Demographics of Malta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Malta, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Census population and average annual growth rate
Year Pop. ±%
1842 114,499 —    
1851 123,496 +7.9%
1861 134,055 +8.6%
1871 141,775 +5.8%
1881 149,782 +5.6%
1891 165,037 +10.2%
1901 184,742 +11.9%
1911 211,564 +14.5%
1921 212,258 +0.3%
1931 241,621 +13.8%
1948 305,991 +26.6%
1957 319,620 +4.5%
1967 314,216 −1.7%
1985 345,418 +9.9%
1995 378,132 +9.5%
2005 404,962 +7.1%
2010 417,432 +3.1%
Source:[1]

Characteristics

Demographics of Malta, Data of FAO, year 2005; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Malta is the most densely populated country in the EU and one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with about 1,265 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,000 per square mile). This compares with about 32 per square kilometre (85 per square mile) for the United States. A census (held every 10 years) was held in November 2005.

Inhabited since prehistoric times, Malta was first colonized by Sicilians. Subsequently, Phoenicians, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs in 870 CE[2] who may have completely depopulated the islands[3] but in 1224 were themselves expelled from Malta,[4] Normans, Sicilians, Spanish, French and the British have influenced Maltese life and culture to varying degrees.

Roman Catholicism is established by law as the religion of Malta with 98%; however, full liberty of conscience and freedom of worship is guaranteed, and a number of faiths have places of worship on the island (rather small groups, a combined total of 2% of the people are Protestants, Eastern Orthodox, Muslims and Jews).

Malta has two official languages--Maltese (a Semitic language derived from Siculo-Arabic and heavily influenced by Sicilian and Italian), and English. Both languages are compulsory subjects in Maltese primary and secondary schools. A large portion of the population is also fluent in Italian, which was, until 1936, the national language of Malta. The literacy rate has reached 93%, compared to 63% in 1946. Schooling is compulsory until age 16.

Age distribution

Since 2000, the shift in the age composition towards an older population continued to materialise. In fact, the average age of the Maltese population increased from 38.5 in 2005 to 40.5 in 2011. This resulted from the increase in the number of persons aged 55 and over, together with a decrease in the number of persons under 25 years of age. The average in Gozo and Comino (41.6 years) was higher than that observed for Malta. Persons aged 65 and over more represent 16.3% of the total population in 2011, compared to 13.7% in 2005. In contrast, persons aged 14 and under make up 14.8% of the population in 2011, compared to 17.2% in 2005.[5]

Migrant background and foreign nationality

Foreign nationals in Malta

As of 2016 and 2017, the numbers of selected groups of resident foreign nationals (non-naturalized residents) in Malta were as follows:

This list does not include foreigners with Maltese nationality and foreign nationals without resident status.

Rank Nationality Population (2016)[6][7] Population (2017)[8][9]
Total 30,000+
European Union EU nationals 22,000+
1 Italy Italy 5,180
2 United Kingdom United Kingdom 3,985
3 Libya Libya 3,622
4 Serbia Serbia 2,757
5 Philippines Philippines 2,407
6 Bulgaria Bulgaria 2,044
7 Russia Russia 2,027
8 Somalia Somalia 1,845
9 Hungary Hungary 1,308
10 Syria Syria 1,289
11 Romania Romania 1,262
12 Spain Spain 1,119
13 China China 1,090
14 Sweden Sweden 1,085
15 Eritrea Eritrea 1,057
16 Germany Germany 991
17 Ukraine Ukraine 896
18 France France 879
19 India India 819
20 Poland Poland 719
21 Netherlands Netherlands 466
22 Greece Greece 379
23 Slovakia Slovakia 338
24 Austria Austria 332
25 Finland Finland 321
26 Portugal Portugal 297
27 Czech Republic Czech Republic 296
28 Republic of Ireland Ireland 281
29 Latvia Latvia 276
30 Lithuania Lithuania 213
31 Denmark Denmark 204
32 Belgium Belgium 188
33 Estonia Estonia 120
34 Slovenia Slovenia 106
35 Croatia Croatia 100
European Union Other EU nationals 200+
Other non-EU nationals 400+

Emigration

Child Migrants' Memorial at the Valletta Waterfront, commemorating the 310 Maltese child migrants who travelled to Australia between 1950 and 1965.

