Demographics of India

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Demographics of India
India population density map en.svg
Map showing the population density of each district in India.
Population 1,324,171,354 (2016 est.)[1]
Density 382 people per.sq.km (2011 est.)
Growth rate Increase 1.19% (2016) (96th)
Birth rate 19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Life expectancy 68.89 years (2009 est.)
 • male 67.46 years (2009 est.)
 • female 72.61 years (2009 est.)
Fertility rate 2.2 children born/woman (2016 est.)[2]
Infant mortality rate 41 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)[3]
Age structure
0–14 years 28.6% (male 190,075,426/female 172,799,553) [2]
15–64 years 63.6% (male 381,446,079/female 359,802,209) (2009 est.)
65 and over 5.3% (male 29,364,920/female 32,591,030) (2009 est.)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.10 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Under 15 1.10 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
15–64 years 1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
65 and over 0.90 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Nationality
Major ethnic See Ethnic Groups of India
Language
Official See Languages of India

India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[1], the population stood at 1,324,171,354.

During 1975–2010 the population doubled to 1.2 billion. The Indian population reached the billion mark in 1998. India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2022,[4] surpassing the population of China. It is expected to become the first political entity in history to be home to more than 1.5 billion people by 2030, and its population is set to reach 1.7 billion by 2050.[5][6] Its population growth rate is 1.2%, ranking 94th in the world in 2013.[7]

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.[8]

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups,[9] and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language[10] spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.[11]

The sex ratio is 944 females for 1000 males (2016).[12]

History

Prehistory to early 19th century

The following table lists estimates for the population of India (including what are now Pakistan and Bangladesh) from prehistory up until 1820. It includes estimates and growth rates according to five different economic historians, along with interpolated estimates and overall aggregate averages derived from their estimates.

Year Maddison (2001)[13] Clark (1967)[14][15][16] Biraben (1979)[15][17][18] Durand (1974)[19][15] McEvedy (1978)[20][15] Aggregate average Period Average
 % growth
/ century
Population % growth
/ century
Population  % growth
/ century
Population  % growth
/ century
Population  % growth
/ century
Population  % growth
/ century
Population  % growth
/ century
10,000 BC 100,000 100,000 Stone Age 3.9
4000 BC 1,000,000 3.9 1,000,000 3.9
2000 BC 6,000,000 9.4 6,000,000 9.4 Bronze Age 9.4
500 BC 25,000,000 10 25,000,000 10 Iron Age 10.2
400 BC 30,000,000 26,600,000 6.3 28,300,000 13.2
200 BC 55,000,000 35.4 30,000,000 6.3 42,500,000 22.5 Maurya era 22.5
1 AD 75,000,000 70,000,000 46,000,000 –9.3 75,000,000 34,000,000 6.5 60,000,000 18.8 Classical
era
5.3
200 75,000,000 0 72,500,000 1.7 45,000,000 –1.1 75,000,000 0 39,000,000 7.1 61,300,000 1.1
400 75,000,000 0 75,000,000 1.7 32,000,000 –18.6 75,000,000 0 45,000,000 7.4 60,400,000 –0.7
500 75,000,000 0 75,000,000 0 33,000,000 3.1 75,000,000 0 48,000,000 6.5 61,200,000 1.3
600 75,000,000 0 75,000,000 0 37,000,000 12.1 75,000,000 0 51,000,000 6.5 62,600,000 2.3 Early
medieval
era
1.9
700 75,000,000 0 75,000,000 0 50,000,000 35.1 75,000,000 0 56,500,000 10.3 66,300,000 5.9
800 75,000,000 0 75,000,000 0 43,000,000 –16.3 75,000,000 0 62,000,000 10.3 66,000,000 –0.5
900 75,000,000 0 72,500,000 –3.5 38,000,000 –13.2 75,000,000 0 69,500,000 11.4 66,000,000 0
1000 75,000,000 0 70,000,000 –3.5 40,000,000 5.3 75,000,000 0 77,000,000 11.4 67,400,000 2.1
1100 81,000,000 8 72,500,000 3.5 51,000,000 27.5 81,300,000 8.4 80,000,000 3.9 73,200,000 8.6 Late
medieval
era
8.1
1200 87,500,000 8 75,000,000 3.5 65,100,000 27.5 88,200,000 8.4 83,000,000 3.8 79,800,000 9
1300 94,500,000 8 75,000,000 0 83,000,000 27.5 95,700,000 8.4 88,000,000 6 87,200,000 9.3
1400 102,000,000 8 77,000,000 3.3 88,800,000 7 103,700,000 8.4 94,000,000 6.8 92,900,000 7
1500 110,000,000 8 79,000,000 3.3 95,000,000 7 112,500,000 8.4 100,000,000 6.4 99,300,000 7
1600 135,000,000 22.8 100,000,000 26.6 145,000,000 52.6 135,800,000 20.7 130,000,000 30 129,200,000 30.1 Mughal era 31.9
1650 150,000,000 22.2 150,000,000 125 160,000,000 20.7 149,100,000 20.7 145,000,000 24.4 150,800,000 36.2
1700 165,000,000 22.2 200,000,000 77.8 175,000,000 20.7 163,900,000 20.7 160,000,000 21.8 172,800,000 31.3
1750 182,100,000 21.8 200,000,000 0 182,700,000 9 180,000,000 20.7 170,000,000 12.9 183,000,000 12.1 Colonial
era
12.2
1800 200,900,000 21.8 190,000,000 –10.8 190,700,000 9 185,000,000 18.4 190,400,000 8
1820 209,000,000 21.8 190,000,000 0 194,000,000 9 200,000,000 47.7 198,300,000 22

