Demographics of Russia

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Demographics of Russia
Population 144,530,031 (excluding Crimea),[1][2] 146.9 million (including Crimea)[3]
146,880,432 as of January 1, 2018[4]
Growth rate Increase 0.05% (2017)[5]
Birth rate 11.5 births/1,000 population (2017)[6]
Death rate 12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017)[6]
Life expectancy 72.70 years (2017)[7]
 • male 67.51 years
 • female 77.64 years
Fertility rate 1.62 (2017)[8]
Infant mortality rate 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017)[6]
Net migration rate 1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014)
Age structure
0–14 years 17.4%
15–64 years 68.2%
65 and over 14.4% (1 january 2017)
Sex ratio
Total 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.06 male(s)/female (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15–64 years 0.925 male(s)/female (male 48,166,470/female 52,088,967)
65 and over 0.44 male(s)/female (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896)
Nationality
Nationality noun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Major ethnic Russians
Language
Spoken Russian, others
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1897 67,473,000 —    
1926 93,459,000 +38.5%
1939 108,377,000 +16.0%
1959 117,534,000 +8.4%
1970 130,079,000 +10.7%
1979 137,552,000 +5.7%
1989 147,386,000 +7.1%
2002 145,166,731 −1.5%
2010 142,856,836 −1.6%
2018 146,880,432 +2.8%
Source:[9]

The demographics of Russia is about the demographic features of the population of the Russian Federation including population growth, population density, ethnic composition, education level, health, economic status and other aspects.

As of 1 January 2017, the population of Russia is 144,498,215 excluding Crimea and Sevastopol, whose annexation is not recognized by most UN members. Including Crimea and Sevastopol, the population is 146,880,432 as of January 1, 2018. Compared to the previous year, the population increased in Russia by 76,060, the result of a net migration gain of 211,878, and a natural population loss of 135,818[10] Around 77% of its population lives in European Russia, while the 23% lives in its Asian part.[11]:6[11]:10

As of 2017, Russia's TFR of 1.61 children born/woman[8] was among the highest in Eastern, Southern and Central Europe. In 2013, Russia experienced the first natural population growth since 1990 at 22,700.

According to the 2010 census, ethnic Russians make up 77% of the total population.[12] This share remained steady over the last few decades.[13][14] Six other ethnicities have a population exceeding 1 million – Tatars (3.9%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Bashkir (1.1%), Chuvash (1%), Chechens (1%) and Armenians (0.9%). In total, 160 different ethnic groups live within the Russian Federation's borders.

Russia's population density is 8.4 people per square kilometre (22 per square mile), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering on Moscow and Saint Petersburg. 74% of the population is urban, making Russia a highly urbanized country.

Main trends

Natural population growth of Russia since 1950.[15][16][17]
  Birth rate
  Death rate
  Natural growth rate

The population of Russia peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union. Low birth rates and abnormally high death rates caused Russia's population to decline at a 0.5% annual rate, or about 750,000 to 800,000 people per year from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. The UN warned in 2005 that Russia's then population of about 143 million could fall by a third by 2050, if trends did not improve.[18][19] In 2018, the UN predicted that Russia's population will fall to 132 million by 2050.[20][21]

The decline slowed considerably in the late 2000s, and in 2009 Russia recorded population growth for the first time in 15 years, adding 23,300.[15][22] Key reasons for the slow current population growth are improving health care, changing fertility patterns among younger women, falling emigration and steady influx of immigrants from ex-USSR countries. In 2012, Russia's population increased by 292,400.[23]

The number of Russians living in poverty has decreased by 50% since the economic crisis following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the improving economy had a positive impact on the country's low birth rate. The latter rose from its lowest point of 8.27 births per 1000 people in 1999 to 13.3 per 1000 in 2014. Likewise, the fertility rate rose from its lowest point of 1.157 in 1999 to 1.777 in 2015. 2007 marked the highest growth in birth rates that the country had seen in 25 years, and 2009 marked the highest total birth rate since 1991.[24]

While the Russian birth rate is comparable to that of developed countries, its death rate is much higher, especially among working-age males due to a comparatively high rate of fatalities caused by heart disease and other external causes such as accidents. The Russian death rate in 2010 was 14.3 per 1000 citizens.

Demographic crisis and recovery prospects

Children in Russia. The country is struggling with a demographic crisis of Russia[25]

The causes for this sharp increase in mortality are widely debated. According to a 2009 report by The Lancet,[26] a British medical journal, mass privatization, an element of the economic-reform package nicknamed shock therapy, clearly correlates with higher mortality rates. The report argues that advocates of economic reforms ignored the human cost of the policies they were promoting, such as unemployment and human suffering, leading to an early death. These conclusions were criticized by The Economist.[27] A WHO press-release in 2000, on the other hand, reported widespread alcohol abuse in Russia being used as the most common explanation of higher men's mortality.[28] A 2008 study produced very similar results.[29]

A 2009 study blamed alcohol for more than half the deaths (52%) among Russians aged 15 to 54 in the '90s. For the same demographic, this compares to 4% of deaths for the rest of the world. The study claimed alcohol consumption in mid-90s in Russia averaged 10.5 litres, and was based on personal interviews conducted in three Siberian industrial cities, Barnaul, Biysk and Omsk.[30] More recent studies have confirmed these findings.[31]

According to the Russian demographic publication Demoscope,[32] the rising male death rate was a long-term trend from 1960 to 2005. The only significant reversion of the trend was caused by Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign, but its effect was only temporary. According to the publication, the sharp rise of death rates in the early 1990s was caused by the exhaustion of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign, while the market reforms were only of secondary importance. The authors also claimed the Lancet's study is flawed because it used the 1985 death rate as the base, while that was in fact the very maximum of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign.[32]

Other factors contributing to the collapse, along with the economic problems, include the dying off of a relatively large cohort of people born between 1925 and 1940 (between the Russian Civil War and World War II), when Russian birth rates were very high, along with, ironically enough, an "echo boom" in the 1980s that may have satisfied the demand of women for children, leading to a subsequent drop in birth rates.

Government measures to halt the demographic crisis was a key subject of Vladimir Putin's 2006 state of the nation address.[33] As a result, a national programme was developed with the goal to reverse the trend by 2020. Soon after, a study published in 2007 showed that the rate of population decrease had begun to slow: if the net decrease from January to August 2006 was 408,200 people, it was 196,600 in the same period in 2007. The death rate accounted for 357,000 of these, which is 137,000 less than in 2006.[34]

At the same time period in 2007, there were just over one million births in Russia (981,600 in 2006), whilst deaths decreased from 1,475,000 to 1,402,300. In all, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births by 1.3 times, down from 1.5 in 2006. 18 of the 83 provinces showed a natural growth of population (in 2006: 16). The Russian Ministry of Economic Development expressed hope that by 2020 the population would stabilize at 138–139 million, and by 2025, to increase again to its present-day status of 143–145, also raising the life expectancy to 75 years.[34]

The natural population decline continued to slow through 2008—2012 due to declining death rates and increasing birth rates. In 2009 the population saw yearly growth for the first time in 15 years.[15][22] In September 2009, the Ministry of Health and Social Development reported that Russia recorded natural population growth for the first time in 15 years, with 1,000 more births than deaths in August.[35] In April 2011 the Russian Prime Minister (Russian president as of 2012) Vladimir Putin pledged to spend the 1.5 trillion rubles (£32.5 billion or $54 billion) on various measures to boost Russia's declining birthrate by 30 per cent in the next four years.[36]

In 2012, the birth rate increased again. Russia recorded 1,896,263 births, the highest number since 1990, and even exceeding annual births during the period 1967–1969, with a TFR of 1.691, the highest since 1991. (Source: Vital statistics table below). In fact, Russia, despite having only slightly more people than Japan, has recently had nearly twice as many births as that country. The number of births was expected to fall over the next few years as women born during the baby bust in the 1990s enter their prime childbearing years, but this didn't occur thanks to the continued growth of the TFR. The figures for 2013-2015 again showed around 1.9 million births, about the same as in 2012, but because the number of women of childbearing age is dropping, especially for those in their early 20s, the TFR actually rose to 1.777, which places Russia at first 9 or 10 countries out of 50 developed nations, and at 6th place in Europe.

Immigration

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".[37] In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[38] Introduced in April 2014 new citizenship rules[39] allowing citizens of former Soviet countries to obtain Russian citizenship If they meet certain criteria (e.g. preferred language, ethnicity) have gained strong interest among Russian-speaking residents of those countries (i.e. Russians, Germans, Belarusians and Ukrainians).[40]

Contrary to the opinion of the media, Central Asia is only a tiny source of immigrants; out of 100,000 ethnic Uzbeks who arrived in Russia for work only 489 settled in Russia permanently. 50,000 Russian speakers from Uzbekistan arrived in the Russian Federation to settle. The largest amount were ethnic Ukrainians – 700,000 people by a far majority. However they came because of the Ukraine crisis (another thing to note is that they were legal when an overwhelming majority come undocumented). 1.4 million ethnic Russians repatriated to their homeland in 2014, more than in previous years.[citation needed]

There are an estimated four million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[41] In 2012, the Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in illegal migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia( Note that these were Temporary Contract Migrants) [42] Under legal changes made in 2012, illegal immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.[43][44][45]

Since the collapse of the USSR, most immigrants have come from Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Belarus, and China.[46]

Worker migration

Temporary migrant workers in Russia consists of about 7 million people, most of the temporary workers come from Central Asia the Balkans and East Asia. Most of them work in the construction, cleaning and in the household industries. They primarily live in cities such as Moscow, Sochi and Blagoveshchensk. While worker migrants are opposed by most Russians, the mayor of Moscow said that Moscow cannot do without worker migrants. New laws are in place that require worker migrants to be fluent in Russian, know Russian history and laws. The Russian Opposition and most of the Russian population opposes worker migration, Alexei Navalny stated that if he came to power he would introduce a Visa regime to non-Eurasian Union countries in the former Soviet Union and have a Visa free regime with the European Union and The West to attract skilled migrants.[47] The problem of worker migration has become so severe it has caused a rise in Russian nationalism, and spawned groups like Movement Against Illegal Immigration.[48][49]

Vital statistics

Total Fertility Rate from 1840 to 1926

Children born per woman from 1840 to 1926. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[50]

In many of the following years, Russia has had the highest Total Fertility Rates of the world.[50] These very high fertility rates did not increase even more the population due to the casualties of the Russian Revolution, the two world wars and political killings.

Years 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 7 7 7 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.05 7.06 7.08 7.08
Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 7.07 7.07 7.07 7.06 7.05 7.03 7.01 7 6.98 6.97
Years 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 6.95 6.93 6.95 6.96 6.98 6.99 7.01 7.02 6.51 6.87
Years 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 6.74 7.03 6.85 7.24 7.17 7.15 7.02 6.87 6.58 6.98
Years 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 6.8 6.66 7.03 6.89 6.83 6.74 6.47 6.61 6.96 6.8
Years 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 6.71 7.44 6.57 7.17 7.18 7.34 7.43 7.52 7.28 7.36
Years 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 7.36 7.2 7.36 7.2 7.24 6.72 7.04 7.08 7.44 7.12
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1927
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1941
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1946
Years 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 7.2 7.2 7.2 6.96 6.88 3.36 5.2 5.04 5.72 3.44
Years 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 6.72 4.72 6 6.48 6.72 6.8 6.72
Average population[51] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 43.6 20.9 22.7 6.729 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 43.3 21.2 22.1 6.556 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 42.2 22.8 19.4 6.227 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 39.3 22.6 16.7 5.834 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 39.9 26.9 13.0 5.626 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.093 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.146 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.566 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.305 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.535 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.3 5.079 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.989 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.907 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.260 35.7 41.9
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[50]
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 4.6 2.96 1.68 1.72 1.92

After WWII

[51][52][53][54][55][56]

