Demographics of Sweden

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The demography of Sweden is monitored by Statistics Sweden (SCB). As of August 2018, the population of Sweden was estimated to be 10.2 million people,[1] making it the 90th most populous country in the world.[2] The three largest cities are Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Approximately 85% of the country's population resides in villages with 200 persons or cities.[3] Six out of ten Swedes do not live in an urban system with 50 000+ inhabitants, as defined by OECD.

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1570 900,000 —    
1650 1,225,000 +36.1%
1700 1,485,000 +21.2%
1750 1,780,700 +19.9%
1800 2,347,300 +31.8%
1850 3,482,500 +48.4%
1900 5,136,400 +47.5%
1950 7,041,900 +37.1%
1970 8,081,300 +14.8%
1980 8,318,000 +2.9%
1990 8,590,600 +3.3%
1995 8,837,500 +2.9%
2000 8,882,800 +0.5%
2005 9,047,700 +1.9%
2010 9,415,600 +4.1%
2015 9,851,000 +4.6%
2018 10,196,177 +3.5%
Source: Historical figures - Sveriges land och folk,[4] Modern figures - Statistics Sweden [1] As of:[5] 2018 data[1]

Sweden census 2005

The 2005 Swedish census showed an increase of 475,322 compared to the 1990 census, an average increase of 31,680 annually. During the 1990s, birth rate increased by more than 100,000 children per year while death rates fell and immigration surged. In the early 2000s, birth rate declined as immigration increased further, with the context of unrest in the Middle East, upholding steady population growth.[6][7]

Ethnicity

The majority of the population are Swedes or Swedish people. The Sweden Finns are a large ethnic minority comprising approximately 50,000 along the Swedish-Finnish border, and 450,000 first and second generation immigrated ethnic Finns, mainly living in the Mälaren Valley region. Meänkieli Finnish has official status in parts of northern Sweden near the Finnish border. In addition, Sweden's indigenous population groups includes the Sami people, historically a nomadic reindeer herding group that has been native to Fenno-Scandinavia for at least 5000 years.[8] Today, the Sami language holds the status of official minority language in four municipalities in the Norrbotten county.

Immigrants from the Middle East have been a rapidly growing share of Sweden's population. According to the government agency Statistics Sweden, the number of immigrants born in all of Asia (including the Middle East) rose from just 1,000 in 1950 to 295,000 in 2003.[9] Most of those immigrants came from Iraq, Iran, Lebanon and Syria, according to Statistics Sweden.[9] A significant number of Syrian Christians have also settled in Sweden. Since the European migrant crisis, Syrians became the largest group of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in 2017 with 158,443 people.

Additionally, the birth rate among immigrant women after arriving in Sweden is higher than among ethnic Swedes.[10] Taking into account the fact that immigrant women have on average fewer[citation needed] children than Swedish women of comparable age, the difference in total birth rate is only 0.1 children more if the woman is foreign born – with the disclaimer that some women may have children not immigrating to and not reported in Sweden who are not included in the statistics.[11]

Total Fertility Rate from 1630 to 1900

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[12]