Malta has long been a country of emigration, with big Maltese communities in English-speaking countries abroad. Mass emigration picked up in the 19th century, reaching its peak in the decades after World War II.

In the nineteenth century, most migration from Malta was to North Africa and the Middle East (particularly Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt), although rates of return migration to Malta were high.[10] Nonetheless, Maltese communities formed in these regions. By 1900, for example, British consular estimates suggest that there were 15,326 Maltese in Tunisia.[11] There is little trace left of the Maltese communities in North Africa, most of them having been displaced, after the rise of independence movements, to places like Marseille, the United Kingdom or Australia.

After World War II, Malta's Emigration Department would assist emigrants with the cost of their travel. Between 1948 and 1967, 30 per cent of the population emigrated.[10] Between 1946 and the late 1970s, over 140,000 people left Malta on the assisted passage scheme, with 57.6 per cent migrating to Australia, 22 per cent to the UK, 13 per cent to Canada and 7 per cent to the United States.[12] (See also Maltese Australians; Maltese people in the United Kingdom)

46,998 Maltese-born residents were recorded by the 2001 Australian Census, 30,178 by the 2001 UK Census, 9,525 by the 2001 Canadian Census and 9,080 by the 2000 United States Census.[13]

Emigration dropped dramatically after the mid-1970s and has since ceased to be a social phenomenon of significance. However, since Malta joined the EU in 2004 expatriate communities emerged in a number of European countries particularly in Belgium and Luxembourg. At the same time, Malta is becoming more and more attractive for communities of immigrants, both from Western and Northern Europe (Italians, Brits) and from Eastern Europe (Serbs).

Immigration

Foreign population in Malta
Year Population % total
2005 12,112 3.0%
2011 20,289 4.9%

Most of the foreign community in Malta, predominantly active or retired British nationals and their dependents, is centred on Sliema and surrounding modern suburbs. Other smaller foreign groups include Italians, French, and Lebanese, many of whom have assimilated into the Maltese nation over the decades.[14]

Since the late 20th century, Malta has become a transit country for migration routes from Africa towards Europe.[15] As a member of the European Union and of the Schengen agreement, Malta is bound by the Dublin Regulation to process all claims for asylum by those asylum seekers that enter EU territory for the first time in Malta.[16]

Irregular migrants (formal Maltese: immigranti irregolari, informal: klandestini) who land in Malta are subject to a compulsory detention policy, being held in several camps organised by the Armed Forces of Malta (AFM), including those near Ħal Far and Ħal Safi. The compulsory detention policy has been denounced by several NGOs, and in July 2010, the European Court of Human Rights found that Malta's detention of migrants was arbitrary, lacking in adequate procedures to challenge detention, and in breach of its obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights.[17][18]

Very few migrants arrived in Malta in 2015, despite the fact that the rest Europe is experiencing a migrant crisis. Most migrants who were rescued between Libya and Malta were taken to Italy, and some refused to be brought to Malta.[19]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Largest Cities:

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.01 years
male: 76.83 years
female: 81.31 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2006 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic Church in Malta 98%

Languages: Maltese (official de facto), English (official de jure), Italian (widely understood)