Total population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 2.806 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 2.938 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.604 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 3.205 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.7 2.889 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 17.0 2.918 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 17.0 2.871 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.7 2.733 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.6 2.970 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.2 2.818 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.8 2.731 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.7 2.750 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 17.0 2.689 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,000 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 2.22 1.974 3.187 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.13 1.896 3.057 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 2.01 1.826 2.630 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.3 1.89 1.698 2.600 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 1.73 1.531 2.447 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 -219,797 10.7 12.2 -1.5 1.55 1.351 2.219 61.96 73.71 67.98 3,436,695
1993 148,459,000 1,378,983 2,129,339 -750,356 9.3 14.3 -5.1 1.36 1.195 1.913 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,408,000 1,408,159 2,301,366 -893,207 9.5 15.5 -6.0 1.39 1.234 1.884 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,376,000 1,363,806 2,203,811 -840,005 9.2 14.9 -5.7 1.34 1.193 1.813 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,160,000 1,304,638 2,082,249 -777,611 8.8 14.1 -5.2 1.27 1.140 1.705 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 147,915,000 1,259,943 2,015,779 -755,836 8.5 13.6 -5.1 1.22 1.097 1.624 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,671,000 1,283,292 1,988,744 -705,452 8.7 13.5 -4.8 1.23 1.109 1.643 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,215,000 1,214,689 2,144,316 -929,627 8.3 14.6 -6.3 1.16 1.045 1.534 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,597,000 1,266,800 2,225,332 -958,532 8.6 15.2 -6.5 1.20 1.089 1.554 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 145,976,000 1,311,604 2,254,856 -943,252 9.0 15.4 -6.5 1.22 1.124 1.564 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,306,496 1,396,967 2,332,272 -935,305 9.6 16.1 -6.4 1.29 1.189 1.633 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,648,624 1,477,301 2,365,826 -888,525 10.2 16.4 -6.1 1.32 1.223 1.666 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,067,312 1,502,477 2,295,402 -792,925 10.4 15.9 -5.5 1.34 1.253 1.654 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,518,816 1,457,376 2,303,935 -846,559 10.2 16.1 -5.9 1.29 1.207 1.576 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,675,693
2006 143,049,632 1,479,637 2,166,703 -687,066 10.3 15.1 -4.8 1.31 1.210 1.601 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,582,398
2007 142,805,120 1,610,122 2,080,445 -470,323 11.3 14.6 -3.3 1.42 1.294 1.798 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,479,010
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 -362,007 12.0 14.5 -2.6 1.50 1.372 1.912 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,385,600
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 -248,856 12.3 14.1 -1.8 1.54 1.415 1.941 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,292,389
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 -239,568 12.5 14.2 -1.7 1.57 1.439 1.983 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,186,108
2011 142,960,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 -129,091 12.6 13.5 -0.9 1.58 1.442 2.056 64.04 75.61 69.83 1,124,880
2012 143,201,700 1,902,084 1,906,335 -4,251 13.3 13.3 -0.0 1.691 1.541 2.215 64.56 75.86 70.24 1,063,982
2013 143,506,995 1,895,822 1,871,809 24,013 13.3 13.0 0.2 1.707 1.551 2.264 65.14 76.31 70.77 1,012,399
2014 146,090,613 1,942,683 1,912,347 30,346 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.750 1.588 2.318 65.29 76.49 70.93 929,963
2015 146,405,999 1,940,579 1,908,541 32,038 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.777 1.678 2.111 65.92 76.71 71.39 848,180
2016 146,674,541 1,888,729 1,891,015 -2,286 12.9 12.9 -0.0 1.762 1.672 2.056 66.50 77.06 71.87 836,611
2017 (p) 146,842,402[57] 1,690,307 1,826,125 -135,818 11.5 12.4 -0.9 1.621 1.527 1.923 67.51 77.64 72.70 779,848
Urban live births Urban deaths Urban natural change Urban crude birth rate (per 1,000) Urban crude death rate (per 1,000) Urban natural change (per 1,000) Rural live births Rural deaths Rural natural change Rural crude birth rate (per 1,000) Rural crude death rate (per 1,000) Rural natural change (per 1,000)
1950 1,171,250 436,792 734,458 26.1 9.7 16.4 1,574,747 594,218 980,529 27.5 10.4 17.1
1960 1,332,812 436,709 896,103 20.4 6.7 13.7 1,449,541 449,831 1,000,160 26.5 8.2 18.3
1970 1,205,207 646,129 559,078 14.8 7.9 6.9 698,506 485,054 213,452 14.3 10.0 4.3
1980 1,535,723 970,256 565,467 15.8 10.0 5.8 667,056 555,499 111,557 16.1 13.4 2.7
1990 1,386,247 1,140,613 245,634 12.7 10.5 2.2 602,611 515,380 87,231 15.5 13.2 2.3
1995 933,460 1,554,182 -620,722 8.7 14.4 -5.7 430,346 649,269 -219,283 10.9 16.5 -5.6
2000 886,908 1,564,034 -677,126 8.3 14.6 -6.3 379,892 661,298 -281,406 9.8 17.1 -7.3
2001 928,642 1,592,254 -663,612 8.7 14.9 -6.2 382,962 662,602 -279,640 10.0 17.3 -7.3
2002 998,056 1,638,822 -640,766 9.4 15.4 -6.0 398,911 693,450 -294,539 10.5 18.2 -7.7
2003 1,050,565 1,657,569 -607,004 9.9 15.6 -5.7 426,736 708,257 -281,521 11.1 18.4 -7.3
2004 1,074,247 1,606,894 -532,647 10.1 15.2 -5.1 428,230 688,508 -260,278 11.2 18.1 -6.9
2005 1,036,870 1,595,762 -558,892 9.8 15.1 -5.3 420,506 708,173 -287,667 11.0 18.6 -7.6
2006 1,044,540 1,501,245 -456,705 10.0 14.3 -4.3 435,097 665,458 -230,361 11.4 17.4 -6.0
2007 1,120,741 1,445,411 -324,670 10.7 13.8 -3.1 489,381 635,034 -145,653 12.9 16.7 -3.8
2008 1,194,820 1,443,529 -248,709 11.4 13.8 -2.4 519,127 632,425 -113,298 13.7 16.7 -3.0
2009 1,237,615 1,397,591 -159,976 11.8 13.3 -1.5 524,072 612,952 -88,880 13.9 16.3 -2.4
2010 1,263,893 1,421,734 -157,841 12.0 13.5 -1.5 520,055 606,782 -81,727 14.0 16.1 -2.1
2011 1,270,047 1,356,696 -88,649 12.0 12.8 -0.8 526,582 569,024 -42,442 14.1 15.2 -1.1
2012 1,355,674 1,353,635 2,039 12.8 12.8 0.0 546,410 552,700 -6,290 14.7 14.8 -0.1
2013 1,357,310 1,332,505 24,805 12.8 12.5 0.3 538,512 539,304 -792 14.5 14.5 0.0
2014 1,394,860 1,362,810 32,050 12.9 12.6 0.3 547,823 549,537 -1,714 14.4 14.5 -0.1
2015 1,455,283 1,361,891 93,392 13.4 12.6 0.8 485,296 546,650 -61,354 12.8 14.4 -1.6
2016 1,426,591 1,354,944 71,597 13.1 12.4 0.7 462,138 536,071 -73,933 12.2 14.2 -2.0
2017 1,269,527 1,310,235 -40,708 11.6 12.0 -0.4 420,780 515,890 -95,110 11.2 13.7 -2.5

Note: Russian data includes Crimea starting in 2014.

Total fertility rates

Changes in the Russian TFR since 1990.

As of 2017, Russia's TFR of 1.62 children born/woman[8] is among the highest in Eastern Europe, which means an average Russian family has more children than an average family in most other Eastern European countries. Still, this rate is below the replacement rate of 2.1. After experiencing a surge in births for several years, Russia's birth rate has begun to fall again: the birth rate has dropped by 10.6 percent in 2017 reaching its lowest level in 10 years.[25]

In 1990, just prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia's total fertility rate (TFR) stood at 1.89. Fertility rates had already begun to decline in the late 80s due to the natural progression of Russia's demographic structure, but the rapid and widely negative changes in society following the collapse greatly influenced the rate of decline.[58] The TFR hit a historic low of 1.157 in 1999 and has since begun to rise again, reaching 1.777 in 2015 (growth of 53.6%),[59] The only federal subject of Russia to see a decline in fertility since 1999 is Ingushetia, where the TFR has fallen from 2.443 to 2.278 as of 2014.

In 2009, 8 of Russia's federal subjects had a TFR above 2.1 children per woman (the approximate minimum required to ensure population replacement), These federal subjects are Chechnya (3.38), Tuva (2.81), Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (2.73), Agin-Buryat Okrug (2.63), Komi-Permyak (2.16), Evenk Okrug (2.58), Altai Republic (2.36), Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.1). Of these federal subjects, four have an ethnic Russian majority (Altai, Evenk, Ust-Orda and Nenets).[60][61] In 2011, the highest TFR were recorded in Chechnya (3.362), Tyva (3.249), Ingushetia (2.94), Altai Republic (2.836), Sakha Republic (2.057), Buryatia (2.027), and Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.007).[62]

Until 2010, the Russian republic of Chechnya was the region with the highest birth rate in the former USSR (excluding Central Asia). However, in 2011, the Armenian province of Qashatagh overtook it (28.9 vs 29.3 per 1.000).[63]

In 2010, the average number of children born to women has decreased from 1513 to 1000 women from 2002 to 1469 in 2010 in urban areas the figure was 1328 children (2002–1350), and in the village – 1876 (in 2002, – 1993).


In recent years the percentage of children per woman 16 years or more were:

Year : 2002–2010

1 child : 30.5%–31.2%

2 children : 33.7%–34.4%

3 children : 8.9%–8.7%

4 or more children : 5.2%–4.2%

no children : 21.7%–21.5%

Despite a decrease in women who have not had children, the number of three-child and large families has declined between 2002 and 2010.

In every region in Russia, rural areas reported higher TFR compared to urban areas. In most of the federal subjects in Siberia and the Russian Far East, the total fertility rates were high, but not high enough to ensure population replacement. For example, Zabaykalsky Krai had a TFR of 1.82, which is higher than the national average, but less than the 2.1 needed for population replacement.[60]

Compared to the G7 countries, in 2015, Russian TFR of 1.78 children/ woman[64] was lower than that of France (1.93), the USA (1.84), the UK (1.82). Yet its TFR is higher than in other G7 countries like Canada (1.61), Germany (1.50), Japan (1.46) and Italy (1.35).

Compared to other most populous nations, Russia has a lower TFR than Nigeria (5.37), Pakistan (3.42), Indonesia (2.5), India (2.30), Mexico (2.19), the USA (1.84),[65] and higher TFR than Brazil (1.74), and China (1.5-1.6).

Children Born Per Woman by Oblast Total Fertility Rate/1990 Urban Fertility Rate/1990 Rural Fertility Rate/1990 Total Fertility Rate/2014 Urban Fertility Rate/2014 Rural Fertility Rate/2014
Russian Federation 1.89 1.70 2.60 1.75 1.59 2.32
North Caucasian Federal District 2.03 1.68 2.41
Chechnya 2.84 2.16 3.35 2.91 2.83 2.95
Ingushetia 2.84 2.16 3.35 2.28 2.13 2.39
Dagestan 3.07 2.57 3.52 2.08 1.50 2.68
North Ossetia-Alania 2.23 2.20 2.30 2.01 2.02 1.98
Kabardino-Balkaria 2.45 2.04 3.11 1.83 1.65 2.02
Karachay-Cherkessia 2.19 1.89 2.51 1.65 1.48 1.78
Stavropol Krai 2.10 1.73 2.64 1.62 1.43 1.96
Ural Federal District 1.88 1.73 2.68 1.96 1.82 2.76
Kurgan Oblast 2.15 1.82 2.72 2.10 1.78 2.87
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2.19 1.94 3.19
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 2.09 2.07 2.41
Tyumen Oblast 1.99 1.85 2.55 2.07 1.94 2.71
Sverdlovsk Oblast 1.73 1.63 2.69 1.92 1.80 2.77
Chelyabinsk Oblast 1.89 1.74 2.80 1.86 1.70 2.78
Siberian Federal District 2.03 1.79 2.87 1.90 1.65 2.94
Tuva Republic 3.22 2.64 3.85 3.49 2.34 6.78
Altai Republic 2.52 1.62 3.08 2.88 1.70 5.20
Buriatia 2.49 2.10 3.37 2.26 1.87 3.12
Zabaykalsky Krai 2.49 2.10 3.38 2.08 1.75 3.13
Khakassia 2.27 2.04 3.04 2.01 1.72 2.82
Irkutsk Oblast 2.22 2.02 3.29 1.97 1.76 2.99
Altai Krai 1.91 1.66 2.42 1.84 1.52 2.66
Omsk Oblast 1.98 1.69 2.87 1.95 1.68 2.93
Kemerovo Oblast 1.92 1.84 2.62 1.78 1.69 2.43
Krasnoyarsk Krai 1.88 1.65 2.85 1.81 1.61 2.91
Novosibirsk Oblast 1.83 1.64 2.66 1.77 1.59 2.74
Tomsk Oblast 1.62 1.40 2.41 1.59 1.37 2.68
Far East Federal District 2.07 1.88 2.80 1.87 1.64 2.88
Sakha Republic 2.46 2.08 3.28 2.25 1.78 3.47
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 2.09 1.82 2.88 2.04 1.59 3.15
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 2.40 2.00 3.30 1.95 1.72 2.60
Amur Oblast 2.18 1.91 3.00 1.85 1.53 2.94
Sakhalin Oblast 2.00 1.94 2.47 1.96 1.83 2.85
Kamchatka Krai 1.69 1.57 2.25 1.85 1.75 2.29
Khabarovsk Krai 1.99 1.88 2.63 1.79 1.65 2.72
Magadan Oblast 1.89 1.83 2.56 1.66 1.63 2.88
Primorsky Krai 1.97 1.83 2.58 1.73 1.55 2.61
Volga Federal District 1.97 1.75 2.72 1.79 1.60 2.46
Orenburg Oblast 2.20 1.87 3.01 2.03 1.59 3.16
Perm Krai 1.99 1.80 2.85 1.98 1.72 3.16
Mari El 2.16 1.87 2.79 1.98 1.74 2.65
Udmurtia 2.05 1.81 2.80 1.96 1.58 3.13
Bashkortostan 2.18 1.84 3.09 1.95 1.74 2.53
Kirov Oblast 2.01 1.82 2.57 1.89 1.62 3.61
Chuvashia Republic 2.12 1.78 2.98 1.88 1.55 2.89
Tatarstan 2.05 1.86 2.87 1.84 1.75 2.22
Ulyanovsk Oblast 1.94 1.78 2.61 1.67 1.58 2.00
Samara Oblast 1.73 1.62 2.35 1.65 1.55 2.13
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1.69 1.59 2.20 1.59 1.52 1.96
Saratov Oblast 1.91 1.70 2.70 1.57 1.42 2.14
Penza Oblast 1.82 1.63 2.34 1.53 1.42 1.86
Mordovia 1.87 1.69 2.29 1.37 1.31 1.54
Southern Federal District 1.71 1.60 1.92
Astrakhan Oblast 2.14 1.81 2.93 1.97 1.82 2.27
Kalmykia 2.66 2.29 3.10 1.85 1.85 1.85
Krasnodar Krai 2.06 1.90 2.30 1.81 1.82 1.77
Adygea 2.06 1.88 2.37 1.73 1.55 1.93
Volgograd Oblast 1.91 1.72 2.67 1.57 1.42 2.11
Rostov Oblast 1.80 1.62 2.34 1.61 1.44 2.03
North-West Federal District 1.67 1.58 2.25 1.61 1.53 2.25
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2.42 1.83 6.09
Komi Republic 1.87 1.76 2.39 2.01 1.67 4.74
Vologda Oblast 2.02 1.81 2.60 1.86 1.64 2.77
Arkhangelsk Oblast 2.00 1.80 2.71 1.84 1.54 4.23
Novgorod Oblast 1.87 1.71 2.39 1.75 1.62 2.20
Pskov Oblast 1.84 1.70 2.30 1.70 1.52 2.36
Republic of Karelia 1.87 1.80 2.34 1.74 1.52 3.71
Kaliningrad Oblast 1.81 1.68 2.39 1.70 1.59 2.08
Murmansk Oblast 1.60 1.61 1.54 1.65 1.63 2.03
Saint Petersburg 1.40 1.40 1.52 1.52
Leningrad Oblast 1.66 1.66 1.67 1.28 1.33 1.19
Central Federal District 1.64 1.54 2.19 1.51 1.45 1.86
Kostroma Oblast 1.93 1.70 2.63 1.87 1.64 2.67
Kursk Oblast 1.85 1.68 2.33 1.70 1.51 2.30
Tver Oblast 1.81 1.63 2.45 1.66 1.54 2.17
Yaroslavl Oblast 1.69 1.60 2.27 1.64 1.55 2.20
Kaluga Oblast 1.78 1.65 2.19 1.69 1.62 1.94
Lipetsk Oblast 1.81 1.66 2.20 1.66 1.52 1.95
Vladimir Oblast 1.79 1.71 2.22 1.64 1.59 1.87
Ryazan Oblast 1.80 1.67 2.25 1.60 1.37 2.37
Ivanovo Oblast 1.72 1.61 2.46 1.57 1.52 1.87
Bryansk Oblast 2.02 1.82 2.75 1.56 1.42 1.91
Oryol Oblast 1.84 1.58 2.53 1.55 1.26 2.35
Belgorod Oblast 1.91 1.74 2.39 1.54 1.41 1.91
Moscow Oblast 1.44 1.39 1.66 1.60 1.63 1.47
Smolensk Oblast 1.79 1.63 2.38 1.53 1.43 1.89
Voronezh Oblast 1.78 1.64 2.12 1.47 1.37 1.80
Tula Oblast 1.68 1.60 2.16 1.47 1.41 1.65
Tambov Oblast 1.83 1.61 2.29 1.49 1.40 1.64
City of Moscow 1.42 1.42 1.34 1.34 1.69