The population grew from the South Asian Stone Age in 10,000 BC to the Maurya Empire in 200 BC at a steadily increasing growth rate,[21] before population growth slowed down in the classical era up to 500 AD, and then became largely stagnant during the early medieval era era up to 1000 AD.[13][15] The population growth rate then increased in the late medieval era (during the Delhi Sultanate) from 1000 to 1500.[13][15]

India's population growth rate under the Mughal Empire (16th–18th centuries) was higher than during any previous period in Indian history.[21][22][15] Under the Mughal Empire, India experienced an unprecedented economic and demographic upsurge,[21] due to Mughal agrarian reforms that intensified agricultural production,[23] proto-industrialization[24] that established India as the most important center of manufacturing in international trade,[25] and a relatively high degree of urbanization for its time;[26] 15% of the population lived in urban centres, higher than the percentage of the population in 19th-century British India[26] and contemporary Europe[26] up until the 19th century.[27]

Under the reign of Akbar the Great (reigned 1556–1605) in 1600, the Mughal Empire's urban population was up to 17 million people, larger than the urban population in Europe.[28] By 1700, Mughal India had an urban population of 23 million people, larger than British India's urban population of 22.3 million in 1871.[29] Nizamuddin Ahmad (1551–1621) reported that, under Akbar's reign, Mughal India had 120 large cities and 3,200 townships.[26] A number of cities in India had a population between a quarter-million and half-million people,[26] with larger cities including Agra (in Agra Subah) with up to 800,000 people[30] and Dhaka (in Bengal Subah) with over 1 million people.[31] Mughal India also had a large number of villages, with 455,698 villages by the time of Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1707).[28]

Late 19th century to early 20th century

The population of India under the British Raj (including what are now Pakistan and Bangladesh) according to censuses:

Census year Population Growth (%)
1871[32] 238,830,958
1881[33] 253,896,330 6.3
1891[32] 287,223,431 13.1
1901[32] 293,550,310 2.2
1911[34] 315,156,396 7.4
1921[34] 318,942,480 1.2
1931[34] 352,837,778 10.6
1941[34] 388,997,955 10.2

Studies of India's population since 1881 have focused on such topics as total population, birth and death rates, growth rates, geographic distribution, literacy, the rural and urban divide, cities of a million, and the three cities with populations over eight million: Delhi, Greater Mumbai (Bombay), and Kolkata (Calcutta).[35]

Mortality rates fell in the period 1920–45, primarily due to biological immunisation. Other factors included rising incomes, better living conditions, improved nutrition, a safer and cleaner environment, and better official health policies and medical care.[36]

Salient features

Crude birth rate trends in India
(per 1000 people, national average)[37][38][39]
Infant mortality rate trends in India
(per 1000 births, under age 1, national average)

India occupies 2.41% of the world's land area but supports over 18% of the world's population. At the 2001 census 72.2% of the population[40] lived in about 638,000 villages[41] and the remaining 27.8%[40] lived in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.[42]

India's population exceeded that of the entire continent of Africa by 200 million people in 2010.[43] However, because Africa's population growth is nearly double that of India, it is expected to surpass both China and India by 2025.

