhaz language
2  Armenia 150,000 5,000,000 Armenians in Turkey / Hidden Armenians / Armenians
3  Chechnya 100,000 100,000 Chechens in Turkey / Chechens
4  Circassia 150,000 7,000,000 Circassians in Turkey / Circassians
5  Georgia 100,000 1,500,000 Georgians in Turkey / Georgians
6  Lazica 45,000 2,250,000 Laz people in Turkey / Laz people
2 Total 1,100,000 16,450,000 Peoples of the Caucasus in Turkey / Peoples of the Caucasus
Central Asia
1  Kazakhstan 10,000 10,000 Kazakhs
2  Kyrgyzstan 1,600 1,600 Kyrgyzs
3  Tajikistan 1,000 1,000 Tajiks
4  Turkmenistan 1,500 1,500 Turkmens
5  East Turkestan 50,000 50,000 Uyghurs
6  Uzbekistan 45,000 45,000 Uzbeks
3 Total 120,000 120,000 Central Asian peoples
Turkic peoples
1  Azerbaijan 530,000 800,000 Azerbaijanis in Turkey / Azerbaijanis
2  Crimea 150,000 6,000,000 Crimean Tatars in Turkey / Crimean Tatars
3  Karachay-Cherkessia 20,000 20,000 Karachays
4  Turkey 40,000 75,000 Meskhetian Turks
4 Total 740,000 6,895,000 Turkic peoples
Iranian peoples
1  Afghanistan 25,000 50,000 Afghans in Turkey / Afghans
2  Iran 500,000 650,000 Iranian diaspora / Persians
3  Kurdistan 13,000,000 23,000,000 Kurds in Turkey / Kurdish population / Turkish Kurdistan / Kurds
4  Kurdistan 1,000,000 3,000,000 Zaza Kurds / Zaza nationalism / Zaza language
5  North Ossetia-Alania 50,000 50,000 Ossetians in Turkey / Ossetians
6  Romani 700,000 5,000,000 Romani people in Turkey / Romani people
5 Total 15,300,000 31,750,000 Iranian peoples
European peoples
1  Netherlands 15,000 15,000 Dutch people
2  Germany 50,000 50,000 Germans in Turkey / Germans
3  Great Britain 35,000 35,000 Britons in Turkey / British people
4  Italy 35,000 35,000 Levantines in Turkey / Levantines (Latin Catholics)
5  Poland 4,000 4,000 Polish diaspora / Poles
6  Russia 50,000 50,000 Russians in Turkey / Russians
6 Total 190,000 190,000 European peoples
Other Minorities
1  African Union 100,000 100,000 Afro Turks / African diaspora / Africans
2  Arab League 1,500,000 5,000,000 Arabs in Turkey / Iraqis in Turkey / Arabs
3  Assyria 15,000 65,000 Assyrians in Turkey / Assyrian genocide / Assyrians
4  Israel 15,000 18,000 Jews in Turkey / Antisemitism in Turkey / Jews
7 Total 1,630,000 5,200,000 Other Minorities in Turkey
37 Group Grand Total 21,080,000 68,505,000 Minorities in Turkey

Religion

According to the latest sources by Ipsos[92], in 2016 Islam was the major religion in Turkey comprising a whooping 82% of the total population, followed by Unaffiliated people, comprising 13% of the population, and Christianity, with only 2%.

There are no official statistics of people's religious beliefs nor is it asked in the census. According to the government, 99.8% of the Turkish population is Muslim, mostly Sunni, some 10 to 15 million are Alevis.[93] The remaining 0.2% is other - mostly Christians and Jews.[53] However, these are based on the existing religion information written on every citizen's national id card, that is automatically passed on from the parents to every newborn, and do not necessarily represent individual choice. Furthermore, anyone who was not officially registered as Christian or Jewish by the time of the foundation of the republic, was automatically recorded as Muslim, and this label has been passed down to new generations. Therefore, the official number of Muslims also include people with no religion; converted from Islam to a different religion than Islam; and anyone who is of a different religion than their parents, but hasn't applied for a change of their individual records. It should also be noted that the state allow the individual records to be changed and can have their religion information removed from the identification card, but such change doesn't affect the official record.