Population statistics

Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2015. "Waves" are caused by huge losses in WWII. The sharp narrowing in the base of pyramid is caused by consequences of the economic collapse of the 1990s.
Russian population by age and sex as on 1 January 2018

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[66]

  • One birth every 18 seconds
  • One death every 16 seconds
  • Net loss of one person every 26 minutes
  • One net migrant every 3 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[67]

Population
142,257,519 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.12% (male 12,509,563/female 11,843,254)
15-24 years: 9.46% (male 6,881,880/female 6,572,191)
25-54 years: 44.71% (male 31,220,990/female 32,375,489)
55-64 years: 14.44% (male 8,849,707/female 11,693,131)
65 years and over: 14.28% (male 6,352,557/female 13,958,757) (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.61 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 179th
Median age
total: 39.6 years
male: 36.6 years
female: 42.5 years (2017 est.)
total: 39.6 years
male: 36.7 years
female: 41.6 years (2009)[68]
Population growth rate
-0.08% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 205th
+0.19% (2014 est.)
Birth rate
11 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 178th
Death rate
13.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate
1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 52th
Mother's mean age at first birth
24.6 years (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71 years. Country comparison to the world: 154th
male: 65.3 years
female: 77.1 years (2017 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163th
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 16%
male: 15.3%
female: 16.9% (2015 est.) Country comparison to the world: 85th
Ethnic groups

Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9% note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)

Religions

Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) Note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions.

Languages

Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%. Note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)

Population distribution

Population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south

Urbanization
urban population: 74.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
74% urban, 26% rural (2010 Russian Census)
Population density

8.4 people per square kilometer (2010 Russian Census)[69]

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.4 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)[68]

Natural increase current

Natural population growth rates (per 1,000 population) by Federal subject in 2015

Experts were puzzled with a sharp increase in deaths coincided with a sharp increase in life expectancy. While they have found out that a decrease in potential mothers led to a decrease in births and a rapid rise in fertility.[70]

Birth rate by regions in 2012
Death rate by regions in 2012
TFR by regions in 2011
Urban TFR by regions in 2011
Rural TFR by regions in 2011

The number of births during May 2018 decreased by 5,080 relative to March 2017, as for the period January–May 2018 births decreased by 28,128 compared to the period January–May 2017.

  • Number of births during March 2017 = Decrease 141,947
  • Number of births during March 2018 = Decrease 136,867

The birth rate for January–May 2018 was 10.7 births per 1,000 population versus 11.2 during the same period in 2017

  • Number of births from January–May 2017 = Decrease 679,182
  • Number of births from January–May 2018 = Decrease 651,054

The number of deaths during May 2018 increase by 1,805 but for the period January–May 2018 total deaths increased by 7,300 compared to the same months of the previous year.

  • Number of deaths during May 2017 = Positive decrease 161,000
  • Number of deaths during May 2018 = Negative increase 162,805

The death rate for January–March 2018 was 13.1 per 1,000 population, versus 13.0 during the same period in 2017.

  • Number of deaths from January–May 2017 = Positive decrease 791,408
  • Number of deaths from January–May 2018 = Negative increase 798,348

Total natural increase during January–March has decreased to -2.4 per thousand in 2018 and increase to -1.8 per thousand in 2017.

  • Natural increase in May 2017 = Decrease -19,053
  • Natural increase in May 2018 = Decrease -25,938
  • Natural increase between January–May 2017 = Decrease -111,866
  • Natural increase between January–May 2018 = Decrease -147,294
January–March Birth/2018 Birth/2017 Death/2018 Death/2017
Russian Federation 10.8 Decrease 11.4 Increase 13.2 Positive decrease 13.5 Positive decrease
North Caucasian Federal District 14.4 Decrease 14.8 Decrease 7.9 Positive decrease 8.3 Positive decrease
Chechnya 20.2 Decrease 20.4 Decrease 4.4 Positive decrease 5.1 Positive decrease
Dagestan 16.1 Decrease 16.6 Increase 5.1 Positive decrease 5.5 Positive decrease
Ingushetia 16.1 Increase 15.9 Decrease 2.9 Positive decrease 3.1 Positive decrease
North Ossetia-Alania 13.0 Increase 12.8 Decrease 11.4 Positive decrease 11.7 Negative increase
Kabardino-Balkaria 12.5 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 8.9 Positive decrease 9.6 Positive decrease
Stavropol Krai 10.7 Decrease 11.5 Increase 12.1 Positive decrease 12.4 Positive decrease
Karachay-Cherkessia 10.4 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 9.2 Positive decrease 10.4 Positive decrease
Ural Federal District 11.8 Decrease 12.6 Increase 12.5 Positive decrease 12.9 Positive decrease
Tyumen Oblast 13.4 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 8.4 Positive decrease 8.5 Negative increase
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 13.3 Decrease 13.8 Increase 5.0 Positive decrease 5.4 Positive decrease
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 13.2 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 6.6 Positive decrease 6.7 Negative increase
Sverdlovsk Oblast 11.4 Decrease 12.5 Increase 14.3 Positive decrease 14.7 Positive decrease
Chelyabinsk Oblast 10.9 Decrease 11.7 Increase 13.7 Positive decrease 14.2 Positive decrease
Kurgan Oblast 10.4 Decrease 11.1 Increase 16.2 Positive decrease 16.4 Negative increase
Siberian Federal District 11.6 Decrease 12.1 Increase 13.6 Positive decrease 13.8 Positive decrease
Tuva 21.1 Decrease 22.3 Decrease 8.6 Positive decrease 9.7 Positive decrease
Altai Republic 15.3 Increase 14.8 Increase 10.4 Positive decrease 10.9 Positive decrease
Buriatia 14.0 Decrease 14.5 Increase 11.8 Negative increase 11.6 Positive decrease
Irkutsk Oblast 13.0 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.6 Positive decrease 13.9 Positive decrease
Zabaykalsky Krai 12.2 Decrease 12.8 Increase 13.1 Negative increase 12.7 Positive decrease
Novosibirsk Oblast 11.6 Decrease 12.4 Increase 13.7 Positive decrease 13.9 Positive decrease
Krasnoyarsk Krai 11.5 Decrease 12.3 Decrease 13.0 Positive decrease 13.3 Positive decrease
Khakassia 11.4 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 13.4 Positive decrease 13.6 Positive decrease
Omsk Oblast 11.0 Decrease 11.7 Increase 13.5 Positive decrease 14.3 Positive decrease
Tomsk Oblast 10.4 Decrease 11.0 Decrease 11.5 Positive decrease 12.2 Positive decrease
Altai Krai 10.1 Decrease 10.7 Decrease 14.9 Positive decrease 15.0 Negative increase
Kemerovo Oblast 9.9 Decrease 10.4 Increase 15.6 Negative increase 15.2 Positive decrease
Far East Federal District 11.5 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 13.0 Steady 13.0 Positive decrease
Sakha Republic 13.8 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 8.3 Positive decrease 8.5 Positive decrease
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 12.8 Decrease 14.9 Increase 11.9 Negative increase 8.9 Positive decrease
Sakhalin Oblast 12.4 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 13.4 Positive decrease 12.8 Positive decrease
Amur Oblast 11.5 Decrease 12.3 Decrease 14.5 Positive decrease 15.1 Negative increase
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 11.4 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 14.8 Positive decrease 15.4 Negative increase
Khabarovsk Krai 11.4 Decrease 11.9 Increase 13.3 Positive decrease 13.8 Positive decrease
Kamchatka Krai 10.9 Decrease 12.1 Increase 11.5 Positive decrease 11.6 Positive decrease
Primorsky Krai 10.4 Decrease 10.9 Decrease 14.8 Negative increase 14.2 Positive decrease
Magadan Oblast 8.8 Decrease 10.1 Decrease 11.0 Negative increase 10.9 Positive decrease
Volga Federal District 10.5 Decrease 11.1 Decrease 14.0 Positive decrease 14.2 Negative increase
Bashkortostan 11.6 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 13.0 Positive decrease 13.2 Positive decrease
Tatarstan 11.5 Decrease 12.2 Increase 12.0 Positive decrease 12.3 Positive decrease
Perm Krai 11.3 Decrease 12.2 Increase 14.4 Positive decrease 14.7 Negative increase
Orenburg Oblast 11.3 Decrease 11.5 Decrease 14.1 Positive decrease 14.3 Positive decrease
Udmurtia 11.1 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.8 Positive decrease 13.3 Positive decrease
Mari El 10.8 Decrease 11.8 Increase 13.5 Negative increase 13.3 Positive decrease
Chuvashia Republic 10.4 Decrease 11.2 Increase 12.8 Positive decrease 13.3 Positive decrease
Samara Oblast 10.1 Decrease 10.7 Increase 14.7 Negative increase 14.6 Positive decrease
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 9.8 Decrease 10.5 Decrease 15.7 Negative increase 15.6 Positive decrease
Kirov Oblast 9.8 Decrease 10.5 Increase 15.7 Positive decrease 16.1 Negative increase
Ulyanovsk Oblast 9.5 Decrease 9.8 Increase 14.9 Positive decrease 15.5 Positive decrease
Saratov Oblast 8.8 Decrease 9.2 Increase 14.4 Positive decrease 14.7 Positive decrease
Penza Oblast 8.4 Decrease 9.1 Decrease 15.9 Negative increase 15.7 Positive decrease
Mordovia 8.4 Decrease 8.5 Decrease 13.8 Positive decrease 14.3 Positive decrease
Southern Federal District 10.4 Decrease 10.9 Increase 13.4 Positive decrease 14.2 Negative increase
Astrakhan Oblast 11.5 Decrease 12.0 Increase 12.4 Positive decrease 12.9 Positive decrease
Krasnodar Krai 11.3 Decrease 11.8 Increase 12.6 Positive decrease 13.8 Positive decrease
Kalmykia 10.9 Increase 10.5 Decrease 10.0 Positive decrease 11.6 Negative increase
Crimea 10.5 Decrease 10.7 Increase 15.0 Positive decrease 15.9 Negative increase
Sevastopol 10.0 Decrease 11.2 Increase 12.9 Positive decrease 14.5 Negative increase
Adygea 9.9 Decrease 10.4 Decrease 12.8 Positive decrease 14.5 Positive decrease
Rostov Oblast 9.6 Decrease 10.1 Decrease 14.0 Positive decrease 14.3 Positive decrease
Volgograd Oblast 9.4 Decrease 9.8 Decrease 13.7 Positive decrease 14.3 Negative increase
North-West Federal District 10.2 Decrease 11.0 Increase 13.7 Positive decrease 14.0 Positive decrease
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 14.7 Steady 14.7 Decrease 10.6 Positive decrease 10.7 Positive decrease
St-Petersburg 11.5 Decrease 12.2 Increase 12.5 Negative increase 12.4 Positive decrease
Vologda Oblast 10.5 Decrease 11.5 Increase 15.2 Positive decrease 15.4 Positive decrease
Kaliningrad Oblast 10.3 Decrease 11.3 Increase 12.9 Positive decrease 13.9 Positive decrease
Komi Republic 10.2 Decrease 11.8 Increase 12.3 Positive decrease 13.1 Positive decrease
Arkhangelsk Oblast 9.8 Decrease 10.5 Increase 13.9 Positive decrease 14.8 Positive decrease
Republic of Karelia 9.5 Decrease 10.0 Decrease 15.6 Positive decrease 15.9 Negative increase
Murmansk Oblast 9.4 Decrease 10.5 Decrease 11.6 Positive decrease 12.1 Positive decrease
Novgorod Oblast 9.4 Decrease 9.9 Increase 17.5 Positive decrease 18.2 Positive decrease
Pskov Oblast 9.0 Decrease 9.8 Increase 18.9 Positive decrease 19.6 Negative increase
Leningrad Oblast 7.5 Decrease 8.2 Decrease 14.2 Positive decrease 14.5 Positive decrease
Central Federal District 9.7 Decrease 10.3 Increase 13.8 Positive decrease 13.9 Positive decrease
Moscow Oblast 11.2 Decrease 11.5 Increase 13.2 Negative increase 13.0 Positive decrease
Kaluga Oblast 10.1 Decrease 10.9 Increase 15.8 Negative increase 15.6 Positive decrease
City of Moscow 10.0 Decrease 10.5 Increase 10.5 Negative increase 10.3 Positive decrease
Yaroslavl Oblast 9.6 Decrease 10.4 Decrease 15.6 Positive decrease 16.1 Positive decrease
Kostroma Oblast 9.5 Decrease 10.6 Decrease 15.4 Positive decrease 16.0 Negative increase
Ryazan Oblast 9.5 Decrease 9.9 Decrease 16.5 Positive decrease 16.8 Positive decrease
Lipetsk Oblast 9.4 Decrease 9.9 Increase 15.1 Positive decrease 16.0 Positive decrease
Vladimir Oblast 9.3 Decrease 9.7 Increase 16.4 Positive decrease 16.6 Negative increase
Oryol Oblast 9.3 Increase 9.2 Increase 16.3 Positive decrease 17.2 Positive decrease
Belgorod Oblast 9.1 Decrease 9.7 Decrease 14.3 Positive decrease 14.4 Positive decrease
Kursk Oblast 9.1 Decrease 9.5 Decrease 16.6 Positive decrease 17.6 Negative increase
Bryansk Oblast 9.0 Decrease 9.5 Increase 15.9 Positive decrease 16.7 Positive decrease
Voronezh Oblast 9.0 Decrease 9.3 Increase 15.6 Positive decrease 16.2 Positive decrease
Tver Oblast 8.8 Decrease 9.8 Increase 18.3 Negative increase 18.1 Positive decrease
Ivanovo Oblast 8.8 Decrease 9.6 Decrease 16.6 Steady 16.6 Positive decrease
Tula Oblast 8.3 Decrease 9.1 Increase 17.4 Positive decrease 17.8 Positive decrease
Smolensk Oblast 8.3 Decrease 8.8 Decrease 17.4 Positive decrease 17.8 Negative increase
Tambov Oblast 7.8 Decrease 8.7 Decrease 16.3 Positive decrease 16.5 Positive decrease