Years 1630 1632 1634 1636 1638 1640 1642 1644 1646 1648 1650 1652 1654 1656 1658[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.81 4.25 3.89 4.38 4.4 4.92 4.38 4.25 4.95 5.4 4.34 4.54 5.33 4.72 4.58
Years 1660 1662 1664 1666 1668 1670 1672 1674 1676 1678 1680 1682 1684 1686 1688[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.2 4.54 5.01 4.98 4.6 5.13 5.01 4.38 4.28 4.35 4.64 5.4 5.25 4.84 5.29
Years 1690 1692 1694 1696 1698 1700 1702 1704 1706 1708 1710 1712 1714 1716 1718[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.99 5.11 4.98 5.33 5.11 5.56 5.81 5.52 5.16 5.32 4.3 5.63 5.81 4.92 5.13
Years 1720 1722 1724 1726 1728 1730 1732 1734 1736 1738 1740 1742 1744 1746 1748[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.62 5.09 5.02 4.75 4.23 4.77 4.86 4.77 4.51 4.96 4.52 4.35 5.02 4.85 4.86
Years 1750 1752 1754 1756 1758 1760 1762 1764 1766 1768 1770 1772 1774 1776 1778[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 5.09 5.29 5.4 5.23 4.68 5.06 4.98 4.92 4.79 4.77 4.68 4.1 4.89 4.67 4.94
Years 1780 1782 1784 1786 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 5.06 4.54 4.47 4.67 4.81 4.33 5.19 4.79 4.92 4.79 4.07
Years 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.26 4.5 4.45 4.52 4.5 4.36 4.42 4.31 3.78 4.67
Years 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 5.01 4.76 4.22 4.42 4.93 5.01 4.74 4.8 4.68 4.68
Years 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 5.03 5.09 5.22 4.9 5.18 4.94 4.44 4.77 4.94 4.67
Years 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.32 4.38 4.84 4.78 4.63 4.52 4.37 4.17 4.18 4.46
Years 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.3 4.49 4.36 4.56 4.46 4.25 4.2 4.3 4.66 4.45
Estimated birth rate (blue) and death rate in Sweden for the period of 1735 to 2000. The graph indicates strong population growth for the period of 1800 to 1970, and a beginning population decline from the 1980s.
A Swedish family with their five children in 1898
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.36 4.2 4.26 4.53 4.3 4.23 4.36 4.66 4.71 4.71
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.44 4.59 4.65 4.69 4.58 4.68 4.4 3.93 4.03 4.11
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.37 4.34 4.49 4.54 4.6 4.57 4.62 4.44 4.56 4.36
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.29 4.32 4.24 4.4 4.34 4.39 4.36 4.24 4.1 4.15
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[12]
Total Fertility Rate in Sweden 4.14 3.93 3.97 3.94 4.01 3.98 3.92 3.99 3.9 4

Vital statistics since 1900

Data according to Statistics Sweden, which collects the official statistics for Sweden.[13]