The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 reported that in a poll 96% of Turkish citizens answered that "they believe there is a God", while 1% responded that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".[94] In a Pew Research Center survey, 53% of Turkey's Muslims said that "religion is very important in their lives".[95] Based on the Gallup Poll 2006–08, Turkey was defined as More religious, in which over 63 percent of people believe religion is important.[96][97] According to the Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation, 33% of women wear the headscarf or hijab in Turkey however most of them wear a cultural headscarf which is not a symbol of Islam and is used by women in small villages that work under the sun to protect themselves from the sun.[98][99][100] 18% of male Muslim citizens regularly attend Friday prayers.

A poll conducted by Eurobarometer, KONDA and some other research institutes in 2013 showed that around 4.5 million of the 15+ population had no religion. Another poll conducted by the same institutions in 2015 showed that that number has reached 5.5 million, which makes roughly 9.4% of the population.[101][102]

Religious groups according to estimates:[93][103]

The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the Ottoman Empire; according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007:[104]

  • 52.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (Religious)
  • 34.3 % defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (Not religious).
  • 9.7% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (Fully devout).
  • 2.3% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (Non-believer).
  • 0.9% defined themselves as "someone with no religious conviction" (Atheist).

Census

Istanbul experienced a rapid population growth (The gray areas are buildings)

Census of 1927

Provinces, 1927 census.[105]
Province Population
İstanbul 794,444
İzmir 526,065
Konya 504,384
Balıkesir 421,066
Şebinkarahisar 108,735
Cebelibereket 107,694
Siirt 102,433
Total 13,648,270