Natural increase 2017

January–December Birth/2017 Birth/2016 Birth/2015 Birth/2014 Birth/2013 Death/2017 Death/2016 Death/2015 Death/2014 Death/2013
Russian Federation 11.5 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.3 Increase 13.2 Decrease 12.4 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Steady 13.1 Steady 13.0 Decrease
North Caucasian Federal District 14.9 Decrease 15.9 Decrease 16.6 Decrease 17.3 Increase 17.2 Decrease 7.6 Decrease 7.8 Decrease 7.9 Decrease 8.1 Increase 8.0 Decrease
Chechnya 21.0 Decrease 21.3 Decrease 23.2 Decrease 24.2 Decrease 24.9 Decrease 4.6 Decrease 4.7 Decrease 4.9 Decrease 5.0 Steady 5.0 Decrease
Ingushetia 16.5 Decrease 17.1 Decrease 18.6 Decrease 20.7 Decrease 21.4 Decrease 3.2 Decrease 3.3 Steady 3.3 Decrease 3.5 Steady 3.5 Decrease
Dagestan 16.4 Decrease 17.4 Decrease 18.2 Decrease 19.1 Increase 18.8 Decrease 5.1 Decrease 5.2 Decrease 5.4 Decrease 5.6 Increase 5.5 Decrease
Kabardino-Balkaria 12.8 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.6 Decrease 15.7 Increase 15.5 Increase 8.5 Steady 8.5 Decrease 8.8 Steady 8.8 Decrease 8.9 Steady
North Ossetia-Alania 12.8 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.6 Decrease 15.4 Increase 15.3 Increase 10.2 Decrease 10.3 Decrease 10.7 Steady 10.7 Increase 10.5 Decrease
Stavropol Krai 11.6 Decrease 13.0 Steady 13.0 Decrease 13.1 Increase 12.7 Increase 11.2 Decrease 11.7 Increase 11.6 Decrease 11.8 Increase 11.7 Decrease
Karachay-Cherkessia 11.0 Decrease 11.9 Decrease 12.4 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.8 Increase 9.3 Decrease 9.4 Decrease 9.6 Decrease 9.7 Increase 9.5 Decrease
Ural Federal District 12.6 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.9 Decrease 15.2 Increase 15.1 Steady 11.7 Decrease 12.3 Decrease 12.5 Increase 12.4 Steady 12.4 Decrease
Tyumen Oblast 14.2 Decrease 15.8 Decrease 16.7 Decrease 17.2 Increase 17.0 Decrease 7.9 Decrease 8.2 Decrease 8.3 Steady 8.3 Increase 8.2 Decrease
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 14.1 Decrease 15.7 Decrease 16.6 Decrease 17.3 Decrease 17.5 Decrease 6.2 Steady 6.2 Decrease 6.4 Steady 6.4 Increase 6.3 Steady
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 14.0 Decrease 15.4 Decrease 16.5 Decrease 16.9 Increase 16.4 Decrease 4.9 Decrease 5.2 Steady 5.2 Increase 5.1 Steady 5.1 Decrease
Sverdlovsk Oblast 12.4 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 14.5 Steady 14.5 Increase 13.3 Decrease 14.0 Decrease 14.2 Increase 14.0 Increase 13.8 Decrease Decrease
Chelyabinsk Oblast 11.5 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.3 Increase 14.2 Decrease 13.0 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.9 Increase 13.8 Decrease 13.9 Decrease
Kurgan Oblast 11.1 Decrease 12,4 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.6 Increase 14.0 Increase 15.2 Decrease 15.8 Decrease 16.1 Increase 15.9 Decrease 16.1 Increase
Siberian Federal District 12.3 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 14.9 Steady 12.7 Decrease 13.0 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.3 Steady 13.3 Decrease
Tuva 21.8 Decrease 23.4 Decrease 23.7 Decrease 25.3 Decrease 26.1 Decrease 8.7 Decrease 9.8 Decrease 10.3 Decrease 10.9 Decrease 11.0 Decrease
Altai Republic 15.8 Decrease 18.1 Decrease 18.7 Decrease 20.9 Steady 20.9 Decrease 9.6 Decrease 10.0 Decrease 10.9 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.4 Steady
Buriatia 14.5 Decrease 16.4 Decrease 17.3 Decrease 17.5 Decrease 17.6 Increase 10.6 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 11.5 Decrease 11.8 Decrease
Irkutsk Oblast 13.3 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 15.4 Steady 15.4 Decrease 15.6 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.7 Decrease
Zabaykalsky Krai 13.2 Decrease 14.6 Decrease 15.4 Decrease 16.0 Increase 15.9 Decrease 11.6 Decrease 12.3 Decrease 12.9 Increase 12.4 Decrease 12.5 Decrease
Khakassia 12.4 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.8 Decrease 15.3 Decrease 15.7 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 13.5 Increase 13.2 Increase 13.1 Decrease
Krasnoyarsk Krai 12.4 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 14.5 Steady 14.5 Steady 12.3 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 12.7 Steady 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Decrease
Novosibirsk Oblast 12.4 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.2 Increase 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Increase 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Steady 13.1 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.6 Steady
Omsk Oblast 11.5 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 15.1 Increase 14.8 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Decrease
Tomsk Oblast 11.7 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 13.8 Increase 11.4 Steady 11.4 Decrease 11.5 Decrease 11.8 Steady 11.8 Decrease
Altai Krai 10.8 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 14.0 Steady 14.0 Decrease 14.2 Steady 14.2 Steady 14.2 Decrease
Kemerovo Oblast 10.5 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.3 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.6 Steady 14.6 Decrease
Far East Federal District 12.1 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.1 Increase 13.9 Steady 12.1 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 12.6 Steady 12.6 Steady 12.6 Decrease
Sakha Republic 14.4 Decrease 16.0 Decrease 17.1 Decrease 17.8 Increase 17.5 Decrease 8.1 Decrease 8.4 Decrease 8.6 Steady 8.6 Decrease 8.7 Decrease
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 13.2 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 13.5 Increase 13.3 Increase 13.1 Decrease 9.1 Decrease 10.0 Increase 9.6 Decrease 10.7 Increase 10.5 Decrease
Sakhalin Oblast 12.9 Decrease 14.3 Increase 13.6 Steady 13.6 Increase 13.0 Increase 12.0 Decrease 13.1 Decrease 13.2 Increase 13.0 Decrease 13.1 Decrease
Khabarovsk Krai 12.0 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 14.3 Increase 14.0 Steady 14.0 Increase 13.0 Decrease 13.1 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Decrease
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 11.7 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 14.0 Increase 13.8 Increase 13.7 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 15.0 Decrease 15.4 Increase 14.9 Increase 14.5 Decrease
Amur Oblast 11.8 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 13.9 Steady 13.9 Increase 13.8 Decrease
Kamchatka Krai 11.8 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Decrease 13.2 Increase 13.0 Steady 11.0 Decrease 11.6 Increase 11.4 Decrease 11.5 Increase 11.4 Decrease
Primorsky Krai 10.9 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.6 Steady 13.2 Decrease 13.6 Increase 13.5 Increase 13.4 Decrease 13.5 Decrease
Magadan Oblast 10.9 Decrease 11.1 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.5 Increase 11.3 Steady 11.3 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 11.9 Steady 11.9 Decrease
Volga Federal District 11.1 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Increase 13.1 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.9 Steady 13.9 Decrease 14.0 Increase
Tatarstan 12.4 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 14.8 Steady 14.8 Increase 11.3 Decrease 11.6 Decrease 12.0 Decrease 12.2 Increase 12.1 Decrease
Perm Krai 12.2 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 14.8 Increase 14.7 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 14.2 Increase 14.0 Decrease 14.1 Decrease
Mari El 11.9 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.7 Increase 14.6 Increase 12.4 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.7 Steady 13.7 Steady 13.7 Increase
Udmurtia 11.8 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 14.6 Steady 14.6 Steady 14.6 Decrease 12.0 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.9 Increase 12.8 Steady 12.8 Steady
Bashkortostan 12.1 Decrease 13.7 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.9 Increase 14.6 Increase 12.4 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.2 Steady 13.2 Increase
Orenburg Oblast 11.5 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.6 Decrease 14.8 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Increase 13.9 Steady
Chuvashia Republic 11.3 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.0 Steady 12.6 Decrease 13.1 Steady 13.1 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.2 Decrease
Samara Oblast 10.8 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.6 Increase 12.3 Increase 13.7 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.3 Decrease 14.4 Increase
Kirov Oblast 10.7 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 13.0 Increase 14.4 Decrease 14.9 Decrease 15.2 Increase 15.1 Decrease 15.4 Decrease
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 10.6 Decrease 11.9 Decrease 12.3 Increase 11.9 Increase 11.8 Steady 14.7 Decrease 15.4 Decrease 15.6 Decrease 15.9 Steady 15.9 Decrease
Ulyanovsk Oblast 10.0 Decrease 11.6 Decrease 11.9 Steady 11.9 Increase 11.6 Increase 14.0 Decrease 14.8 Decrease 14.9 Increase 14.6 Increase 14.4 Increase
Saratov Oblast 9.5 Decrease 11.0 Decrease 11.5 Steady 11.5 Steady 11.5 Increase 13.6 Decrease 14.0 Decrease 14.2 Steady 14.2 Steady 14.4 Increase
Penza Oblast 8.9 Decrease 10.2 Decrease 10.7 Decrease 10.9 Increase 10.7 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.9 Increase 14.8 Steady 14.8 Decrease
Mordovia 8.5 Decrease 9.9 Increase 9.7 Decrease 10.1 Steady 10.1 Increase 13.5 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Decrease 14.3 Decrease 14.8 Increase
North-West Federal District 11.1 Decrease 12.5 Steady 12.5 Increase 12.3 Increase 12.2 Steady 12.8 Decrease 13.2 Decrease 13.4 Increase 13.3 Decrease 13.5 Decrease
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 15.3 Decrease 18.3 Increase 17.5 Increase 16.6 Steady 16.6 Decrease 8.5 Decrease 8.8 Decrease 9.3 Increase 8.9 Decrease 10.7 Increase
St-Petersburg 12.6 Decrease 13.9 Increase 13.6 Increase 13.1 Increase 12.8 Increase 11.5 Decrease 11.7 Decrease 11.9 Increase 11.7 Decrease 12.0 Decrease
Komi Republic 11.5 Decrease 13.1 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.2 Increase 11.7 Decrease 12.3 Steady 12.3 Increase 12.2 Increase 11.9 Decrease
Vologda Oblast 11.4 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.6 Decrease 13.8 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 15.0 Increase 14.8 Steady 14.8 Decrease 15.1 Increase
Kaliningrad Oblast 11.1 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.7 Increase 12.5 Increase 12.5 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 13.3 Steady 13.3 Increase 13.2 Steady
Arkhangelsk Oblast 10.6 Decrease 12.0 Decrease 12.4 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.5 Increase 13.4 Increase 13.2 Decrease 13.4 Decrease