Average
population
Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1]
1900 5 117 000 138 139 86 146 51 993 27.0 16.8 10.2 4.02
1901 5 156 000 139 370 82 772 56 598 27.0 16.1 11.0 4.04
1902 5 187 000 137 364 79 722 57 642 26.5 15.4 11.1 3.95
1903 5 210 000 133 896 78 610 55 286 25.7 15.1 10.6 3.82
1904 5 241 000 134 952 80 152 54 800 25.7 15.3 10.5 3.83
1905 5 278 000 135 409 82 443 52 966 25.7 15.6 10.0 3.83
1906 5 316 000 136 620 76 366 60 254 25.7 14.4 11.3 3.81
1907 5 357 000 136 793 78 149 58 644 25.5 14.6 10.9 3.77
1908 5 404 000 138 874 80 568 58 306 25.7 14.9 10.8 3.79
1909 5 453 000 139 505 74 538 64 967 25.6 13.7 11.9 3.71
1910 5 499 000 135 625 77 212 58 413 24.7 14.0 10.6 3.60
1911 5 542 000 132 977 76 462 56 515 24.0 13.8 10.2 3.49
1912 5 583 000 132 868 79 241 53 627 23.8 14.2 9.6 3.44
1913 5 621 000 130 200 76 724 53 476 23.2 13.6 9.5 3.32
1914 5 659 000 129 458 78 311 51 147 22.9 13.8 9.0 3.29
1915 5 696 000 122 997 83 587 39 410 21.6 14.7 6.9 3.06
1916 5 735 000 121 679 77 771 43 908 21.2 13.6 7.7 2.99
1917 5 779 000 120 855 77 385 43 470 20.9 13.4 7.5 2.93
1918 5 807 000 117 955 104 594 13 361 20.3 18.0 2.3 2.83
1919 5 830 000 115 193 84 289 30 904 19.8 14.5 5.3 2.72
1920 5 876 000 138 753 78 128 60 625 23.6 13.3 10.3 3.22
1921 5 929 000 127 723 73 536 54 187 21.5 12.4 9.1 2.93
1922 5 971 000 116 946 76 343 40 603 19.6 12.8 6.8 2.66
1923 5 997 000 113 435 68 424 45 011 18.9 11.4 7.5 2.55
1924 6 021 000 109 055 72 001 37 054 18.1 12.0 6.2 2.43
1925 6 045 000 106 292 70 918 35 374 17.6 11.7 5.9 2.34
1926 6 064 000 102 007 71 344 30 663 16.8 11.8 5.1 2.22
1927 6 081 000 97 994 77 219 20 775 16.1 12.7 3.4 2.11
1928 6 097 000 97 868 73 267 24 601 16.1 12.0 4.0 2.08
1929 6 113 000 92 861 74 538 18 323 15.2 12.2 3.0 1.95
1930 6 131 000 94 220 71 790 22 430 15.4 11.7 3.7 1.96
1931 6 152 000 91 074 77 121 13 953 14.8 12.5 2.3 1.88
1932 6 176 000 89 779 71 459 18 320 14.5 11.6 3.0 1.83
1933 6 201 000 85 020 69 607 15 413 13.7 11.2 2.5 1.72
1934 6 222 000 85 092 69 921 15 171 13.7 11.2 2.4 1.67
1935 6 242 000 85 906 72 813 13 093 13.8 11.7 2.1 1.70
1936 6 259 000 88 938 74 836 14 102 14.2 12.0 2.3 1.75
1937 6 276 000 90 373 75 392 14 981 14.4 12.0 2.4 1.77
1938 6 297 000 93 946 72 693 21 253 14.9 11.5 3.4 1.84
1939 6 326 000 97 380 72 876 24 504 15.4 11.5 3.9 1.90
1940 6 356 000 95 778 72 748 23 030 15.1 11.4 3.6 1.86
1941 6 389 000 99 727 71 910 27 817 15.6 11.3 4.4 1.92
1942 6 432 000 113 961 63 741 50 220 17.7 9.9 7.8 2.19
1943 6 491 000 125 392 66 105 59 287 19.3 10.2 9.1 2.41
1944 6 560 000 134 991 72 284 62 707 20.6 11.0 9.6 2.61
1945 6 636 000 135 373 71 901 63 472 20.4 10.8 9.6 2.63
1946 6 719 000 132 597 70 635 61 962 19.7 10.5 9.2 2.57
1947 6 803 000 128 779 73 579 55 200 18.9 10.8 8.1 2.50
1948 6 883 000 126 683 67 693 58 990 18.4 9.8 8.6 2.47
1949 6 956 000 121 272 69 537 51 735 17.4 10.0 7.4 2.39
1950 7 014 000 115 414 70 296 45 118 16.5 10.0 6.4 2.28
1951 7 073 000 110 168 69 799 40 369 15.6 9.9 5.7 2.20
1952 7 125 000 110 192 68 270 41 922 15.5 9.6 5.9 2.22
1953 7 171 000 110 144 69 553 40 591 15.4 9.7 5.7 2.25
1954 7 213 000 105 096 69 030 36 066 14.6 9.6 5.0 2.18
1955 7 262 000 107 305 68 634 38 671 14.8 9.5 5.3 2.25
1956 7 315 000 107 960 70 205 37 755 14.8 9.6 5.2 2.29
1957 7 364 000 107 168 73 132 34 036 14.6 9.9 4.6 2.29