Vital statistics

Statistics from United Nations[20] and National Statistics Office Malta[21]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Infant mortality rate
1932 246 8 000 5 150 2 850 32.5 20.9 11.6
1933 250 8 300 5 100 3 200 33.2 20.4 12.8
1934 254 8 544 5 702 2 842 33.6 22.4 11.2
1935 256 8 701 6 018 2 683 34.0 23.5 10.5
1936 259 8 875 4 617 4 258 34.3 17.8 16.4
1937 263 8 879 5 304 3 575 33.8 20.2 13.6
1938 267 8 704 5 399 3 305 32.6 20.2 12.4
1939 269 8 930 5 385 3 545 33.2 20.0 13.2
1940 270 8 808 6 144 2 664 32.6 22.8 9.9
1941 271 7 352 6 444 908 27.1 23.8 3.4
1942 270 6 768 8 603 -1 835 25.1 31.9 -6.8
1943 271 8 452 5 578 2 874 31.2 20.6 10.6
1944 276 10 963 3 700 7 263 39.7 13.4 26.3
1945 283 10 998 4 016 6 982 38.9 14.2 24.7
1946 291 11 304 4 050 7 254 38.8 13.9 24.9
1947 300 11 612 3 838 7 774 38.7 12.8 25.9
1948 306 11 029 3 737 7 292 36.0 12.2 23.8
1949 311 10 590 3 326 7 264 34.1 10.7 23.4
1950 312 10 281 3 224 7 057 33.0 10.3 22.6
1951 313 9 511 3 476 6 035 30.4 11.1 19.3
1952 317 9 226 3 365 5 861 29.1 10.6 18.5
1953 317 8 977 2 848 6 129 28.3 9.0 19.3
1954 320 8 991 3 071 5 920 28.1 9.6 18.5
1955 314 8 560 2 683 5 877 27.3 8.5 18.7
1956 314 8 418 2 918 5 500 26.8 9.3 17.5
1957 319 8 794 2 955 5 839 27.6 9.3 18.3
1958 322 8 528 2 657 5 871 26.5 8.3 18.2
1959 325 8 499 2 836 5 663 26.2 8.7 17.4
1960 329 8 565 2 819 5 746 26.0 8.6 17.5
1961 329 7 674 2 937 4 737 23.3 8.9 14.4
1962 329 7 513 2 840 4 673 22.8 8.6 14.2
1963 328 6 672 2 981 3 691 20.3 9.1 11.3
1964 324 6 394 2 756 3 638 19.7 8.5 11.2
1965 319 5 628 3 001 2 627 17.6 9.4 8.2
1966 317 5 340 2 865 2 475 16.8 9.0 7.8
1967 319 5 309 2 985 2 324 16.6 9.4 7.3
1968 319 5 145 2 883 2 262 16.1 9.0 7.1
1969 323 5 096 3 024 2 072 15.8 9.4 6.4
1970 303 5 314 3 070 2 244 17.5 10.1 7.4
1971 303 5 562 3 090 2 472 18.4 10.2 8.2
1972 303 5 385 2 891 2 494 17.8 9.5 8.2
1973 303 5 631 2 935 2 696 18.6 9.7 8.9
1974 303 5 691 2 747 2 944 18.8 9.1 9.7
1975 304 6 007 2 900 3 107 19.8 9.5 10.2
1976 307 5 927 2 967 2 960 19.3 9.7 9.6
1977 310 5 937 2 872 3 065 19.2 9.3 9.9
1978 319 5 641 3 263 2 378 17.7 10.2 7.5
1979 320 5 823 2 968 2 855 18.2 9.3 8.9
1980 324 5 602 3 215 2 387 17.3 9.9 7.4
1981 327 5 592 3 062 2 530 17.1 9.4 7.7
1982 330 5 912 3 050 2 862 17.9 9.2 8.7
1983 334 5 651 3 137 2 514 16.9 9.4 7.5
1984 337 5 571 2 903 2 668 16.5 8.6 7.9
1985 340 5 430 2 837 2 593 16.0 8.4 7.6
1986 347 5 245 2 824 2 421 15.1 8.1 7.0
1987 350 5 314 2 908 2 406 15.2 8.3 6.9
1988 353 5 533 2 708 2 825 15.7 7.7 8.0
1989 356 5 584 2 610 2 974 15.7 7.3 8.3
1990 360 5 368 2 745 2 623 14.9 7.6 7.3
1991 364 5 302 2 875 2 427 14.6 7.9 6.7
1992 368 5 474 2 900 2 574 14.9 7.9 7.0
1993 371 5 147 2 692 2 455 13.9 7.2 6.6
1994 375 4 826 2 698 2 128 12.9 7.2 5.7
1995 377 4 613 2 708 1 905 12.2 7.2 5.0
1996 380 5 038 2 765 2 273 13.3 7.3 6.0
1997 383 4 848 2 888 1 960 12.7 7.5 5.1
1998 385 4 670 3 044 1 626 12.1 7.9 4.2
1999 388 4 403 3 097 1 306 11.4 8.0 3.4
2000 390 4 392 2 957 1 435 11.3 7.6 3.7 6.1
2001 393 3 957 2 935 1 022 10.1 7.5 2.6 4.4
2002 396 3 918 3 031 887 9.9 7.7 2.2 6.0
2003 399 4 050 3 164 886 10.2 7.9 2.2 5.9
2004 401 3 887 2 999 888 9.7 7.5 2.2 5.9
2005 404 3 858 3 130 728 9.6 7.8 1.8 6.0
2006 406 3 885 3 216 669 9.6 7.9 1.6 3.6
2007 409 3 871 3 111 760 9.5 7.6 1.9 6.5
2008 410 4 126 3 243 883 10.1 7.9 2.2 8.2
2009 413 4 143 3 221 922 10.0 7.8 2.2 5.3
2010 415 4 008 3 010 998 9.7 7.3 2.4 5.5
2011 416 4 283 3 266 1 017 10.3 7.9 2.4
2012 419 4 231 3 418 813 10.1 8.2 1.9
2013 423 4 127 3 236 891 9.9 7.7 2.2
2014 429 4 311 3 270 1 041 10.1 7.6 2.5
2015 434 4 424 3 442 982 10.2 7.9 2.3
2016 437.4 4 460 3 340 1120 10.2 7.6 2.6