Republic of Karelia 10.3 Decrease 11.9 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.4 Increase 12.0 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 14.8 Decrease 15.3 Increase 14.6 Decrease 14.7 Decrease
Murmansk Oblast 10.3 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.9 Increase 11.8 Steady 11.8 Increase 11.0 Decrease 11.5 Steady 11.5 Increase 11.4 Increase 11.0 Decrease
Novgorod Oblast 10.2 Decrease 11.8 Decrease 11.9 Increase 11.8 Decrease 12.0 Increase 17.1 Decrease 17.4 Decrease 17.6 Increase 17.3 Decrease 17.8 Decrease
Pskov Oblast 9.5 Decrease 11.1 Steady 11.1 Increase 10.9 Decrease 11.0 Steady 17.4 Decrease 17.9 Decrease 18.2 Decrease 18.5 Decrease 18.6 Decrease
Leningrad Oblast 8.4 Decrease 9.2 Increase 9.1 Steady 9.1 Increase 9.0 Steady 13.4 Decrease 14.0 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.6 Steady 14.6 Decrease
Southern Federal District 11.1 Decrease 12.4 Decrease 12.8 Decrease 12.9 Increase 12.6 Steady 13.0 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 13.6 Increase 13.4 Increase 13.2 Decrease
Astrakhan Oblast 12.1 Decrease 14.0 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 15.0 Increase 14.8 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 12.0 Decrease 12.3 Decrease 12.7 Increase 12.3 Decrease
Krasnodar Krai 12.0 Decrease 13.4 Decrease 13.6 Steady 13.6 Increase 13.2 Increase 12.5 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.1 Increase 13.0 Increase 12.9 Decrease
Sevastopol 11.3 Decrease 13.0 Decrease 13.7 Increase 12.7 Increase 11.7 Decrease 13.3 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 15.2 Increase 14.4 Increase 14.0 Increase
Republic of Crimea 11.0 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 12.7 Increase 12.4 Increase 12.3 Decrease 14.4 Decrease 15.2 Decrease 15.4 Increase 14.7 Increase 13.8 Increase
Kalmykia 10.9 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 14.1 Decrease 14.5 Decrease 9.9 Increase 9.7 Decrease 9.8 Decrease 9.9 Steady 9.9 Decrease
Adygea 10.6 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 12.8 Increase 12.7 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 12.9 Decrease 13.0 Decrease 13.3 Increase 13.2 Decrease
Rostov Oblast 10.3 Decrease 11.6 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 12.2 Increase 11.7 Steady 13.4 Decrease 13.9 Steady 13.9 Decrease 14.1 Increase 13.8 Decrease
Volgograd Oblast 9.9 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.5 Steady 11.5 Decrease 11.6 Decrease 13.1 Decrease 13.6 Decrease 13.8 Increase 13.7 Increase 13.5 Steady
Central Federal District 10.5 Decrease 11.7 Decrease 11.8 Increase 11.5 Increase 11.4 Steady 12.9 Decrease 13.5 Steady 13.5 Decrease 13.7 Steady 13.7 Decrease
Moscow Oblast 12.0 Decrease 13.2 Increase 13.1 Increase 12.6 Increase 12.1 Increase 12.4 Decrease 13.1 Increase 13.0 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.1 Decrease
Kaluga Oblast 10.8 Decrease 12.2 Decrease 12.7 Increase 11.8 Steady 11.8 Steady 14.8 Decrease 15.1 Steady 15.1 Decrease 15.3 Steady 15.3 Decrease
City of Moscow 10.8 Decrease 11.8 Increase 11.7 Increase 11.4 Increase 11.3 Steady 9.6 Decrease 10.0 Steady 10.0 Increase 9.7 Steady 9.7 Decrease
Kostroma Oblast 10.7 Decrease 12.0 Decrease 12.5 Decrease 12.6 Decrease 12.7 Decrease 14.8 Decrease 15.6 Decrease 16.0 Increase 15.9 Decrease 16.2 Increase
Yaroslavl Oblast 10.5 Decrease 12.1 Decrease 12.2 Increase 12.0 Decrease 12.1 Increase 15.2 Decrease 15.7 Increase 15.6 Steady 15.6 Decrease 15.9 Steady
Lipetsk Oblast 10.0 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 11.7 Increase 11.6 Increase 11.4 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 15.2 Decrease 15.4 Steady 15.4 Increase 15.3 Steady
Tver Oblast 9.9 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.3 Increase 11.2 Decrease 11.4 Decrease 16.9 Decrease 17.6 Decrease 17.7 Decrease 17.8 Decrease 18.1 Decrease
Ryazan Oblast 9.8 Decrease 11.4 Increase 11.2 Increase 11.0 Increase 10.8 Steady 15.3 Decrease 15.9 Steady 15.9 Decrease 16.1 Increase 15.8 Decrease
Belgorod Oblast 9.8 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.6 Steady 11.6 Steady 11.6 Decrease 13.5 Decrease 13.9 Decrease 14.0 Steady 14.0 Increase 13.9 Decrease
Vladimir Oblast 9.7 Decrease 11.2 Decrease 11.6 Increase 11.2 Increase 11.1 Decrease 15.7 Decrease 16.4 Decrease 16.5 Steady 16.5 Decrease 16.7 Increase
Ivanovo Oblast 9.7 Decrease 10.9 Decrease 11.4 Increase 11.2 Steady 11.2 Increase 15.8 Decrease 16.0 Decrease 16.1 Decrease 16.4 Steady 16.4 Decrease
Kursk Oblast 9.6 Decrease 11.1 Decrease 11.7 Decrease 11.8 Increase 11.7 Decrease 15.5 Decrease 16.1 Decrease 16.3 Decrease 16.6 Increase 16.3 Decrease
Voronezh Oblast 9.6 Decrease 10.7 Decrease 11.1 Increase 10.9 Increase 10.7 Decrease 14.7 Decrease 15.2 Decrease 15.4 Decrease 15.7 Steady 15.7 Increase
Oryol Oblast 9.5 Decrease 11.0 Decrease 11.2 Increase 11.0 Decrease 11.1 Steady 15.7 Decrease 16.3 Decrease 16.4 Steady 16.4 Increase 16.3 Increase
Bryansk Oblast 9.5 Decrease 10.9 Decrease 11.4 Increase 11.0 Decrease 11.1 Decrease 15.3 Decrease 15.6 Decrease 15.8 Decrease 16.0 Increase 15.9 Decrease
Smolensk Oblast 9.1 Decrease 10.3 Decrease 10.6 Decrease 10.8 Increase 10.6 Increase 15.6 Decrease 16.1 Decrease 16.4 Increase 16.1 Decrease 16.5 Decrease
Tula Oblast 9.0 Decrease 10.2 Decrease 10.5 Increase 10.0 Increase 9.9 Decrease 16.5 Decrease 17.0 Decrease 17.1 Steady 17.1 Decrease 17.4 Decrease
Tambov Oblast 8.6 Decrease 9.6 Decrease 9.8 Steady 9.8 Increase 9.6 Steady 15.2 Decrease 15.8 Decrease 16.0 Decrease 16.3 Increase 16.1 Steady

Net migration rate

2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011)[71]

Health

Life expectancy

Russian male and female life expectancy since 1950.[72][73]

Further information: List of federal subjects of Russia by life expectancy

total population: 72.5 years[7]
male: 67.5 years[7]
female: 77.4 years[7]

The disparity in the average lifespan between genders in Russia is largest in the world. Women live 9–12 years longer than men, while the difference in lifespan is typically only five years in other parts of the world. While medical sources, like The Lancet,[26] name mass privatization, and the neo-liberalist shock therapy policies of Yeltsin administration as key reasons of falling life expectancy of Russian men, other sources, like Luke Harding from The Guardian claim alcoholism explains the large difference in gender mortality levels in Russia.[74] As of 2011, the average life expectancy in Russia was 64.3 years for males and 76.1 years for females.[75] According to the WHO 2011 report,[76] annual per capita alcohol consumption in Russia is about 15.76 litres, fourth highest volume in Europe (compare to 13.37 in the UK, 13.66 in France, 15.6 in Ukraine, 16.45 in the Czech Republic, etc.). In the late 1950s, the USSR claimed a higher life expectancy than the United States,[77] but the Soviet Union has lagged behind Western countries in terms of mortality and life expectancy since the late 1960s.
When controlling for confounding variables, neither alcoholism, poverty, pollution, nor the collapse of the health system explain the high male mortality. Most former communist countries got through the same economic collapse and health system collapse. Alcohol consumption per capita is as high in other East European countries. Poverty is high in many other countries. One factor that could explain the low male lifespan in Russia is violence, tolerance for violence and tolerance for risk, "male toughness".[citation needed] Violence, tolerance for risk together with alcoholism reduce the Russian male lifespan.

The life expectancy was about 70 in 1986,[78] prior to the transition-induced disruption of the healthcare system. The turmoil in the early 1990s caused life expectancy in Russia to steadily decrease while it was steadily increasing in the rest of the world. Recently however, Russian life expectancy has again begun to rise. Between 2006—2011 the male life expectancy in Russia rose by almost four years, increasing the overall life expectancy by nearly 4 years to 70.3.[75]

Mortality

In 2012, 1,043,292, or 55% of all deaths in Russia were caused by cardiovascular disease. The second leading cause of death was cancer which claimed 287,840 lives (15.2%). External causes of death such as suicide (1.5%), road accidents (1.5%), murders (0.8%), accidental alcohol poisoning (0.4%), and accidental drowning (0.5%), claimed 202,175 lives in total (10.6%). Other major causes of death were diseases of the digestive system (4.6%), respiratory disease (3.6%), infectious and parasitic diseases (1.6%), and tuberculosis (0.9%).[53] The infant mortality rate in 2012 was 7.6 deaths per 1,000 (down from 8.2 in 2009 and 16.9 in 1999).[53]

Under-five mortality rate

7.7 deaths/1000 live births (2016)[79]

Abortions and family planning

In the 1980s only 8% to 10% of married Russian women of reproductive age used hormonal and intrauterine contraception methods, compared to 20% to 40% in developed countries.[80] This led to much higher abortion rates in Russia compared to developed countries: in the 1980s Russia had a figure of 120 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age compared with only 20 per 1,000 in Western countries. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 many changes took place, such as the demonopolization of the market for contraceptive drugs and media liberalization, which led to a rapid conversion to more efficient pregnancy-control practices. Abortion rates fell in the first half of the 1990s for the first time in Russia's history, even despite declining fertility rates. From the early 1990s to 2006, the number of expected abortions per woman during her lifetime fell by nearly 2.5 times, from 3.4 to 1.2. As of 2004, the share of women of reproductive age using hormonal or intrauterine birth control methods was about 46% (29% intrauterine, 17% hormonal).[81]

Despite an increase in "family planning", a large portion of Russian families do not achieve the target of desired children at the desired time. According to a 2004 study, current pregnancies were termed "desired and timely" by 58% of respondents, while 23% described them as "desired, but untimely", and 19% said they were "undesired". The share of unexpected pregnancies remains much lower in countries with developed family planning culture, such as the Netherlands, whose percentage of unwanted pregnancies 20 years before was half of that in Russia as of 2008.[81]

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Russians as a percentage of the population by region (2010).
Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people, 2010 Census

The Russian Federation is home to as many as 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. As of the 2010 census, 80.90% of the population that disclosed their ethnicity (111,016,896 people) is ethnically Russian, followed by (groups larger than one million):[13][14]

4.1% (5,864,000) settled, refugee or working plus temporaneous or permanent settlement.

