Demographics of Poland

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The population of Poland, Data of FAO, 1961-2014 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.
Largest cities and towns in Poland (over 20,000 citizens; 2010 data)
Alternative map

The demographics of Poland constitute all demographic features of the population of Poland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

According to the 2011 census by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS), at the end of 2011 Poland had a population of 38,538,447[1], which translates into an average population density of 123 people/km2 (urban 1105 per 1 km2, rural 50 per 1 km2). 61.5% of the Polish population lives in urban areas, a number which is slowly diminishing. Poland is the 33rd most populous country in the world (9th in Europe, with 5.4% of the European population). Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). Average life expectancy was 70.5 for men and 78.9 for women. In 2009, it was expected to be 73.1 for men and 79.5 for women. Population distribution is uneven. Ethnically, Poland is a very homogeneous country, with 96.7% of population being Polish.

A number of censuses have assessed this data, including a national census in 2002, and a survey by the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (HFHR), which confirmed there are numerous autochthonous ethnic groups in Poland. Estimates by INTEREG and Eurominority present a similar demographic picture of Poland but they provide estimates only for the most numerous of these ethnic groups.

Like many developed nations, Poland is aging. In 1950, the median age was 25.8: half of the Polish population was younger, half older. Today it is 38.2. If current trends continue, it may be 51 by 2050.[2] As the population is aging, it also started to decline in the 1990's mainly due to low birth rates and continued emigration which impacted the economy, however this has started to change. The number of children born in Polish families (TFR of 1.31, down from 2 in 1990) is one of the lowest in Central Europe, but has started to improve in recent years.[3][4]

Historical population

Population of Poland 1900-2010

For many centuries, until the end of World War II in 1945, the population of Poland included many significant ethnic minorities.

Twentieth century

The population of Poland decreased by about six million due to the losses sustained during the Holocaust and German occupation during World War II (1939-1945), and Poland became one of the most ethnically homogeneous areas in Europe (next to the populations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic) as a result of radically altered borders and population expulsions at the end of and after the war. The post-war population movements were accompanied by two waves of forced migrations ordered by the Soviet and Polish communist authorities, including the transfers of sizable Polish populations (1944-1946) from the pre-war territories of Eastern Poland, which today form parts of Lithuania, of Belarus and of Ukraine, the transfer of ethnic Ukrainians back to the USSR (1944-1946), and the expulsion of Germans (1945-1950) to Germany from German provinces which fell into the Soviet Zone of Occupation and which the Soviets then awarded to the communist government in Poland.

Recent trends

According to GUS, about 38,325,000 people live in Poland, however, the same report states that the number of residents living in the country all the time is approximately 37,200,000; with 1,125,000 people living abroad for 6 to 7 months or more. It means that the permanent population may be correspondingly smaller.[5]

In the 21st century many Poles migrated following Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004 and the opening of the EU's labor market; with approximately 2 million (primarily young) Poles taking up jobs abroad.[6]

Vital statistics

Total fertility rate by Polish regions in 2014 (Eurostat)
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3

[7][8][9]

Before World War II

After World War II

[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]

Current vital statistics

[18] [19]

Number of births from January-April 2017 =Increase 130,300 (10,2‰)

Number of births from January-April 2018 =Decrease 128,700 (10,0‰)

Number of deaths from January-April 2017 =Negative increase 147,100 (11,5‰)

Number of deaths from January-April 2018 =Negative increase 153,200 (12,0‰)

Natural increase from January-April 2017 =Increase -16,800 (-1,3‰)

Natural increase from January-April 2018 =Decrease -24,500 (-2,0‰)

Structure of the population

[20][21]

Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (estimates, excluding civilian aliens within the country, but including civilian nationals temporarily outside the country) :
Age group Male Female Total %
Total 18 651 441 19 882 348 38 533 789 100
0-4 1 058 874 1 005 069 2 063 943 5,36
5-9 945 643 897 723 1 843 366 4,78
10-14 974 509 925 506 1 900 015 4,93
15-19 1 158 367 1 108 267 2 266 634 5,88
20-24 1 394 761 1 341 393 2 736 154 7,10
25-29 1 623 072 1 575 546 3 198 618 8,30
30-34 1 602 736 1 558 622 3 161 358 8,20
35-39 1 470 751 1 432 822 2 903 573 7,54
40-44 1 231 083 1 209 751 2 440 834 6,33
45-49 1 196 548 1 192 952 2 389 500 6,20
50-54 1 369 258 1 414 996 2 784 254 7,23
55-59 1 404 141 1 522 140 2 926 281 7,59
60-64 1 163 935 1 350 684 2 514 619 6,53
65-69 675 573 861 584 1 537 157 3,99
70-74 529 739 776 722 1 306 461 3,39
75-79 424 407 720 249 1 144 656 2,97
80-84 278 428 566 126 844 554 2,19
85-89 115 213 311 388 426 601 1,11
90-94 28 565 91 223 119 788 0,31
95-99 4 614 18 265 22 879 0,06
100+ 224 1 320 1 544 <0,01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 979 026 2 828 298 5 807 324 15,07
15-64 13 615 652 13 707 173 27 322 825 70,91
65+ 2 056 763 3 346 877 5 403 640 14,02
Structure of the population (30.06.2015) (estimates) :
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 18 607 417 19 847 159 38 454 576 100
0-4 982 639 928 662 1 911 301 4.97
5-9 1 047 830 996 205 2 044 035 5.32
10-14 924 671 877 780 1 802 451 4.69
15-19 1 028 884 979 585 2 008 469 5.22
20-24 1 257 703 1 209 498 2 467 201 6.42
25-29 1 464 438 1 417 040 2 881 478 7.49
30-34 1 647 147 1 602 930 3 250 077 8.45
35-39 1 561 396 1 522 202 3 083 598 8.02
40-44 1 354 899 1 329 476 2 684 375 6.98
45-49 1 166 358 1 160 878 2 327 236 6.05
50-54 1 211 294 1 238 398 2 449 692 6.37
55-59 1 386 303 1 489 816 2 876 119 7.48
60-64 1 256 035 1 443 985 2 700 020 7.0
65-69 917 893 1 147 725 2 065 618 5.37
70-74 501 311 716 224 1 217 535 3.17
75-79 426 059 715 629 1 141 688 2.97
80-84 287 908 573 415 861 323 2.24
85+ 184 649 497 711 682 360 1.77
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 955 140 2 802 647 5 757 787 14.97
15-64 13 334 457 13 393 808 26 728 265 69.51
65+ 2 317 820 3 650 704 5 968 524 15.52

Nationalities

97.10% of the people of Poland claim sole or partial Polish nationality, and 98.19% declare that they speak Polish at home (2011). Among minority groups, the largest numbers of respondents claimed Silesian nationality , followed by Kashubian , German , Ukrainian , Vietnamese , Belarusian and Russians [22] The statistics on Ukrainians do not include recently arrived migrant workers, which a report by the National Bank of Poland estimated at around 1 million in 2015.[23]

Largest metropolitan and urban areas

Population numbers by database
Area ESPON [24] Eurostat LUZ [25] Ministry of Regional Development[26] United Nations [27] Demographia.com[28] Citypopulation.de[29] Scientific study by T. Markowski[30] Scientific study by Swianiewicz, Klimska [31]
Katowice (Katowice urban area) 3,029,000[32](5,294,000) 2,710,397 3,239,200 3,069,000 2,500,000 2,775,000 2,746,000 2,733,000
Warsaw 2,785,000 2,660,406 2,680,600 2,194,000 2,030,000 2,375,000 2,631,900 2,504,000
Kraków 1,236,000 1,264,322 1,227,200 818,000 750,000 Not listed 1,257,500 1,367,000
Łódź 1,165,000 1,163,516 1,061,600 974,000 950,000 1,060,000 1,178,000 1,129,000
Gdańsk 993,000 1,105,203 1,220,800 854,000 775,000 No data 1,098,400 1,210,000
Poznań 919,000 1,018,511 1,227,200 No data 600,000 No data 1,011,200 846,000
Wrocław 861,000 1,031,439 1,136,900 No data 700,000 No data 1,029,800 956,000
Szczecin 721,000 878,314 724,700 No data 500,000 No data No data 755,806