1958 7 409 000 105 502 71 065 34 437 14.2 9.6 4.6 2.26
1959 7 446 000 104 743 70 889 33 854 14.1 9.5 4.5 2.29
1960 7 480 000 102 219 75 093 27 126 13.7 10.0 3.6 2.17
1961 7 520 000 104 501 73 555 30 946 13.9 9.8 4.1 2.21
1962 7 562 000 107 284 76 791 30 493 14.2 10.2 4.0 2.25
1963 7 604 000 112 903 76 460 36 443 14.8 10.1 4.8 2.33
1964 7 661 000 122 664 76 661 46 003 16.0 10.0 6.0 2.47
1965 7 734 000 122 806 78 194 44 612 15.9 10.1 5.8 2.39
1966 7 808 000 123 354 78 440 44 914 15.8 10.0 5.8 2.37
1967 7 868 000 121 360 79 783 41 577 15.4 10.1 5.3 2.28
1968 7 914 000 113 087 82 476 30 611 14.3 10.4 3.9 2.07
1969 7 968 000 107 622 83 352 24 270 13.5 10.5 3.0 1.94
1970 8 043 000 110 150 80 026 30 124 13.7 9.9 3.7 1.94
1971 8 098 000 114 484 82 717 31 767 14.1 10.2 3.9 1.98
1972 8 122 000 112 273 84 051 28 222 13.8 10.3 3.5 1.93
1973 8 137 000 109 663 85 640 24 023 13.5 10.5 3.0 1.88
1974 8 161 000 109 874 86 316 23 558 13.5 10.6 2.9 1.91
1975 8 193 000 103 632 88 208 15 424 12.6 10.8 1.9 1.78
1976 8 222 000 98 345 90 677 7 668 12.0 11.0 0.9 1.70
1977 8 252 000 96 057 88 202 7 855 11.6 10.7 1.0 1.64
1978 8 276 000 93 248 89 681 3 567 11.3 10.8 0.4 1.61
1979 8 294 000 96 255 91 074 5 181 11.6 11.0 0.6 1.66
1980 8 310 000 97 064 91 800 5 264 11.7 11.0 0.6 1.69
1981 8 320 000 94 065 92 034 2 031 11.3 11.1 0.2 1.63
1982 8 325 000 92 748 90 671 2 077 11.1 10.9 0.2 1.60
1983 8 329 000 91 780 90 791 989 11.0 10.9 0.1 1.61
1984 8 337 000 93 889 90 483 3 406 11.3 10.9 0.4 1.66
1985 8 350 000 98 463 94 032 4 431 11.8 11.3 0.5 1.74
1986 8 370 000 101 950 93 295 8 655 12.2 11.1 1.0 1.79
1987 8 398 000 104 699 93 307 11 392 12.5 11.1 1.4 1.84
1988 8 437 000 112 080 96 743 15 337 13.3 11.5 1.8 1.96
1989 8 493 000 116 023 92 110 23 913 13.7 10.8 2.8 2.02
1990 8 559 000 123 938 95 161 28 777 14.5 11.1 3.4 2.14
1991 8 617 000 123 737 95 202 28 535 14.4 11.0 3.3 2.12
1992 8 668 000 122 848 94 710 28 138 14.2 10.9 3.2 2.09
1993 8 719 000 117 998 97 008 20 990 13.5 11.1 2.4 2.00
1994 8 781 000 112 257 91 844 20 413 12.8 10.5 2.3 1.90
1995 8 831 000 103 326 96 910 6 416 11.7 11.0 0.7 1.74
1996 8 843 000 95 297 94 133 1 164 10.8 10.6 0.1 1.61
1997 8 846 000 89 171 92 674 -3 503 10.1 10.5 -0.4 1.52
1998 8 851 000 88 384 92 891 -4 507 10.0 10.5 -0.5 1.51
1999 8 858 000 88 173 94 726 -6 553 10.0 10.7 -0.7 1.50
2000 8 872 000 90 441 93 285 -2 844 10.2 10.5 -0.3 1.54
2001 8 896 000 91 466 93 752 -2 286 10.3 10.5 -0.3 1.57
2002 8 925 000 95 815 95 009 806 10.7 10.6 0.1 1.65
2003 8 958 000 99 157 92 961 6 196 11.1 10.4 0.7 1.71
2004 8 994 000 100 928 90 532 10 396 11.2 10.1 1.2 1.75
2005 9 030 000 101 346 91 710 9 636 11.2 10.2 1.1 1.77
2006 9 081 000 105 913 91 177 14 736 11.7 10.0 1.6 1.85
2007 9 148 000 107 421 91 729 15 692 11.7 10.0 1.7 1.88
2008 9 220 000 109 301 91 449 17 852 11.9 9.9 1.9 1.91
2009 9 299 000 111 801 90 080 21 721 12.0 9.7 2.3 1.94
2010 9 378 000 115 641 90 487 25 154 12.3 9.6 2.7 1.98
2011 9 449 000 111 770 89 938 21 832 11.8 9.5 2.3 1.90
2012 9 519 000 113 177 91 938 21 239 11.9 9.7 2.2 1.91
2013 9 644 000 113 593 90 402 23 191 11.8 9.4 2.4 1.89
2014 9 747 000 114 907 88 976 25 931 11.9 9.2 2.7 1.88
2015 9 851 000 114 870 90 907 23 963 11.7 9.3 2.4 1.85
2016 9 995 000 117 425 90 982 26 443 11.8 9.2 2.6 1.85
2017 10 120 000 115 416 91 972 23 444 11.4 9.1 2.3 1.79