According to the 2010 Census in Russia lived 142,856,536 people. It is important to note that 5,629,429 people (3.94% of the overall population.) did not declare any ethnic origin, compared to about 1 million in the 2002 Census. This is due to the fact that those people were counted from administrative databases and not directly, and were therefore unable to state their ethnicity.[13][82] Therefore, the percentages mentioned above are taken from the total population that declared their ethnicity, given that the non-declared remainder is thought to have an ethnic composition similar to the declared segment.[83]

Most smaller groups live compactly in their respective regions and can be categorized by language group. The ethnic divisions used here are those of the official census, and may in some respects be controversial. The following lists all ethnicities resolved by the 2010 census, grouped by language:[13]

Historical perspective[85]

International migration to and from Russia since 1990.
  Arrivals
  Departures
  Net migration growth

The ethno-demographic structure of Russia has gradually changed over time. During the past century the most striking change is the fast increase of the peoples from the Caucasus. In 1926, these people composed 2% of the Russian population, compared to 6.5% in 2010. Though low in absolute numbers, the Siberian people also increased during the past century, but their growth was mainly realized after WW II (from 0.7% in 1959 to 1.2% in 2010) and not applicable to most of the small peoples (less than 10,000 people).

Peoples of European Russia

The relative proportion of the peoples of European Russia gradually decreased during the past century, but still compose 91% of the total population of Russia in 2010. The absolute numbers of most of these peoples reached its highest level in the beginning of the 1990s. Since 1992, natural growth in Russia has been negative and the numbers of all peoples of European Russia were lower in 2010 than in 2002, the only exceptions being the Roma (due to high fertility rates) and the Gagauz (due to high levels of migration from Moldova to Russia).

Several peoples saw a much larger decrease than can be explained by the low fertility rates and high mortality rates in Russia during the past two decades. Emigration and assimilation contributed to the decrease in numbers of many peoples. Emigration was the most important factor for Germans, Jews and Baltic peoples (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians). The number of Germans halved between 1959 and 2010. Their main country of destination is Germany.

The number of Jews decreased by more than 80% between 1959 and 2010. In 1970, the Soviet Union had the third largest population of Jews in the world, (2,183,000 of whom 808,000 with residence in Russia), following only that of the United States and Israel. By 2010, due to Jewish emigration, their number fell as low as 158,000. A sizeable emigration of other minorities has been enduring, too. The main destinations of emigrants from Russia are the USA (Russians, Jews, Belarusians, Chechens, Meskhetian Turks, Ukrainians and others), Israel (Jews), Germany (Germans and Jews), Poland (Poles), Canada (Finns and Ukrainians), Finland (Finns), France (Jews and Armenians) and the United Kingdom (mainly rich Russians).[citation needed]

Assimilation (i.e., marrying Russians and having children of such unions counted as Russians) explains the decrease in numbers of Ukrainians, Belarusians and most of the Uralic peoples. The assimilation is reflected in the high median age of these peoples (see the table below), as assimilation is stronger among young people than among old people. The process of assimilation of the Uralic peoples of Russia is probably going on for centuries and is most prominent among the Mordvins (1.4% of the Russian population in 1926 and 0.5% in 2010), the Karelians, Veps and Izhorians.

Assimilation on the other hand slowed down the decrease of the number of ethnic Russians. Besides, the decrease of the number of Russians was also slowed down by the immigration of ethnic Russians from the former Soviet republics, especially Central Asia. Similarly, the numbers of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Germans, Jews, and other non-autochthonous ethnic groups has also been decreased by emigration to Ukraine, Belarus, Germany, Israel, and so forth, respectively.

Peoples of European Russia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Russians Indo-European 72,374,283 78.1% 89,747,795 82.9% 97,863,579 83.3% 107,747,630 82.8% 113,521,881 82.6% 119,865,469 81.5% 115,889,107 80.6% 111,016,896 80.9%
Tatars Turkic 2,926,053 3.2% 3,682,956 3.4% 4,074,253 3.5% 4,577,061 3.5% 5,055,757 3.6% 5,522,096 3.8% 5,554,601 3.9% 5,310,649 3.9%
Ukrainians Indo-European 6,870,976 7.4% 3,205,061 3.0% 3,359,083 2.9% 3,345,885 2.6% 3,657,647 2.7% 4,362,872 3.0% 2,942,961 2.0% 1,927,888 1.4%
Bashkirs Turkic 738,861 0.80% 824,537 0.76% 953,801 0.81% 1,180,913 0.91% 1,290,994 0.94% 1,345,273 0.92% 1,673,389 1.16% 1,584,554 1.15%
Chuvashs Turkic 1,112,478 1.20% 1,346,232 1.24% 1,436,218 1.22% 1,637,028 1.26% 1,689,847 1.23% 1,773,645 1.21% 1,637,094 1.14% 1,435,872 1.05%
Mordvins Uralic 1,306,798 1.41% 1,375,558 1.27% 1,211,105 1.03% 1,177,492 0.91% 1,111,075 0.81% 1,072,939 0.73% 843,350 0.59% 744,237 0.54%
Udmurts (incl. Besermyan 1939–1989) Uralic 503,970 0.54% 599,893 0.55% 615,640 0.52% 678,393 0.52% 685,718 0.50% 714,883 0.49% 636,906 0.45% 552,299 0.40%
Besermyan Uralic 10,035 0.01% 3,122 0.00% 2,201 0.00%
Mari Uralic 427,874 0.46% 476,314 0.44% 498,066 0.42% 581,082 0.45% 599,637 0.44% 643,698 0.44% 604,298 0.42% 547,605 0.40%
Belarusians Indo-European 607,845 0.66% 451,933 0.42% 843,985 0.72% 964,082 0.74% 1,051,900 0.77% 1,206,222 0.82% 807,970 0.56% 521,443 0.38%
Germans Indo-European 707,277 0.76% 811,205 0.75% 820,016 0.70% 761,888 0.59% 790,762 0.58% 842,295 0.57% 597,212 0.42% 394,138 0.29%
Komi (incl. Komi-Permyak 1939) Uralic 226,012 0.24% 415,009 0.38% 281,780 0.24% 315,347 0.24% 320,078 0.23% 336,309 0.23% 293,406 0.20% 228,235 0.17%
Komi-Permyak Uralic 149,275 0.16% 143,030 0.12% 150,244 0.12% 145,993 0.11% 147,269 0.10% 125,235 0.09% 94,456 0.07%
Roma Indo-European 39,089 0.04% 59,198 0.05% 72,488 0.06% 97,955 0.08% 120,672 0.09% 152,939 0.10% 183,252 0.13% 204,958 0.15%
Jews Semitic 539,086 0.58% 891,147 0.82% 875,058 0.74% 807,526 0.62% 699,286 0.51% 550,709 0.37% 233,439 0.16% 156,801 0.11%
Moldovans Indo-European 16,870 0.02% 21,974 0.02% 62,298 0.05% 87,538 0.07% 102,137 0.07% 172,671 0.12% 172,330 0.12% 156,400 0.11%
Karelians Uralic 248,017 0.27% 249,778 0.23% 164,050 0.14% 141,148 0.11% 133,182 0.10% 124,921 0.08% 93,344 0.06% 60,815 0.04%
Poles Indo-European 189,269 0.20% 142,461 0.13% 118,422 0.10% 107,084 0.08% 99,733 0.07% 94,594 0.06% 73,001 0.05% 47,125 0.03%
Lithuanians Indo-European 26,128 0.03% 20,795 0.02% 108,579 0.09% 76,718 0.06% 66,783 0.05% 70,427 0.05% 45,569 0.03% 31,377 0.02%
Bulgarians Indo-European 4,087 0.00% 8,338 0.01% 24,899 0.02% 27,321 0.02% 24,943 0.02% 32,785 0.02% 31,965 0.02% 24,038 0.02%
Finns Uralic 134,089 0.14% 138,962 0.13% 72,356 0.06% 62,307 0.05% 55,687 0.04% 47,102 0.03% 34,050 0.02% 20,267 0.01%
Latvians Indo-European 124,312 0.13% 104,877 0.10% 74,932 0.06% 59,695 0.05% 67,267 0.05% 46,829 0.03% 28,520 0.02% 18,979 0.01%
Estonians Uralic 146,051 0.16% 130,494 0.12% 78,556 0.07% 62,980 0.05% 55,539 0.04% 46,390 0.03% 28,113 0.02% 17,875 0.01%
Gagauz Turkic 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,012 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,176 0.00% 10,051 0.01% 12,210 0.01% 13,690 0.01%
Veps Uralic 32,783 0.04% 31,442 0.03% 16,170 0.01% 8,057 0.01% 7,550 0.01% 12,142 0.01% 8,240 0.01% 5,936 0.00%
Sami Uralic 1,715 0.00% 1,828 0.00% 1,760 0.00% 1,836 0.00% 1,775 0.00% 1,835 0.00% 1,991 0.00% 1,771 0.00%
Izhorians Uralic 16,136 0.02% 7,720 0.01% 564 0.00% 561 0.00% 449 0.00% 449 0.00% 327 0.00% 266 0.00%
Karaites Turkic 1,608 0.00% 1,608 0.00% 1,236 0.00% 939 0.00% 680 0.00% 366 0.00% 205 0.00%

Peoples of the Caucasus

Peoples of the Caucasus in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Chechens Northeast Caucasian 318,361 0.34% 400,325 0.37% 261,311 0.22% 572,220 0.44% 712,161 0.52% 898,999 0.61% 1,360,253 0.95% 1,431,360 1.04%
Armenians Indo-European 183,785 0.20% 205,233 0.19% 255,978 0.22% 298,718 0.23% 364,570 0.27% 532,390 0.36% 1,132,033 0.79% 1,182,388 0.86%
Avars Northeast Caucasian 178,263 0.19% 235,715 0.22% 249,529 0.21% 361,613 0.28% 438,306 0.32% 544,016 0.37% 814,473 0.57% 912,090 0.66%
Azerbaijanis Turkic 24,335 0.03% 43,014 0.04% 70,947 0.06% 95,689 0.07% 152,421 0.11% 335,889 0.23% 621,840 0.43% 603,070 0.44%
Dargins Northeast Caucasian 125,759 0.14% 152,007 0.14% 152,563 0.13% 224,172 0.17% 280,444 0.20% 353,348 0.24% 510,156 0.35% 589,386 0.43%
Ossetians Indo-European 157,280 0.17% 195,624 0.18% 247,834 0.21% 313,458 0.24% 352,080 0.26% 402,275 0.27% 514,875 0.36% 528,515 0.38%
Kabardins Northwest Caucasian 139,864 0.15% 161,216 0.15% 200,634 0.17% 277,435 0.21% 318,822 0.23% 386,055 0.26% 519,958 0.36% 516,826 0.38%
Kumyks Turkic 94,509 0.10% 110,299 0.10% 132,896 0.11% 186,690 0.14% 225,800 0.16% 277,163 0.19% 422,409 0.29% 503,060 0.37%
Lezgians Northeast Caucasian 92,937 0.10% 100,328 0.09% 114,210 0.10% 170,494 0.13% 202,854 0.15% 257,270 0.17% 411,535 0.29% 473,722 0.34%
Ingush Northeast Caucasian 72,137 0.08% 90,980 0.08% 55,799 0.05% 137,380 0.11% 165,997 0.12% 215,068 0.15% 413,016 0.29% 444,833 0.32%
Karachays Turkic 55,116 0.06% 74,488 0.07% 70,537 0.06% 106,831 0.08% 125,792 0.09% 150,332 0.10% 192,182 0.13% 218,403 0.16%
Kalmyks Mongolic 128,809 0.14% 129,786 0.12% 100,603 0.09% 131,318 0.10% 140,103 0.10% 165,103 0.11% 174,000 0.12% 183,372 0.13%
Laks Northeast Caucasian 40,243 0.04% 54,348 0.05% 58,397 0.05% 78,625 0.06% 91,412 0.07% 106,245 0.07% 156,545 0.11% 178,630 0.13%
Georgians Kartvelian 20,551 0.02% 43,585 0.04% 57,594 0.05% 68,971 0.05% 89,407 0.07% 130,688 0.09% 197,934 0.14% 157,803 0.11%
Tabasarans Northeast Caucasian 31,983 0.03% 33,471 0.03% 34,288 0.03% 54,047 0.04% 73,433 0.05% 93,587 0.06% 131,785 0.09% 146,360 0.11%
Adyghe (incl. Shapsugs 1926–1989 and Circassians 1926–1939) Northwest Caucasian 64,959 0.07% 85,588 0.08% 78,561 0.07% 98,461 0.08% 107,239 0.08% 122,908 0.08% 128,528 0.09% 124,835 0.09%
Shapsugs Northwest Caucasian 3,231 0.00% 3,882 0.00%
Circassians Northwest Caucasian 28,986 0.02% 38,356 0.03% 44,572 0.03% 50,572 0.03% 60,517 0.04% 73,184 0.05%
Balkars Turkic 33,298 0.04% 41,949 0.04% 35,249 0.03% 52,969 0.04% 61,828 0.04% 78,341 0.05% 108,426 0.08% 112,924 0.08%
Turks (incl. Meskhetian Turks 1926–1989) Turkic 1,846 0.00% 2,668 0.00% 1,377 0.00% 1,568 0.00% 3,561 0.00% 9,890 0.01% 92,415 0.06% 105,058 0.08%
Meskhetian Turks Turkic 3,527 0.00% 4,825 0.00%
Nogais Turkic 36,089 0.04% 36,088 0.03% 37,656 0.03% 51,159 0.04% 58,639 0.04% 73,703 0.05% 90,666 0.06% 103,660 0.08%
Greeks Indo-European 34,439 0.04% 65,705 0.06% 47,024 0.04% 57,847 0.04% 69,816 0.05% 91,699 0.06% 97,827 0.07% 85,640 0.06%
Kurds (incl. Yazidis 1939–1989) Indo-European 164 0.00% 387 0.00% 855 0.00% 1,015 0.00% 1,634 0.00% 4,724 0.00% 19,607 0.01% 23,232 0.01%
Yazidis Indo-European 1 0.00% 31,273 0.02% 40,586 0.03%
Abazas Northwest Caucasian 13,825 0.01% 14,739 0.01% 19,059 0.02% 24,892 0.02% 28,800 0.02% 32,983 0.02% 37,942 0.03% 43,341 0.03%
Small Dagestan Peoples (SDP) 20,962 0.02%
Rutuls Northeast Caucasian 10,333 0.01% SDP SDP 6,703 0.01% 11,904 0.01% 14,835 0.01% 19,503 0.01% 29,929 0.02% 35,240 0.03%
Aghuls Northeast Caucasian 7,653 0.01% SDP SDP 6,460 0.01% 8,751 0.01% 11,752 0.01% 17,728 0.01% 28,297 0.02% 34,160 0.02%
Tsakhurs Northeast Caucasian 3,533 0.00% SDP SDP 4,437 0.00% 4,730 0.00% 4,774 0.00% 6,492 0.00% 10,366 0.01% 12,769 0.01%
Udis Northeast Caucasian 2 0.00% SDP SDP 35 0.00% 94 0.00% 216 0.00% 1,102 0.00% 3,721 0.00% 4,267 0.00%
Abkhaz Northwest Caucasian 97 0.00% 647 0.00% 1,400 0.00% 2,427 0.00% 4,058 0.00% 7,239 0.00% 11,366 0.01% 11,249 0.01%
Assyrians Semitic 2,791 0.00% 7,446 0.01% 7,612 0.01% 8,098 0.01% 8,708 0.01% 9,622 0.01% 13,649 0.01% 11,084 0.01%
Persians Indo-European 8,626 0.01% 6,041 0.01% 2,490 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 1,747 0.00% 2,572 0.00% 3,821 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Talysh Indo-European 0 0.00% 47 0.00% 33 0.00% 2 0.00% 202 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 2,529 0.00%
Tats Indo-European 223 0.00% 5,136 0.00% 8,753 0.01% 12,748 0.01% 19,420 0.01% 2,303 0.00% 1,585 0.00%