1965 census

Languages spoken in Turkey, 1965 census[106]
Language Mother tongue Only language spoken Second best language spoken
Abaza 4,563 280 7,556
Albanian 12,832 1,075 39,613
Arabic 365,340 189,134 167,924
Armenian 33,094 1,022 22,260
Bosnian 17,627 2,345 34,892
Bulgarian 4,088 350 46,742
Pomak 23,138 2,776 34,234
Chechen 7,563 2,500 5,063
Circassian 58,339 6,409 48,621
Croatian 45 1 1,585
Czech 168 25 76
Dutch 366 23 219
English 27,841 21,766 139,867
French 3,302 398 96,879
Georgian 34,330 4,042 44,934
German 4,901 790 35,704
Greek 48,096 3,203 78,941
Italian 2,926 267 3,861
Kurdish (Kurmanji) 2,219,502 1,323,690 429,168
Judæo-Spanish 9,981 283 3,510
Laz 26,007 3,943 55,158
Persian 948 72 2,103
Polish 110 20 377
Portuguese 52 5 3,233
Romanian 406 53 6,909
Russian 1,088 284 4,530
Serbian 6,599 776 58,802
Spanish 2,791 138 4,297
Turkish 28,289,680 26,925,649 1,387,139
Zaza 150,644 92,288 20,413
Total 31,009,934 28,583,607 2,786,610
Languages spoken in Turkey by provinces, 1965 census[107]
Province / Language Turkish Kurdish Arabic Zazaki Circassian Greek Georgian Armenian Laz Pomak Bosnian Albanian Jewish
Adana (including Osmaniye) 866,316 7,581 22,356 332 51 51 0 28 9 0 312 483 29
Adıyaman 143,054 117,325 7 6,705 0 0 0 84 4 0 0 0 0
Afyonkarahisar 499,461 125 19 1 2,172 169 2 2 1 16 14 2 1
Ağrı 90,021 156,316 105 4 2 2 77 5 0 1 103 0 0
Amasya 279,978 2,179 9 2 1,497 6 1,378 208 6 0 10 336 1
Ankara (including Kırıkkale) 1,590,392 36,798 814 21 393 124 41 66 120 7 126 833 64
Antalya 486,697 23 2 0 0 14 0 0 2 0 0 1 0
Artvin 190,183 46 4 0 0 4 7,698 1 12,093 1 1 0 0
Aydın 523,583 168 85 0 112 71 4 1 4 0 26 88 0
Balıkesir 698,679 560 38 8 3,144 236 1,273 9 205 1,707 314 24 4
Bilecik 137,674 5 4 0 736 4 73 1 1 2 6 3 0
Bingöl 62,668 56,881 19 30,878 17 0 1 11 1 0 0 0 3
Bitlis 56,161 92,327 3,263 2,082 205 1 5 16 0 0 0 1 2
Bolu (including parts of Düzce) 375,786 363 0 0 1,593 3 1,541 488 1,791 0 40 6 1
Burdur 194,910 2 7 0 0 3 12 0 0 0 0 1 0
Bursa 746,633 213 22 0 799 106 2,938 35 517 65 1,169 1,928 69
Çanakkale 338,379 443 0 25 1,604 5,258 4 9 12 3,675 516 6 121
Çankırı (including parts of Karabük) 250,510 158 1 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 0 0 0
Çorum 474,638 8,736 4 0 1,808 12 8 51 3 7 0 0 0
Denizli 462,860 283 28 5 8 97 1 1 0 2 1 3 0
Diyarbakır 178,644 236,113 2,536 57,693 1 1 3 134 3 48 1 5 0
Edirne 290,610 386 104 21 9 18 2 12 3 10,285 329 58 92
Elazığ 244,016 47,446 17 30,921 0 2 0 2 30 12 3 2 0
Erzincan 243,911 14,323 13 298 4 5 0 12 2 3 0 1 0
Erzurum 555,632 69,648 86 2,185 109 8 4 11 24 7 1 5 1
Eskişehir 406,212 327 42 0 1,390 4 3 0 14 23 114 78 0
Gaziantep 490,046 18,954 885 1 4 6 0 4 3 0 1 11 0
Giresun 425,665 305 1 1 2 0 2,029 0 5 0 0 0 0
Gümüşhane (including Bayburt) 260,419 2,189 0 0 91 0 0 0 17 0 0 0 0
Hakkari (including parts of Şırnak) 10,357 72,365 165 0 1 0 1 21 2 0 0 0 0
Hatay 350,080 5,695 127,072 7 780 767 11 376 6 2 8 44 1
Isparta 265,305 688 75 11 8 91 0 1 2 1 1 3 4
Mersin 500,207 1,067 9,430 23 76 137 13 12 19 3 3 9 1
İstanbul 2,185,741 2,586 2,843 26 317 35,097 849 29,479 128 165 3,072 4,341 8,608
İzmir 1,214,219 863 352 5 1,287 898 15 17 15 1,289 2,349 1,265 753
Kars (including Ardahan and Iğdır) 471,287 133,144 61 992 215 6 8 5 24 1 5 4 1
Kastamonu (including parts of Düzce) 439,355 1,090 2 0 3 2 180 849 1 0 0 0 0
Kayseri 509,932 8,454 34 8 17,110 1 1 9 6 9 15 160 1
Kırklareli 252,594 602 136 24 5 3 5 3 7 3,375 1,148 144 11
Kırşehir 185,489 11,309 4 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Kocaeli 320,808 235 0 10 1,467 63 2,755 46 2,264 381 3,827 22 7
Konya (including Karaman) 1,092,819 27,811 67 4 1,139 3 7 1 5 1 11 75 0
Kütahya 397,221 105 13 2 17 4 2 88 9 0 0 34 0
Malatya 374,449 77,794 33 10 14 5 7 148 5 4 0 3 0
Manisa 746,514 241 15 0 488 42 67 2 6 54 116 192 3
Kahramanmaraş 386,010 46,548 21 0 4,185 0 0 13 3 0 0 9 0
Mardin (including parts of Batman) 35,494 265,328 79,687 60 75 11 15 11 0 0 1 6 0
Muğla 334,883 6 4 1 0 28 0 0 0 1 0 0 4
Muş 110,555 83,020 3,575 507 898 0 1 3 103 0 0 0 0
Nevşehir 203,156 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 0
Niğde (including Aksaray) 353,146 8,991 10 0 227 5 0 12 4 0 15 4 0
Ordu 538,978 12 0 0 5 0 4,815 34 0 1 0 1 0
Rize 275,291 11 1 1 0 9 4 0 5,754 1 0 1 0
Sakarya 388,481 2,163 32 3 538 6 4,535 2 2,671 23 2,899 794 1
Samsun 747,115 1,366 3 0 3,401 91 2,350 5 51 319 10 610 0
Siirt (including parts of Batman and parts of Şırnak) 46,722 179,023 38,273 484 1 0 15 98 3 0 10 0 0
Sinop 261,341 2,126 0 0 659 1 1,144 228 3 5 0 7 3
Sivas 649,099 32,284 19 23 2,086 0 0 217 1 0 515 0 0
Tekirdağ 284,222 548 76 18 5 19 52 8 2 1,627 6 51 102
Tokat 483,948 3,974 7 3 5,934 0 367 45 2 0 0 964 0
Trabzon 590,799 72 12 0 0 4,535 1 11 0 0 0 0 0
Tunceli 120,553 33,431 20 2,370 28 0 0 4 0 18 10 8 0
Şanlıurfa 207,652 175,100 51,090 14,554 3 0 5 2 4 0 2 0 0
Uşak 190,506 16 2 0 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0
Van 118,481 147,694 557 3 1 2 1 1 8 0 1 1 66
Yozgat 433,385 2,424 1 0 1,597 2 0 118 0 0 14 1 0
Zonguldak (including Bartın and parts of Karabük) 649,757 43 26 0 5 17 2 3 15 0 1 1 1