Current vital statistics

[14]

Number of births :

  • from January-September 2017 = Decrease 89,214
  • from January-September 2018 = Increase 89,515

Number of deaths :

  • from January-September 2017 = Negative increase 68,644
  • from January-September 2018 = Negative increase 69,505

Natural increase :

  • from January-September 2017 = Decrease 20,570
  • from January-September 2018 = Decrease 20,010

Life expectancy from 1751 to 2015

Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.

1751-1949

Years 1751 1754 1756 1768 1776 1781 1789 1795 1810 1818 1824 1837 1847 1855 1861[15]
Life expectancy in Sweden 38.4 37.4 36.2 35.0 41.5 37.8 31.2 36.5 31.9 40.0 44.9 39.6 40.1 43.0 47.1
Years 1868 1872 1878 1884 1890 1896 1905 1911 1913 1916 1922 1929 1935 1943 1949[15]
Life expectancy in Sweden 43.2 50.0 47.6 49.1 50.4 53.4 54.5 58.0 58.7 58.2 61.0 62.3 64.9 68.7 70.8

1950-2015

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 71.9 1985–1990 77.2
1955–1960 72.9 1990–1995 78.2
1960–1965 73.5 1995–2000 79.3
1965–1970 74.1 2000–2005 80.1
1970–1975 74.8 2005–2010 81.1
1975–1980 75.4 2010–2015 81.9
1980–1985 76.4

Source: UN World Population Prospects[16]

Population statistics

Immigration and emigration in Sweden 1980-2014
  Inmigration
  Emigration
Data source (Swedish government)
Population of Sweden, 1961 to 2003. The population increased from 7.5 to 8.3 million during the 1960s to 1970s. After a phase of steadiness during the early 1980s, the population grew further from 8.3 to 8.8 million during 1987 to 1997, followed by another phase of stagnation (followed by another growth phase from 8.8 to 9.3 million over 2004 to 2010).
Population pyramid in 2016
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
  0-9.9
  10-24.9
  25-49.9
  50-99.9
  100-199.9
  200+

At the housing and population census 1990 the Swedish population stood at 8 587 353 out of which 4,242,351 male and 4,345,002 female. According to a 2012 survey there were 1 473 256 foreign born within the country making up 15% of the population.[17][18]

The demographic profile of Sweden has altered drastically due to immigration patterns since the 1970s. Since 2012, the number of immigrants to Sweden has increased while the number of emigrants have decreased. Today, about one-fifth of Sweden's population has an immigrant background.[19]

Though there are no official statistics on ethnicity, according to Statistics Sweden around 1,921,000 (20.1%) inhabitants of Sweden were of a foreign background in 2012. This background included: indigenous population of Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities, and foreign-born or first-generation immigrants like Turks, Greeks, Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes and Norwegians.