Comparative demographics

Comparative demographics
Category Global Ranking References
Area 7th [44]
Population 2nd [44]
Population growth rate 102nd of 212 in 2010[45]
Population density 24th of 212 in 2010[45]
Male to Female ratio, at birth 12th of 214 in 2009[46]

List of states and union territories by demographics

Population growth of India per decade[47]
Census Year Population Change (%)
1951 361,088,000
1961 439,235,000 21.6
1971 548,160,000 24.8
1981 683,329,000 24.7
1991 846,387,888 23.9
2001 1,028,737,436 21.5
2011 1,210,726,932 17.7
Population distribution by states/union territories (2011)
Rank State/UT Population[48] Percent (%) Male Female Sex Ratio Rural[49] Urban[49] Area[50] (km2) Density (per km2)
1 Uttar Pradesh 199,812,341 16.50 104,480,510 95,331,831 930 155,111,022 44,470,455 240,928 828
2 Maharashtra 112,374,333 9.28 58,243,056 54,131,277 929 61,545,441 50,827,531 307,713 365
3 Bihar 104,099,452 8.60 54,278,157 49,821,295 918 92,075,028 11,729,609 94,163 1,102
4 West Bengal 91,276,115 7.54 46,809,027 44,467,088 950 62,213,676 29,134,060 88,752 1,030
5 Madhya Pradesh 72,626,809 6.00 37,612,306 35,014,503 931 52,537,899 20,059,666 308,245 236
6 Tamil Nadu 72,147,030 5.96 36,137,975 36,009,055 996 37,189,229 34,949,729 130,058 555
7 Rajasthan 68,548,437 5.66 35,550,997 32,997,440 928 51,540,236 17,080,776 342,239 201
8 Karnataka 61,095,297 5.05 30,966,657 30,128,640 973 37,552,529 23,578,175 191,791 319
9 Gujarat 60,439,692 4.99 31,491,260 28,948,432 919 34,670,817 25,712,811 196,024 308
10 Andhra Pradesh 49,386,799 4.08 24,738,068 24,648,731 996 34,776,389 14,610,410 160,205 308
11 Odisha 41,974,218 3.47 21,212,136 20,762,082 979 34,951,234 6,996,124 155,707 269
12 Telangana 35,193,978 2.91 17,704,078 17,489,900 988 21,585,313 13,608,665 114,840 307
13 Kerala 33,406,061 2.76 16,027,412 17,378,649 1084 17,445,506 15,932,171 38,863 859
14 Jharkhand 32,988,134 2.72 16,930,315 16,057,819 948 25,036,946 7,929,292 79,714 414
15 Assam 31,205,576 2.58 15,939,443 15,266,133 958 26,780,526 4,388,756 78,438 397
16 Punjab 27,743,338 2.29 14,639,465 13,103,873 895 17,316,800 10,387,436 50,362 550
17 Chhattisgarh 25,545,198 2.11 12,832,895 12,712,303 991 19,603,658 5,936,538 135,191 189
18 Haryana 25,351,462 2.09 13,494,734 11,856,728 879 16,531,493 8,821,588 44,212 573
19 Delhi (UT) 16,787,941 1.39 8,887,326 7,800,615 868 944,727 12,905,780 1,484 11,297
20 Jammu and Kashmir 12,541,302 1.04 6,640,662 5,900,640 889 9,134,820 3,414,106 222,236 56
21 Uttarakhand 10,086,292 0.83 5,137,773 4,948,519 963 7,025,583 3,091,169 53,483 189
22 Himachal Pradesh 6,864,602 0.57 3,481,873 3,382,729 972 6,167,805 688,704 55,673 123
23 Tripura 3,673,917 0.30 1,874,376 1,799,541 960 2,710,051 960,981 10,486 350
24 Meghalaya 2,966,889 0.25 1,491,832 1,475,057 989 2,368,971 595,036 22,429 132
25 Manipur 2,855,794 0.24 1,438,687 1,417,107 985 1,899,624 822,132 22,327 128
26 Nagaland 1,978,502 0.16 1,024,649 953,853 931 1,406,861 573,741 16,579 119
27 Goa 1,458,545 0.12 739,140 719,405 973 551,414 906,309 3,702 394
28 Arunachal Pradesh 1,383,727 0.11 713,912 669,815 938 1,069,165 313,446 83,743 17
29 Puducherry (UT) 1,247,953 0.10 612,511 635,442 1037 394,341 850,123 479 2,598
30 Mizoram 1,097,206 0.09 555,339 541,867 976 529,037 561,997 21,081 52
31 Chandigarh (UT) 1,055,450 0.09 580,663 474,787 818 29,004 1,025,682 114 9,252
32 Sikkim 610,577 0.05 323,070 287,507 890 455,962 151,726 7,096 86
33 Andaman and Nicobar Islands (UT) 380,581 0.03 202,871 177,710 876 244,411 135,533 8,249 46
34 Dadra and Nagar Haveli (UT) 343,709 0.03 193,760 149,949 774 183,024 159,829 491 698
35 Daman and Diu (UT) 243,247 0.02 150,301 92,946 618 60,331 182,580 112 2,169
36 Lakshadweep (UT) 64,473 0.01 33,123 31,350 946 14,121 50,308 32 2,013
Total (India) 1,210,854,977 100 623,724,248 586,469,174 943 833,087,662 377,105,760 3,287,240 382