Peoples of Siberia

Peoples of Siberia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Sakha (icl. Dolgans 1939–1959) Turkic 240,682 0.26% 241,870 0.22% 236,125 0.20% 295,223 0.23% 326,531 0.24% 380,242 0.26% 443,852 0.31% 478,085 0.35%
Dolgans Turkic 656 0.00% 4,718 0.00% 4,911 0.00% 6,584 0.00% 7,261 0.01% 7,885 0.01%
Buryats (incl. Soyots 1939–1989) Mongolic 237,490 0.26% 220,618 0.20% 251,504 0.21% 312,847 0.24% 349,760 0.25% 417,425 0.28% 445,175 0.31% 461,389 0.34%
Soyots Mongolic 229 0.00% 2,769 0.00% 3,608 0.00%
Tuvans Turkic 200 0.00% 794 0.00% 99,864 0.08% 139,013 0.11% 165,426 0.12% 206,160 0.14% 243,442 0.17% 263,934 0.19%
Altay Turkic 52,248 0.06% 46,489 0.04% 44,654 0.04% 54,614 0.04% 58,879 0.04% 69,409 0.05% 77,822 0.05% 89,773 0.06%
Khakas Turkic 45,607 0.05% 52,033 0.05% 56,032 0.05% 65,368 0.05% 69,247 0.05% 78,500 0.05% 76,278 0.05% 72,959 0.05%
Nenets (incl. Enets 1926–1979 and Nganasans 1926–1939) Uralic 17,560 0.02% 24,716 0.02% 22,845 0.02% 28,487 0.02% 29,487 0.02% 34,190 0.02% 41,302 0.03% 44,640 0.03%
Enets Uralic 198 0.00% 237 0.00% 227 0.00%
Nganasans Uralic 721 0.00% 823 0.00% 842 0.00% 1,262 0.00% 834 0.00% 862 0.00%
Evenks Tungusic 38,804 0.03% 29,599 0.02% 24,583 0.02% 25,051 0.02% 27,278 0.02% 29,901 0.02% 35,527 0.02% 37,843 0.03%
Khanty Uralic 22,301 0.02% 18,447 0.02% 19,246 0.02% 21,007 0.02% 20,743 0.02% 22,283 0.02% 28,678 0.02% 30,943 0.02%
Evens Tungusic 2,044 0.00% 9,674 0.01% 9,023 0.01% 11,819 0.01% 12,215 0.01% 17,055 0.01% 19,071 0.01% 22,383 0.02%
Chukchi (incl. Kereks 1926–1989 and Chuvans 1939–1979) Chukotko-Kamchatkan 12,331 0.01% 13,830 0.01% 11,680 0.01% 13,500 0.01% 13,937 0.01% 15,107 0.01% 15,767 0.01% 15,908 0.01%
Kereks Chukotko-Kamchatkan 8 0.00% 4 0.00%
Chuvans Chukotko-Kamchatkan 704 0.00% 1,384 0.00% 1,087 0.00% 1,002 0.00%
Shors Turkic 13,000 0.01% 16,042 0.01% 14,938 0.01% 15,950 0.01% 15,182 0.01% 15,745 0.01% 13,975 0.01% 12,888 0.01%
Mansi Uralic 5,754 0.01% 6,295 0.01% 6,318 0.01% 7,609 0.01% 7,434 0.01% 8,279 0.01% 11,432 0.01% 12,269 0.01%
Nanais Tungusic 5,860 0.01% 8,411 0.01% 7,919 0.01% 9,911 0.01% 10,357 0.01% 11,883 0.01% 12,160 0.01% 12,003 0.01%
Koryaks Chukotko-Kamchatkan 7,437 0.01% 7,337 0.01% 6,168 0.01% 7,367 0.01% 7,637 0.01% 8,942 0.01% 8,743 0.01% 7,953 0.01%
Nivkh Nivkh 4,076 0.00% 3,857 0.00% 3,690 0.00% 4,356 0.00% 4,366 0.00% 4,631 0.00% 5,162 0.00% 4,652 0.00%
Selkups Uralic 1,630 0.00% 2,604 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,518 0.00% 3,564 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,649 0.00%
Udege (incl. Taz 1926–1989) Tungusic 1,357 0.00% 1,701 0.00% 1,395 0.00% 1,396 0.00% 1,431 0.00% 1,902 0.00% 1,657 0.00% 1,496 0.00%
Taz Sino-Tibetan 276 0.00% 274 0.00%
Small Siberian Peoples (SSP) 11,824 0.01%
Itelmeni Chukotko-Kamchatkan 803 0.00% SSP SSP 1,096 0.00% 1,255 0.00% 1,335 0.00% 2,429 0.00% 3,180 0.00% 3,193 0.00%
Ulchs Tungusic 723 0.00% SSP SSP 2,049 0.00% 2,410 0.00% 2,494 0.00% 3,173 0.00% 2,913 0.00% 2,765 0.00%
Eskimo Eskimo-Aleut 1,292 0.00% SSP SSP 1,111 0.00% 1,265 0.00% 1,460 0.00% 1,704 0.00% 1,750 0.00% 1,738 0.00%
Yukaghir Yukaghir 443 0.00% SSP SSP 440 0.00% 593 0.00% 801 0.00% 1,112 0.00% 1,509 0.00% 1,603 0.00%
Ket Yeniseian 1,428 0.00% SSP SSP 1,017 0.00% 1,161 0.00% 1,072 0.00% 1,084 0.00% 1,494 0.00% 1,219 0.00%
Tofalars Turkic 2,828 0.00% SSP SSP 476 0.00% 570 0.00% 576 0.00% 722 0.00% 837 0.00% 762 0.00%
Orochs (incl. Oroks 1970–1979) Tungusic 646 0.00% SSP SSP 779 0.00% 1,037 0.00% 1,040 0.00% 883 0.00% 686 0.00% 596 0.00%
Oroks Tungusic 162 0.00% SSP SSP 2 0.00% 179 0.00% 346 0.00% 295 0.00%
Negidals Tungusic 683 0.00% SSP SSP 495 0.00% 477 0.00% 587 0.00% 567 0.00% 513 0.00%
Aleut Eskimo-Aleut 353 0.00% SSP SSP 399 0.00% 410 0.00% 489 0.00% 644 0.00% 540 0.00% 482 0.00%

Foreign-born population

COB data Russia.PNG

Russia experiences a constant flow of immigration. On average, close to 300,000 legal immigrants enter the country every year; about half[citation needed] are ethnic Russians from the other republics of the former Soviet Union. There is a significant inflow of ethnic Armenians, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Tajiks into big Russian cities, something that is viewed unfavorably by some citizens.[86] According to a 2013 opinion poll, 74% of Russians view the large number of labor migrants as a negative phenomenon.[87] According to the United Nations, Russia's legal immigrant population is the third biggest in the world, numbering 11.6 million.[88] In addition, there are an estimated 4 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[89] In 2015, Ukraine-Russia was the world's largest migration corridor after Mexico-USA.[90] According to the Armenian government, between 80,000 and 120,000 Armenians travel to Russia every year to do seasonal work, returning home for the winter.[91] According to the Tajik government, at least 870,000 Tajiks are working in Russia.[92] In 2014, remittances from Russia accounted for around one-third of Kyrgyzstan's and over 40% of Tajikistan's GDP.[93]

The Kazakhs in Russia are mostly not recent immigrants.[citation needed] The majority inhabit regions bordering Kazakhstan such as the Astrakhan (16% of the population are Kazakhs), Orenburg (6% of the population are Kazakhs), Omsk (4% of the population are Kazakhs) and Saratov (3% of the population are Kazakhs) oblasts. Together these oblasts host 60% of the Kazakh population in Russia. The number of Kazakhs slightly decreased between 2002 and 2010 due to emigration to Kazakhstan, which has by far the strongest economy in Central Asia (Russia does receive immigration from Kazakhstan, but they are mainly ethnic Russians); other Central Asian populations, especially Uzbeks, Tajiks, and Kyrgyz, have continued to rise rapidly. (Turkmen are an exception; citizens of Turkmenistan do not have visa-free access to Russia.)

Russian statistical organizations classify the immigrants based on their ethnicity, although there is an information gap between 2007 and 2013, In 2007, the net immigration was 190,397 (plus another 49,546 for which ethnicity was unknown). Of this, 97,813 was Slavic / Germanic / Finnic (51.4%, of which Russian – 72,769, Ukrainian – 17,802), Turkic and other Muslim – 52,536 (27.6%, of which Azeri – 14,084, Tatar – 10,391, Uzbek – 10,517, Tajik – 9,032, Kyrgyz – 7,533 & Kazakh – (-) 1,424) and Others – 40,048 (21.0%, of which Armenian – 25,719).[94]

Many immigrants are actually migrant workers, who come to Russia and work for around five years then return to their countries. Major sources of migrant workers but where permanent migrants of majority ethnicity of those countries are virtually nonexistent are in 2013. China 200,000 migrant workers, 1000 settled permanently. Uzbekistan 100,000 migrant workers, 489 permanent settlers. Tajikistan 80,000 migrant workers, 220 settled permanently. Kyrgyzstan 50,000 miagrant workers, 219 settled permanently. Macedonia- 20,000 worker arrivals, 612 settled permanently .