Census per locality, 1901-2011[22]

1901 1911 1921 1931 1948 1957 1967 1985 1995 2005 2011
MALTA 184,742 211,564 212,258 241,621 305,991 319,620 314,216 345,418 378,132 404,962 417,432
Malta 164,952 188,869 189,697 217,784 278,311 292,019 288,238 319,736 349,106 373,955 386,057
Gozo and Comino 19,790 22,695 22,561 23,837 27,680 27,601 25,978 25,682 29,026 31,007 31,375
Southern Harbour 70,244 74,955 79,001 87,811 84,206 90,705 87,879 86,843 83,234 81,047 79,438
Cospicua 12,148 12,164 11,536 12,163 4,822 9,095 9,123 7,731 6,085 5,657 5,249
Fgura 2,737 8,254 11,042 11,258 11,449
Floriana 5,687 5,811 5,907 6,241 5,074 5,811 4,944 3,327 2,701 2,240 2,014
Ħal Luqa 3,670 3,945 3,607 4,059 4,318 5,382 5,413 5,585 6,150 6,072 5,911
Ħal Tarxien 2,065 2,820 2,876 3,247 4,607 7,706 7,989 7,016 7,412 7,597 8,380
Ħaż‐Żabbar 5,750 7,012 7,044 8,003 11,726 11,005 10,167 12,869 14,138 14,671 14,916
Kalkara 1,158 1,491 1,698 1,899 2,068 2,101 1,945 2,086 2,833 2,882 2,946
Marsa 4,838 7,867 11,560 10,672 9,722 7,953 5,324 5,344 4,788
Paola 2,812 4,319 5,475 7,297 14,793 11,424 11,794 11,744 9,400 8,822 8,267
Santa Luċija 3,208 3,605 3,186 2,970
Senglea 8,093 8,205 7,741 7,683 2,756 5,065 4,749 4,158 3,528 3,074 2,740
Valletta 22,768 23,006 22,392 22,779 18,666 18,202 15,279 9,340 7,262 6,300 5,748
Vittoriosa 6,093 6,182 5,887 6,573 3,816 4,242 4,017 3,572 3,069 2,701 2,489
Xgħajra 685 1,243 1,571
Northern Harbour 42,774 53,746 52,347 63,941 101,526 104,889 105,060 113,730 118,409 119,332 120,449
Birkirkara 8,417 9,573 8,565 10,345 16,070 16,987 17,213 20,385 21,281 21,858 21,749
Gżira 6,295 8,545 9,575 8,471 7,872 7,090 7,055
Ħal Qormi 8,187 9,404 9,286 10,165 14,396 14,869 15,398 18,256 17,694 16,559 16,394
Ħamrun 10,393 14,601 10,434 11,580 17,124 16,895 14,787 13,682 11,195 9,541 9,043
Msida 2,893 3,627 3,373 3,990 6,064 6,587 11,437 6,219 6,942 7,629 7,748
Pembroke 2,213 2,935 3,488
San Ġwann 2,122 8,179 12,011 12,737 12,152
Santa Venera 1,910 2,639 4,535 5,246 6,134 7,827 6,183 6,075 6,789
St Julian's 1,444 2,164 2,594 3,998 9,122 8,285 7,394 10,239 7,352 7,752 8,067
Swieqi 6,721 8,208 8,755
Ta' Xbiex 1,955 1,732 1,860 1,556
Tal‐Pietà 933 1,205 1,823 2,344 3,626 4,076 4,380 4,307 3,846 4,032
Tas‐Sliema 10,507 13,172 14,362 18,880 24,294 23,399 21,000 14,137 12,906 13,242 13,621
South Eastern 17,546 20,412 20,090 23,052 34,208 36,854 35,224 42,475 50,650 59,371 64,276
Birżebbuġa 1,219 1,724 5,339 5,297 4,876 5,668 7,307 8,564 10,412
Gudja 1,133 1,270 1,167 1,283 1,486 1,712 1,729 2,156 2,882 2,923 2,994
Ħal Għaxaq 1,518 1,765 1,629 1,896 2,448 2,830 2,866 3,655 4,126 4,405 4,577
Ħal Kirkop 633 786 707 805 1,016 1,204 1,225 1,559 1,957 2,185 2,283