Religious demographics

The table below summarises India's demographics (excluding the Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results) according to religion at the 2011 census in per cent. The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); the 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and the 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir.

Religions of India (Census 2011)[51]
Religion Population Percent (%)
All 1,210,854,977 100.00
Hindus 966,378,868 79.80
Muslims 172,245,158 14.23
Christians 27,819,588 2.30
Sikhs 20,833,116 1.72
Buddhists 8,442,972 0.70
Jains 4,451,753 0.37
Others 7,937,734 0.66
Not stated 2,867,303 0.24

[52]

Religious
group
Population (2011)
%
Growth
(2001-2011)[53][54]
Sex ratio (2011)
(total)[55]
Sex ratio (2011)
(rural
Sex ratio (2011)
(urban)
Sex ratio (2011)
(child))[56]
Literacy (2011)
(%)[57]
Work participation (2011)
(%)[55][58]
Hinduism 79.80% 16.8% 939 946 921 913 73.3% 41.0%
Islam 14.23% 24.6% 951 957 941 943 68.5% 32.6%
Christianity 2.30% 15.5% 1023 1008 1046 958 84.5% 41.9%
Sikhism 1.72% 8.4% 903 905 898 828 75.4% 36.3%
Buddhism 0.70% 6.1% 965 960 973 933 81.3% 43.1%
Jainism 0.37% 5.4% 954 935 959 889 94.9% 35.5%
Others/Religion not specified 0.90% n/a 959 947 975 974 n/a n/a
Population composition trend by religion (1951–2011)[59][60][61][62]
Religion 1951 (%) 1961 (%) 1971 (%) 1981 (%) 1991 (%) 2001 (%) 2011 (%)[52]
Hinduism 84.10 83.45 82.73 82.30 81.53 80.46 79.80
Islam 9.80 10.69 11.21 11.75 12.61 13.43 14.23
Christianity 2.30 2.44 2.60 2.44 2.32 2.34 2.30
Sikhism 1.79 1.79 1.89 1.92 1.94 1.87 1.72
Buddhism 0.74 0.74 0.70 0.70 0.77 0.77 0.70
Jainism 0.46 0.46 0.48 0.47 0.40 0.41 0.37
Zoroastrianism 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.06 NA
Others 0.43 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.44 0.72 0.90

Neonatal and infant demographics

Male to female sex ratio for India, based on its official census data, from 1941 through 2011.[63] The data suggests the existence of high sex ratios before and after the arrival of ultrasound-based prenatal care and sex screening technologies in India.