Population little increases during 2004-2012 have mainly been attributed to immigration from Muslim-majority countries like Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. This implies a larger influx of Muslim immigrants as opposed to any other religious group.[19]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[19]

  • One birth every 4 minutes
  • One death every 6 minutes
  • One net migrant every 13 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 7 minutes


Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[20]

Population
9,960,487 (July 2017 est.)
Religions
Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 63%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Muslim, Orthodox, Buddhist, Baptist and Jewish) 17% (2016 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.43% (male 892,462/female 843,375)
15-24 years: 11.31% (male 581,025/female 545,971)
25-54 years: 39.42% (male 1,993,590/female 1,933,080)
55-64 years: 11.58% (male 578,942/female 574,479)
65 years and over: 20.26% (male 931,593/female 1,085,970) (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.88 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 141st
Median age
total: 41.2 years Country comparison to the world: 41st
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.2 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate
0.81% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 128th
0.93% (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
29.1 years (2015 est.)
Birth rate
12.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 167th
11.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate
5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 23rd
6.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 82.1 years Country comparison to the world: 16th
male: 80.2 years
female: 84.2 years (2017 est.)
Net birth surplus rate
2.40 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births Country comparison to the world: 218th
male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
2.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 58.5
youth dependency ratio: 27.4
elderly dependency ratio: 31.1
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 20.4%
male: 21.2%
female: 19.6% (2015 est.) Country comparison to the world: 65th
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Urbanisation
85% of total population (2010 est.)
Rate of urbanisation: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Population projections

In 1950 Sweden had fewer people aged 10-20 with more people ages 20-30 and 0-10. In 2017 the ratio if male to female remains steady at about 50-50. As a whole the graph broadens with people appearing to live longer. In 2050 its predicted that all ages will increase from below 300,000 males and females to above 300,000 males and females. With about 50,000 people living to the ages of 90-100. In 2100 the graph is shaped as a rectangle with people of all ages and genders remaining steady. It narrows slightly at the top of the graph with about 250,000/300,000 males and females living to be 90-100 years old.[21] Statistics Sweden projects the following population development in Sweden:[22]

Year Projection
2016 9,995,000
2020 10,431,000
2026 11,046,000
2030 11,344,000
2040 11,898,000
2050 12,395,000
2060 12,858,000

Eurostat projects a population in Sweden reaching 11,994,364 people in 2040 and 14,388,478 in 2080.[23]

Migration

Immigration

COB data Sweden.PNG
Increases (1984-2014) of asylum in Sweden by origin
  Serbia and Montenegro: 118 669
  Iraq: 98 211
  Syria: 65 616
  Bosnia-Herzegovina: 58 166
  Somalia: 55 123
  Iran: 50 571
  Other countries: 134 479
  Unknown: 43 350
Data source (Swedish government).

As of 2017, Statistics Sweden reported that around 2,439,007 or 24.1% of the inhabitants of Sweden were from a foreign background: that is, each such person either had been born abroad or had been born in Sweden to two parents who themselves had both been born abroad.[24] Also taking into account people with only one parent born abroad, this number increases to almost a third in 2017.[25]

Demographics

According to Eurostat, in 2010, there were 1.33 million foreign-born residents in Sweden, corresponding to 14.3% of the total population. Of these, 859,000 (64.3%) were born outside the EU and 477,000 (35.7%) were born in another EU Member State.[26][27]

The twenty largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in 2017 were:[28]

  1. Syria Syria (172,258)
  2. Finland Finland (150,877)
  3. Iraq Iraq (140,830)
  4. Poland Poland (91,180)
  5. Iran Iran (74,096)
  6. Somalia Somalia (66,369)
  7. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (65,877)
  8. Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina (58,880)
  9. Germany Germany (50,863)
  10. Turkey Turkey (48,299)
  11. Afghanistan Afghanistan (43,991)
  12. Norway Norway (42,028)
  13. Thailand Thailand (41,240)
  14. Denmark Denmark (40,563)
  15. Eritrea Eritrea (39,081)
  16. China China (31,333)
  17. India India (29,673)
  18. Romania Romania (29,546)
  19. Chile Chile (27,996)
  20. United Kingdom United Kingdom (27,685)

The seven successor states of Yugoslavia and their historic counterparts (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo and "Serbia and Montenegro") had a combined population of 172,308 persons residing in Sweden in 2017 which would make them the largest foreign-born group if counted as one group.