Demographics by town

   City  Voivodeship  Inhabitants
May 20, 2002
Inhabitants
December 31, 2006
Inhabitants
December 31, 2010
1 Warsaw Masovian 1,671,670 1,702,139 1,720,398
2 Kraków Lesser Poland 758,544 756,267 756,183
3 Łódź Łódź 789,318 760,251 737,098
4 Wrocław Lower Silesia 640,367 634,630 632,996
5 Poznań Greater Poland 578,886 564,951 551,627
6 Gdańsk Pomeranian 461,334 456,658 456,967
7 Szczecin Western Pomeranian 415,399 409,068 405,606
8 Bydgoszcz Kuyavia-Pomeranian 373,804 363,468 356,177
9 Lublin Lublin 357,110 353,483 348,450
10 Katowice Silesia 327,222 314,500 306,826
11 Białystok (Demographics) Podlaskie 291,383 294,830 295,198
12 Gdynia Pomerania 253,458 251,844 247,324
13 Częstochowa Silesian 251,436 245,030 238,042
14 Radom Masovian 229,699 225,810 222,496
15 Sosnowiec Silesia 232,622 225,030 217,638
16 Toruń Kuyavia-Pomerania 211,243 207,190 205,312
17 Kielce Świętokrzyskie 212,429 207,188 203,804
18 Gliwice Silesia 203,814 198,499 195,472
19 Zabrze Silesia 195,293 190,110 186,913
20 Bytom Silesia 193,546 186,540 181,617
21 Rzeszów Subcarpathia 160,376 165,578 178,227
22 Olsztyn Warmia-Masuria 173,102 174,941 176,463
23 Bielsko-Biała Silesia 178,028 176,453 175,008
24 Ruda Śląska Silesia 150,595 145,471 142,950
25 Rybnik Silesia 142,731 141,388 141,410
26 Tychy Silesia 132,816 130,492 129,386
27 Dąbrowa Górnicza Silesia 132,236 129,559 127,431
28 Płock Masovia 128,361 127,224 126,061
29 Elbląg Warmia-Masuria 128,134 126,985 126,049
30 Opole Opole 129,946 127,602 125,710
31 Gorzów Wielkopolski Lubusz 125,914 125,504 125,394
32 Wałbrzych Lower Silesia 130,268 124,988 120,197
33 Zielona Góra Lubusz 118,293 138,512 117,699
34 Włocławek Kuyavia-Pomerania 121,229 119,256 116,914
35 Tarnów Lesser Poland 119,913 116,967 114,635
36 Chorzów Silesia 117,430 113,978 112,697
37 Koszalin Western Pomerania 108,709 107,693 107,948
38 Kalisz Greater Poland 109,498 108,477 106,664
39 Legnica Lower Silesia 107,100 105,186 103,892
40 Grudziądz Kuyavia-Pomerania 99,943 99,244 98,757
41 Słupsk Pomerania 100,376 98,092 96,665