  Provinces with Turkish speakers in majority   Provinces with Turkish speakers in plurality   Provinces with Kurdish speakers in plurality   Provinces with Kurdish speakers in majority

Minorities

Modern Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as secular (Laiklik, Turkish adaptation of French Laïcité), i.e. without a state religion, or separate ethnic divisions/ identities. The concept of "minorities" has only been accepted by the Republic of Turkey as defined by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) and thence strictly limited to Greeks, Jews and Armenians, only on religious matters, excluding from the scope of the concept the ethnic identities of these minorities as of others such as the Kurds who make up 15% of the country; others include Assyrians/Syriacs of various Christian denominations, Alevis and all the others.

There are many reports from sources such as (Human Rights Watch, European Parliament, European Commission, national parliaments in EU member states, Amnesty International etc.) on persistent yet declining discrimination.

Certain current trends are:

  • Turkish imams get salaries from the state (like Greek Orthodox clerics in Greece), whereas Turkish Alevi as well as non-Orthodox and non-Armenian clerics are not paid
  • Imams can be trained freely at the numerous religious schools and theology departments of universities throughout the country; minority religions can not re-open schools for training of their local clerics due to legislation and international treaties dating back to the end of Turkish War of Independence. The closing of the Theological School of Halki is a sore bone of contention between Turkey and the Eastern Orthodox world;
  • The Turkish state sends out paid imams, working under authority from the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı) to various European or Asian countries with Turkish- or Turkic-speaking populations, with as local heads officials from the Turkish consulates;
  • Turkey has recently engaged in promulgating a series of legal enactments aiming at removal of the procedural hurdles before the use of several local languages spoken by Turkish citizens such as Kurdish (Kurmanji), Arabic and Zaza as medium of public communication, together with several other smaller ethnic group languages. A few private Kurdish teaching centers have recently been allowed to open. Kurdish-language TV broadcasts on 7/24 basis at the public frequency denominated in the government-owned TRT 6, while the private national channels show no interest yet. However, there are already several satellite Kurdish TV stations operating from Kurdish Autonomous Region at Northern Iraq and Western Europe, broadcasting in Kurdish, Turkish and Neo-Aramaic languages, Kurdistan TV, KurdSAT, etc.;
  • Non-Muslim minority numbers are said to be falling rapidly, mainly as a result of aging, migration (to Israel, Greece, the United States and Western Europe).
  • There is concern over the future of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, which suffers from a lack of trained clergy due to the closure of the Halki school. The state does not recognise the Ecumenical status of the Patriarch of Constantinople.

According to figures released by the Foreign Ministry in December 2008, there are 89,000 Turkish citizens designated as belonging to a minority, two thirds of Armenian descent.[108]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook:[53]

Age structure
0–14 years: 24.68% (male 10,209,284/female 9,745,057)
15-24 years: 15.99% (male 6,601,471/female 6,324,277)
25-54 years: 43.21% (male 17,691,703/female 17,243,428)
55-64 years: 8.58% (male 3,448,232/female 3,492,199)
65 years and over: 7.53% (male 2,712,323/female 3,377,241) (2017 est.)

Median age
total population: 30.9 years
male: 30.5 years
female: 31.4 years (2017 est.)

Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 75 years
male: 72.7 years
female: 77.5 years (2017 est.)

Urbanization
urban population: 75.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.04% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Nationality
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94.1%
male: 97.9%
female: 90.3% (2011 est.)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Turkish Statistical Institute". Turkstat.gov.tr. 2018-02-01. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
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Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f All data taken from Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). Data is for xxxx-12-31.

External links

  • Build Turkey population graph: from 1960 till now (World Bank data)
  • Build Turkey population projection graph till 2100 (United Nation data)
  • Build Turkey life expectancy at birth graph: from 1950 till now (United Nation data)
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