Peoples of Central Asia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Kazakhs Turkic 136,501 0.15% 356,500 0.33% 382,431 0.33% 477,820 0.37% 518,060 0.38% 635,865 0.43% 653,962 0.46% 647,732 0.47%
Uzbeks Turkic 942 0.00% 16,166 0.01% 29,512 0.03% 61,588 0.05% 72,385 0.05% 126,899 0.09% 122,916 0.09% 289,862 0.21%
Tajiks Indo-European 52 0.00% 3,315 0.00% 7,027 0.01% 14,108 0.01% 17,863 0.01% 38,208 0.03% 120,136 0.08% 200,666 0.15%
Kyrgyz Turkic 285 0.00% 6,311 0.01% 4,701 0.00% 9,107 0.01% 15,011 0.01% 41,734 0.03% 31,808 0.02% 103,422 0.08%
Turkmens Turkic 7,849 0.01% 12,869 0.01% 11,631 0.01% 20,040 0.02% 22,979 0.02% 39,739 0.03% 33,053 0.02% 36,885 0.03%
Uygurs Turkic 26 0.00% 642 0.00% 720 0.00% 1,513 0.00% 1,707 0.00% 2,577 0.00% 2,867 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Karakalpaks Turkic 14 0.00% 306 0.00% 988 0.00% 2,267 0.00% 1,743 0.00% 6,155 0.00% 1,609 0.00% 1,466 0.00%

The 2010 census[13] found the following figures for foreign citizens resident in Russia:
 Uzbekistan: 131,100  Ukraine: 93,400  Tajikistan: 87,100  Azerbaijan: 67,900  Armenia: 59,400  Kyrgyzstan: 44,600  Moldova: 33,900  China: 28,400  Kazakhstan: 28,100  Belarus: 27,700  Georgia: 12,100  Vietnam: 11,100  Turkmenistan: 5,600  Turkey: 5,400  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania: 5,300  India: 4,500 All others: 41,400

Median age and fertility

Median ages of ethnic groups vary considerably between groups. Ethnic Russians and other Slavic and Finnic groups have higher median age compared to the Caucasian groups.

Median ages are strongly correlated with fertility rates, ethnic groups with higher fertility rates have lower median ages, and vice versa. For example, in 2002, in the ethnic group with the lowest median age – Ingush – women 35 or older had, on average, 4.05 children; in the ethnic group with the highest median age – Jews – women 35 or older averaged only 1.37 children.[95] Ethnic Jews have both the highest median age and the lowest fertility rate; this is a consequence of Jewish emigration.[citation needed]

Ethnic Russians represent a significant deviation from the pattern, with second lowest fertility rate of all major groups, but relatively low median age (37.6 years). This phenomenon is at least partly due to the fact that children from mixed marriages are often registered as ethnic Russians in the census.[citation needed] The most noticeable trend in the past couple of decades is the convergence of birth rates between minorities (including Muslim minorities) and the Russian majority.[citation needed]

The following table shows the variation in median age and fertility rates according to 2002 census.[96]

Ethnic
Group
Median
Age
Male
Female
Urban
Urban
M
Urban
F
Rural
Rural
M
Rural
F
Children
/ woman
(15+)
Children
/ woman
(35+)
Predominant
religion
Russian 37.6 34.0 40.5 37.1 33.5 40.1 39.0 35.7 41.7 1.446 1.828 Christianity
Tatar 37.7 35.3 39.6 37.2 34.7 39.1 38.8 36.5 41.1 1.711 2.204 Islam
Ukrainian 45.9 44.7 47.3 45.6 44.5 46.8 47.0 45.2 49.0 1.726 1.946 Christianity
Bashkir 34.2 32.1 36.2 32.9 30.6 34.7 35.4 33.3 37.6 1.969 2.658 Islam
Chuvash 38.6 36.4 40.4 37.9 36.3 39.1 39.4 36.5 42.5 1.884 2.379 Christianity
Chechen 22.8 22.1 23.5 22.9 22.5 23.4 22.7 21.9 23.5 2.163 3.456 Islam
Armenian 32.8 33.4 32.0 33.0 33.7 32.2 32.1 32.6 31.5 1.68 2.225 Christianity
Mordvin 44.4 42.1 46.9 44.2 42.3 45.9 44.7 41.7 48.5 1.986 2.303 Christianity
Avar 24.6 23.8 25.4 23.8 23.4 24.1 25.1 24.0 26.2 2.09 3.319 Islam
Belarusian 48.0 45.9 50.2 47.7 45.8 49.6 49.1 46.1 52.4 1.765 1.941 Christianity
Kazakh/Kyrgyz 30.2 29.4 31 29.5 29 30.1 30.6 29.7 31.4 2.015 2.964 Islam
Udmurt 40.0 37.4 42.0 41.2 39.0 42.6 38.9 36.1 41.3 1.93 2.378 Christianity
Azerbaijani 29.5 31.9 24.6 30.0 32.3 24.7 26.5 28.7 24.1 1.83 2.619 Islam
Mari 36.7 34.5 38.5 36.4 34.6 37.7 36.9 34.5 39.3 1.917 2.493 Christianity
German 39.7 38.2 41.2 39.6 38.0 41.0 40.0 38.4 41.4 1.864 2.443 Christianity
Kabardin 28.2 27.1 29.3 28.8 27.4 30.2 27.7 26.9 28.4 1.799 2.654 Islam
Ossetian 34.1 32.5 35.7 34.0 32.2 35.7 34.4 33.2 35.6 1.665 2.267 Christianity
Dargwa 24.6 23.9 25.3 24.3 23.8 24.8 24.8 24.0 25.6 2.162 3.476 Islam
Buryat 28.6 26.6 30.5 27.6 25.7 29.5 29.5 27.4 31.5 1.949 2.861 Buddhism
Yakut 26.9 25.1 28.7 26.9 25.2 28.5 27.0 25.1 28.8 1.972 2.843 Christianity
Kumyk 24.6 23.7 25.4 24.8 23.9 25.6 24.4 23.5 25.2 1.977 3.123 Islam
Ingush 22.7 22.4 23.0 22.9 22.5 23.4 22.5 22.3 22.7 2.325 4.05 Islam
Lezgian 25.4 25.2 25.7 25.0 25.2 24.8 25.9 25.2 26.6 2.045 3.275 Islam
Komi 38.8 35.8 41.0 39.4 35.5 41.6 38.3 36.0 40.4 1.869 2.363 Christianity
Tuvan 23.0 21.7 24.2 22.3 21.4 23.3 23.6 22.0 25.1 1.996 3.407 Buddhism
Jewish 57.5 55.7 61.1 57.6 55.7 61.2 53.5 52.0 55.3 1.264 1.371 Judaism
Karachay 29.5 28.3 30.5 27.6 26.4 28.9 30.5 29.5 31.5 1.86 2.836 Islam
Kalmyk 31.3 29.2 33.3 28.6 26.3 31.3 33.9 32.6 35.1 1.853 2.625 Buddhism
Adyghe 34.2 32.4 36.0 32.0 30.3 33.7 36.2 34.2 38.2 1.757 2.363 Islam
Permyak 40.8 38.6 42.7 41.3 39.5 42.5 40.5 38.1 42.8 2.145 2.604 Christianity
Balkar 30.1 29.5 30.7 29.3 28.8 29.8 30.9 30.1 31.9 1.689 2.624 Islam
Karelian 45.7 42.4 48.6 44.7 41.3 47.2 47.0 43.5 51.2 1.823 2.108 Christianity
Kazakh 30.7 28.4 32.9 30.1 27.9 32.4 31.2 28.8 33.5 1.872 2.609 Islam
Altay 27.5 25.5 29.4 22.7 21.5 24.2 28.9 26.9 30.8 2.021 2.933 Buddhism
Cherkess 31.2 30.1 32.3 29.7 28.3 30.9 32.1 31.1 33.3 1.807 2.607 Islam

Languages

Russian is the common official language throughout Russia understood by 99% of its current inhabitants and widespread in many adjacent areas of Asia and Eastern Europe. National subdivisions of Russia have additional official languages (see their respective articles). There are more than 100 languages spoken in Russia, many of which are in danger of extinction.

Religion

Religion in Russia (2015)[97]

  Russian Orthodox (71%)
  Islam (10%)
  Unaffiliated (15%)
  Other religion (4%)

Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions. Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers; many people identify only nominally with a religion. There is no official census on religion in Russia. The Pew Research Center found that 71% of Russians identified as Orthodox, with 1.8% Protestants, 0.5% Catholics and 0.3% other Christians.[98][97] Pew estimated 11.7% of the population to be Muslim as of 2010.[99] Estimates of practicing worshipers are: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.).[100] Only a small percentage of the population is strongly religious: about approximately 2–4%[101] of the general population are integrated into church life (воцерковленные), while others attend on a less regular basis or not at all. Many non-religious ethnic Russians identify with the Orthodox faith for cultural reasons.[102] The majority of Muslims live in the Volga–Ural region and the North Caucasus, although Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and parts of Siberia also have sizable Muslim populations.[103][104]

Other branches of Christianity present in Russia include Roman Catholicism (approx. 1%), Baptists, Pentecostals, Lutherans and other Protestant churches (together totalling about 0.5% of the population) and Old Believers.[105][106] There is some presence of Judaism, Buddhism, and Krishnaism, as well. Shamanism and other pagan beliefs are present to some extent in remote areas, sometimes syncretized with one of the mainstream religions.

According to the data of the 2010 Census, presented above, 88.26% of the people who stated their ethnicity belong to traditional Christian ethnic groups, 10.90% belong to traditional Muslim ethnic groups and 0.84% belong to traditional Buddhist, Jewish and other ethnic groups.

Education

The 1st September, Knowledge day in Russia

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total literacy: 99.7% (2015)
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%[107]

Russia's free, widespread and in-depth educational system, inherited with almost no changes from the Soviet Union, has produced nearly 100% literacy. 97% of children receive their compulsory 9-year basic or complete 11-year education in Russian. Other languages are also used in their respective republics, for instance Tatar (1%), Yakut (0.4%) etc.[citation needed]

About 3 million students attend Russia's 519 institutions of higher education and 48 universities. As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order.[108]

Labour force

The Russian labour force is undergoing tremendous changes. Although well-educated and skilled, it is largely mismatched to the rapidly changing needs of the Russian economy. The unemployment rate in Russia was 5.3% as of 2013.[109] Unemployment is highest among women and young people. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union and the economic dislocation it engendered, the standard of living fell dramatically. However, since recovering from the 1998 economic crisis, the standard of living has been on the rise. As of 2010 about 13.1% of the population was living below the poverty line, compared to 40% in 1999.[110] The average yearly salary in Russia was $14,302 (about $23,501 PPP) as of October 2013, up from $455 per year in August 1999.[111][112][113]

According to the FMS, as of 2011, there were 7,000,000 immigrants working in Russia. Half of these were from Ukraine, while the remainder was mostly from Central Asia. Only 3 million or less than half of all the immigrants are legal. Illegal immigrants number 4 million, mostly from Ukraine and the Caucasus.[41] The Census usually covers only a part of this population and the last one 2002 Census) counted one million non-citizens.

Population of main cities

Russia is a highly urbanized country, with 74.2% of the total population (2017) living in urban areas.[114] Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits[115] and 17.1 million within the urban area.[116] Moscow is recognized as a Russian federal city. Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent.

Rural life

Cherlak, a typical small town - or a large village - in Western Siberia

Rural life in Russia is distinct from many other nations. Russia is one of few nations that have small towns hundreds of kilometres from major population centres. Relatively few Russian people live in villages—rural population accounted for 26% of the total population according to the 2010 Russian Census. Some people own or rent village houses and use them as dachas (summer houses).

See also

Census information:

Notes

  1. ^ a b Millions of Ukrainians have immigrated into Russia since the start of War in Donbass in 2014.

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Further reading

  • Gavrilova N.S., Gavrilov L.A. Aging Populations: Russia/Eastern Europe. In: P. Uhlenberg (Editor), International Handbook of the Demography of Aging, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 113–131.
  • Gavrilova N.S., Semyonova V.G., Dubrovina E., Evdokushkina G.N., Ivanova A.E., Gavrilov L.A. Russian Mortality Crisis and the Quality of Vital Statistics. Population Research and Policy Review, 2008, 27: 551–574.
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Gavrilov, L.A., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina, G.N., Ivanova, A.E. 2005. Patterns of violent crime in Russia. In: Pridemore, W.A. (ed.). Ruling Russia: Law, Crime, and Justice in a Changing Society. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield Publ., Inc, 117–145
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina G.N., Gavrilov, L.A. The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia. Population Research and Policy Review, 2000, 19: 397–419.

External links

  • Igor Beloborodov, Demographic situation in Russia in 1992–2010 (report at the Moscow Demographic Summit — June 2011)
  • Nicholas Eberstadt, Russia's Peacetime Demographic Crisis: Dimensions, Causes, Implications (National Bureau of Asian Research Project Report, May 2010)
  • Edited by Julie DaVanzo, Gwen Farnsworth Russia's Demographic "Crisis" 1996 RAND ISBN 0-8330-2446-9
  • Jessica Griffith The Regional Consequences of Russia's Demographic Crisis University of Leicester
  • Results of population policy and current demographic situation (2008)
  • Interactive statistics for all countries, site of United States Census Bureau.
  • 2009 World Population Data Sheet by the Population Reference Bureau
  • Population density and distribution maps (text is in Russian; the topmost map shows population density based on 1996 data)
  • Ethnic groups of Russia
  • Problems with mortality data in Russia
  • V. Borisov "Demographic situation in Russia and the role of mortality in reproduction of population", 2005 (in English)
  • Russian Empire:
    • The Red Book of the peoples of the Russian Empire
  • (in Russian) В погоне за малыми, an article about treatment of minorities in the Russian Empire, Kommersant-Money, 25 October 2005
  • Choice between mass migration and birth rate increase as possible solutions of depopulation problem in Russia (in Russian)
  • Build Russian population graph 1960 - 2013 (World Bank data)
  • Build Russian population projection graph till 2100 (United Nation data)
  • Build Russian life expectancy at birth graph 1950 - 2013 (United Nation data)