Ħal Safi 367 412 459 448 1,040 709 784 1,323 1,731 1,979 2,074
Marsaskala 888 876 1,936 4,770 9,346 11,059
Marsaxlokk 446 715 791 829 1,431 1,469 1,462 2,405 2,857 3,222 3,366
Mqabba 1,228 1,358 1,282 1,468 1,965 2,088 2,120 2,269 2,613 3,021 3,223
Qrendi 1,333 1,522 1,526 1,611 2,144 2,155 2,094 2,199 2,344 2,535 2,667
Żejtun 7,234 8,060 7,701 8,731 11,980 11,665 10,440 11,321 11,379 11,410 11,334
Żurrieq 3,654 4,524 3,609 4,257 5,359 6,837 6,752 7,984 8,684 9,781 10,287
Western 21,666 24,478 23,587 26,393 34,899 36,196 36,142 44,580 51,961 57,038 58,129
Ħ'Attard 1,837 2,052 2,058 2,354 2,480 2,663 2,570 5,681 9,214 10,405 10,553
Ħad‐Dingli 807 963 1,087 1,258 1,869 2,041 1,795 2,047 2,725 3,347 3,511
Ħal Balzan 1,096 1,263 1,313 1,661 2,637 2,734 3,301 4,781 3,560 3,869 4,101
Ħal Lija 1,692 1,825 1,612 1,795 1,950 2,119 2,143 3,078 2,497 2,797 2,977
Ħaż‐Żebbuġ 5,454 5,950 5,361 5,756 7,493 7,969 8,131 9,788 10,398 11,292 11,580
Iklin 3,098 3,220 3,169
Mdina 304 482 816 982 1,384 823 988 421 377 278 239
Mtarfa 2,426 2,585
Rabat 7,211 8,414 7,985 9,050 12,503 12,792 12,243 12,920 12,995 11,473 11,212
Siġġiewi 3,265 3,529 3,355 3,537 4,583 5,055 4,971 5,864 7,097 7,931 8,202
Northern 12,722 15,278 14,672 16,587 23,472 23,375 23,933 32,108 44,852 57,167 63,765
Ħal Għargħur 1,377 1,512 1,327 1,483 1,690 1,813 1,774 2,321 1,991 2,352 2,605
Mellieħa 2,357 2,675 2,637 3,198 4,549 4,290 4,279 4,525 6,221 7,676 8,661
Mġarr 745 1,067 1,271 1,627 2,218 2,167 2,115 2,188 2,672 3,014 3,479
Mosta 4,629 5,783 4,866 5,251 7,186 7,377 8,334 12,148 16,754 18,735 19,750
Naxxar 3,429 3,209 2,886 3,249 4,389 4,688 4,643 6,461 9,822 11,978 12,875
St Paul's Bay 185 1,032 1,685 1,779 3,440 3,040 2,788 4,465 7,392 13,412 16,395
Gozo and Comino 19,790 22,695 22,561 23,837 27,680 27,601 25,978 25,682 29,026 31,007 31,375
Fontana 893 836 817 850 882
Għajnsielem 1,121 1,295 1,250 1,449 1,878 1,860 1,755 1,809 2,176 2,570 2,645
Għarb 1,091 1,417 1,402 1,398 1,555 1,269 1,117 983 1,030 1,146 1,196
Għasri 467 428 409 467 594 471 374 335 369 418 431
Munxar 420 507 780 1,052 1,068
Nadur 2,948 3,393 3,460 3,354 3,465 4,136 3,694 3,482 3,882 4,192 3,973
Qala 1,219 1,368 1,340 1,601 1,569 1,616 1,522 1,369 1,492 1,616 1,811
San Lawrenz 643 558 528 499 413 428 511 517 552 598 610
Ta' Kerċem 1,037 1,135 1,143 1,212 1,307 1,272 1,251 1,411 1,557 1,665 1,718
Ta' Sannat 1,116 1,243 1,228 1,324 1,625 1,656 1,297 1,309 1,604 1,725 1,837
Victoria 5,057 5,655 5,219 5,531 6,175 6,357 5,462 5,968 6,524 6,395 6,252
Xagħra 2,562 3,156 3,262 3,522 4,759 4,056 3,517 3,202 3,669 3,934 3,968
Xewkija 1,762 2,135 2,314 2,470 3,079 3,281 2,999 2,772 3,128 3,111 3,143
Żebbuġ 767 912 1,006 1,010 1,261 1,199 1,166 1,182 1,446 1,735 1,841