The ten most common countries of birth among immigrants getting registered in Sweden during 2016 (including asylum seekers who came in 2015) were the following:[29]

  1. Syria Syria (+51,540)
  2. Eritrea Eritrea (+6,580)
  3. Poland Poland (+5,078)
  4. Iraq Iraq (+4,901)
  5. India India (+4,247)
  6. Somalia Somalia (+3,794)
  7. Afghanistan Afghanistan (+3,607)
  8. Finland Finland (+2,969)
  9. Germany Germany (+2,666)
  10. Iran Iran (+2,469)

History

World War II

Immigration increased markedly with World War II. Historically, the most numerous of foreign born nationalities are ethnic Germans from Germany and other Scandinavians from Denmark and Norway.[citation needed] In short order, 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland, of which 15,000 remained in Sweden. Also, many of Denmark's nearly 7,000 Jews who were evacuated to Sweden decided to remain there.[citation needed]

A sizable community from the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) arrived during the Second World War.[30]

1945 to 1967

During the 1950s and 1960s, the recruitment of immigrant labour was an important factor of immigration. The Nordic countries signed a trade agreement in 1952, establishing a common labour market and free movement across borders. This migration within the Nordic countries, especially from Finland to Scandinavia, was essential to create the tax-base required for the expansion of the strong public sector now characteristic of Scandinavia.[citation needed] This continued until 1967, when the labour market became saturated, and Sweden introduced new immigration controls.

On a smaller scale, Sweden took in political refugees from Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia after their countries were invaded by the Soviet Union in 1956 and 1968 respectively.

Contemporary immigration

Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.[31]

The first group of Assyrians/Syriacs moved to Sweden from Lebanon in 1967. Many of them live in Södertälje (Stockholm).[32][33] There are also around 40,000 Roma in Sweden.[34]

Immigration of Iraqis increased dramatically during the Iraq War, during 2003 to 2007. A total of 8,951 Iraqis came to Sweden in 2006, accounting for 45% of the entire Iraqi migration to Europe. By 2007, the community of Iraqis in Sweden numbered above 70,000. In 2008, Sweden introduced tighter rules on asylum seekers.[35]

Language

The Swedish language is by far the dominating language in Sweden, and is used by the government administration.

Since 1999, Sweden has five officially recognised minority languages: Sami, Meänkieli, Standard Finnish, Romani chib and Yiddish.

The Sami language, spoken by about 7,000 people in Sweden, may be used in government agencies, courts, preschools and nursing homes in the municipalities of Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Kiruna and its immediate neighbourhood.

Similarly, Finnish and Meänkieli can be used in the municipalities of Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala and Övertorneå and its immediate neighbourhood. Finnish is also official language, along with Swedish, in the city of Eskilstuna.[citation needed]

During the mid to late 20th century, immigrant communities brought other languages, among others being Persian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic and Neo-Aramaic.[36]

Religion

The majority (66%) of the population belongs to the Church of Sweden,[37] the Lutheran church that was disestablished in 2000. This is because until 1996, those who had family members in the church automatically became members at birth.[citation needed] Other Christian denominations in Sweden include the Roman Catholic Church (see Catholic Church of Sweden), several Orthodox churches in diaspora, Baptist, Pentecostal, Neo-pietistic (nyevangeliska) and other evangelical Christian churches (frikyrkor = 'free churches'). Shamanism persisted among the Sami people up until the 18th century, but no longer exists in its traditional form as most Sami today belong to the Lutheran church.