Demographics by voivodeship

Inhabitants of voivodeships
(2008, according to GUS)
Lower Silesian 19 947 2 887 059 -0,04
Kuyavian-Pomeranian 17 972 2 067 918 +0,07
Lublin 25 122 2 161 832 -0,15
Lubusz 13 998 1 008 926 0,00
Łódź 18 219 2 548 861 -0,20
Lesser Poland 15 183 3 287 136 +0.22
Masovian 35 558 5 204 495 +0,26
Opole 9412 1 033 040 -0,31
Subcarpathian 17 846 2 099 495 +0,03
Podlaskie (Demographics) 20 187 1 191 470 -0,07
Pomeranian 18 310 2 219 512 +0,32
Silesian 12 334 4 645 665 -0.12
Świętokrzyskie 11 710 1 272 784 -0,20
Warmian-Masurian 24 173 1 427 073 +0,03
Greater Poland 29 827 3 397 617 +0.26
West Pomeranian 22 892 1 692 957 +0,04
Poland 312 679 38 135 876 +0,05

Demographic statistics

Age structure

0–14 years: 14.8% (male 2,931,732/female 2,769,021)
15–64 years: 71.7% (male 13,725,939/female 13,863,103)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,971,763/female 3,202,131) (2010 est.)
0-14 years: 14.7% (male 2,910,324/female 2,748,546)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 13,698,363/female 13,834,779)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 2,004,550/female 3,245,026) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 38.5 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 40.3 years (2011 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.85 years
male: 71.88 years
female: 80.06 years (2010 est.)
total population: 76.25 years
male: 72.31 years
female: 80.43 years (2012 est.)

Ethnic groups

Map of at least 10% non-Polish areas
Population background % Population[33]
European 98.6 37,962,000
European Union 98.2 37,813,000
     Ethnic Polish (including Silesians and Kashubians) 97.7 37,602,000
     Other EU member states (primarily German) 0.5 211,000
European Other (primarily Ukrainian and Belarusian) 0.4 149,000
Other background (primarily Vietnamese and Chechen) <0.1 29,000
Mixed or unspecified background 1.4 521,000
Total population 100 38,512,000

Religions

Roman Catholic 91%, Orthodox 1%, Other 2%, atheist/non-believer/agnostic 5%, not stated 1% (Eurobarometer 2012)[34]

Languages

Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Poland: Aging and the Economy". Worldbank.org. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "Poland Total fertility rate". Indexmundi.com. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  4. ^ "Russia experiences baby boom". Euromonitor.typepad.com. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  5. ^ [1] Archived 2016-02-03 at the Wayback Machine.
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  10. ^ "Démographie des pays développés". Ined.fr. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
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  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2012-01-03. 
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-25. Retrieved 2014-05-24. 
  14. ^ "Informacja o sytuacji społeczno-gospodarczej kraju w 2016 r". Stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  15. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/inne-opracowania/informacje-o-sytuacji-spoleczno-gospodarczej/informacja-o-sytuacji-spoleczno-gospodarczej-kraju-w-2017-r-,1,68.html
  16. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/en/topics/other-studies/informations-on-socio-economic-situation/statistical-bulletin-no-22018,4,85.html
  17. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tps00199&plugin=1
  18. ^ "Statistical Bulletin No. 3/20187 - Population". Central Statistical Office of Poland. Retrieved 25 June 2018. 
  19. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/en/topics/other-studies/informations-on-socio-economic-situation/statistical-bulletin-no-22018,4,85.html
  20. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
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  22. ^ "Struktura narodowo-etniczna, językowa i wyznaniowa ludności Polski - NSP 2011". Stat.gov.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-01-31. 
  23. ^ "Obywatele Ukrainy pracujący w Polsce – raport z badania" (PDF). Nbp.pl. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
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  31. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  32. ^ Data of polycentric Silesian metropolitan area
  33. ^ Główny Urząd Statystyczny (January 2013). Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (pdf) (in Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  34. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 2 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 

External links

  • Central Statistical Office for the Republic of Poland
  • Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures: Poland's Heritage
  • CIA World Factbook 2004
  • Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights
  • Poland - Population and ethnic composition
  • Armenians in Poland
  • Poland's president expresses regret over 1947 Akcja Wisla
  • INTEREG
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