Notes:

  1. Gżira shown as a separate locality since 1948.
  2. New locality of Msieraħ (San Ġwann) constituted from parts of Birkirkara and St Julian's and is shown as separate locality in 1967.
  3. New locality of Fgura constituted from parts of Paola, Ħal Tarxien and Ħaż‐Żabbar in 1967.
  4. Marsaskala shown as a separate locality since 1957.
  5. New locality of Munxar constituted from parts of Ta' Sannat and Fontana till 1957.
  6. New locality of Fontana shown as separate locality till 1967.
  7. Gwardamangia formed part of Ħamrun in 1967.
  8. Tal‐Pietà formed part of Msida in 1967.
  9. Santa Luċija formed part of Ħal Tarxien and Paola till 1967.
  10. Ta' Xbiex formed part of Msida and Gżira till 1967.
  11. Pembroke formed part of St Julian's till 1985.
  12. Swieqi formed part of St Julian's till 1985.
  13. Xgħajra formed part of Ħaż‐Żabbar till 1985.
  14. Iklin formed part of Ħal Lija, Birkirkara, Naxxar and San Ġwann till 1985.
  15. Mtarfa formed part of Rabat till 1995.
  16. The boundaries of some localities were changed between 1995 and 2005.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Census in Malta". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. 
  2. ^ The Arabs in Malta / G. Wettinger. In: Malta: Studies of its Heritage and History / ed. Mid-Med Bank (Malta, 1986), pp. 87-104. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2005. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
  3. ^ Ibn Hauqal and Tenth-century Malta / A. Luttrell. In: Hyphen: A Journal of Melitensia and the Humanities. / (Malta 1987), pp 157–160 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "AccountSupport". www.aboutmalta.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. 
  5. ^ "Census 2011 Preliminary Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2014. 
  6. ^ "Libyans". Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  7. ^ "Filipinos, Serbs". Archived from the original on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 
  8. ^ "Libyans". Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  9. ^ "Filipinos, Serbs". Archived from the original on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Jones, Huw R. (1973). "Modern emigration from Malta". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 60: 101–119. JSTOR 621508. 
  11. ^ Attard, Lawrence E. (1989). The Great Exodus (1918–1939). Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group. Archived from the original on 6 April 2011. 
  12. ^ King, Russell (1979). "The Maltese migration cycle: An archival survey". Area. 11 (3): 245–249. JSTOR 20001477. 
  13. ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  14. ^ Ltd, Allied Newspapers. "Genetic origin of contemporary Maltese". 
  15. ^ "Malta guards Europe's gates against African immigrants". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  16. ^ "Maltese Anger Mounts Over Rising Illegal Immigration". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  17. ^ "Malta: Migrant Detention Violates Rights". 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. 
  18. ^ "Malta faces problems with children of illegal immigrants". Times of Malta. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Rescued migrants refusing to be brought to Malta". Times of Malta. 26 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  20. ^ "1948 Demographic Yearbook" (PDF). United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 November 2016. 
  21. ^ "National Statistics Office Malta". Archived from the original on 11 May 2009. 
  22. ^ Census of population and housing 2011, Final Report, p.3
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