Jews were permitted to practice their religion in five Swedish cities in 1782, and have enjoyed full rights as citizens since 1870. The new Freedom of Religion Bill was passed in 1951, and former obstacles against Non-Lutherans working in schools and hospitals were removed. Further, that bill made it legal to leave any religious denomination, without entering another. There are also a number of Muslims, Buddhists, and Bahá'í in Sweden, mainly from immigration.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Population statistics". Statistics Sweden. August 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  2. ^ "U.S. & World Population Clocks". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  3. ^ Svanström, Stefan. "Varannan svensk bor nära havet". Scb.se. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  4. ^ Gustav Sundbärg, Sveriges land och folk (1901), page 90.
  5. ^ "Population and Population Changes 1749–2015". Statistics Sweden. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017.
  6. ^ "The 2005 population and housing census in Sweden will be totally register-based". Census Knowledge Base. United Nations Statistics Division.
  7. ^ Bruhn, Åke (6 July 2001). "The 2005 population and housing census in Sweden will be totally register-based". Symposium on Global Review of 2000 Round of Population and Housing Censuses: Mid-Decade Assessment and Future Prospects. Retrieved 12 March 2017: Does not provide figures, only methodology.
  8. ^ Broadbent, Noel (16 March 2010). Lapps and Labyrinths: Saami Prehistory, Colonisation, and Cultural Resilience. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-9788460-6-0.
  9. ^ a b "Immigration and emigration in the postwar period, Yugoslav immigration was substantial" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. 2004. p. 96. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Visa detaljerad information". Scb.se. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Får utrikes födda fler barn?". Statistiska Centralbyrån. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
  13. ^ "Statistics Sweden". Scb.se. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Preliminary Population Statistics 2018". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Life expectancy". Our World in Data. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  16. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  17. ^ "Utrikes födda 2012: Fortsatt ökning av utrikes födda i Sverige" [Foreign born 2012: Further increase in foreign-born persons in Sweden]. Statistics Sweden, Unit for Population Statistics (in Swedish). 21 August 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  18. ^ Befolkningsstatistik. "Största folkökningen på nästan 70 år". Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  19. ^ a b c "Sweden Population 2018", World Population Review
  20. ^ "Sweden". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  21. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  22. ^ "Sveriges framtida befolkning 2017-2060" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  23. ^ "Population on 1st January by age and sex". Eurostat Commission. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  24. ^ "Number of persons by foreign/Swedish background, age, sex and year". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  25. ^ "Statistikdatabasen - välj tabell". Statistikdatabasen.scb.se. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  26. ^ Vasileva, Katya (2011). "6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad" (PDF). Statistics in focus. Eurostat (34). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2012.
  27. ^ "Statistikdatabasen - välj tabell". Ssd.scb.se. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  28. ^ "Utrikes födda samt födda i Sverige med en eller två utrikes födda föräldrar efter födelseland/ursprungsland, 31 december 2017, totalt". Statistics Sweden / Befolkning efter födelseland och ursprungsland 31 december 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  29. ^ "Invandring till Sverige 2016 och 2015 efter de 20 vanligaste födelseländerna för de invandrade 2016". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  30. ^ "Pocket Facts: Statistics on Integration" (PDF). Integrationsverket. The Swedish Integration Board. 2006. ISBN 91-89609-30-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007.
  31. ^ Sweden: Restrictive Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism, Migration Policy Institute, 2006.
  32. ^ "Assyrier/Syrianer – Vilka är de?" [Assyrians/Syriacs - Who are they?] (in Swedish). Ronnaskolan.sodertalje.se. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009.
  33. ^ "Vems är historien? Historia som medvetande, kultur och handling i det mångkulturella Sverige" [Who Does History Belong To? History as Consciousness, Culture and Action in Multicultural Sweden] (PDF) (in Swedish). educ.umu.se. 2006. ISBN 91-7264-128-2. ISSN 1653-6894. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2006.
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ "Sweden tightens rules on Iraqi asylum seekers". reuters.com. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  36. ^ "Sweden". Ethnologue. 19 February 1999. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  37. ^ "Svenska kyrkans medlemsutveckling år 1972-2010" [Swedish church's membership development from 1972-2010] (in Swedish). Church of Sweden. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2011.

External links

  • Statistics Sweden – Official Data Base available in English
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