The table below represents the infant mortality rate trends in India, based on sex, over the last 15 years. In the urban areas of India, average male infant mortality rates are slightly higher than average female infant mortality rates.[64]

Infant mortality rate trend (deaths per 1000)
Year Male Female
1998[65] 70 74
2005[64] 56 58
2009[66] 49 52

Some activists believe India's 2011 census shows a serious decline in the number of girls under the age of seven – activists fear eight million female fetuses may have been aborted between 2001 and 2011.[67] These claims are controversial. Scientists who study human sex ratios and demographic trends suggest that birth sex ratio between 1.08 and 1.12 can be because of natural factors, such as the age of mother at baby's birth, age of father at baby's birth, number of babies per couple, economic stress, endocrinological factors, etc.[68] The 2011 census birth sex ratio in India, of 917 girls to 1000 boys, is similar to 870–930 girls to 1000 boys birth sex ratios observed in Japanese, Chinese, Cuban, Filipino and Hawaiian ethnic groups in the United States between 1940 and 2005. They are also similar to birth sex ratios below 900 girls to 1000 boys observed in mothers of different age groups and gestation periods in the United States.[69][70]

Population within the age group of 0–6

Population between age 0–6 by state/union territory[71]
State/UT Code State/UT Total Male Female
1 Jammu and Kashmir 2,008,670 1,080,662 927,982
2 Himachal Pradesh 763,864 400,681 363,183
3 Punjab 2,941,570 1,593,262 1,348,308
4 Chandigarh 117,953 63,187 54,766
5 Uttarakhand 1,328,844 704,769 624,075
6 Haryana 3,297,724 1,802,047 1,495,677
7 Delhi 1,970,510 1,055,735 914,775
8 Rajasthan 10,504,916 5,580,212 4,924,004
9 Uttar Pradesh 29,728,235 15,653,175 14,075,060
10 Bihar 18,582,229 9,615,280 8,966,949
11 Sikkim 61,077 31,418 29,659
12 Arunachal Pradesh 202,759 103,430 99,330
13 Nagaland 285,981 147,111 138,870
14 Manipur 353,237 182,684 170,553
15 Mizoram 165,536 83,965 81,571
16 Tripura 444,055 227,354 216,701
17 Meghalaya 555,822 282,189 273,633
18 Assam 4,511,307 2,305,088 2,206,219
19 West Bengal 10,112,599 5,187,264 4,925,335
20 Jharkhand 5,237,582 2,695,921 2,541,661
21 Odisha 5,035,650 2,603,208 2,432,442
22 Chhattisgarh 3,584,028 1,824,987 1,759,041
23 Madhya Pradesh 10,548,295 5,516,957 5,031,338
24 Gujarat 7,564,464 3,974,286 3,519,890
25 Daman and Diu 25,880 13,556 12,314
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 49,196 25,575 23,621
27 Maharashtra 12,848,375 6,822,262 6,026,113
28 Andhra Pradesh 8,642,686 4,448,330 4,194,356
29 Karnataka 6,855,801 3,527,844 3,327,957
30 Goa 139,495 72,669 66,826
31 Lakshadweep 7,088 3,715 3,373
32 Kerala 3,322,247 1,695,889 1,626,358
33 Tamil Nadu 6,894,821 3,542,351 3,352,470
34 Puducherry 127,610 64,932 62,678
35 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 39,497 20,094 19,403
Total (India) 158,789,287 82,952,135 75,837,152

Population above the age of 7

Life expectancy map of India, 2011–2016.[72]
Population above the age of 7 by state/union territory[71]
State/UT Code State/UT Total Male Female
1 Jammu and Kashmir
2 Himachal Pradesh
3 Punjab
4 Chandigarh
5 Uttarakhand
6 Haryana 22,055,357 11,703,083 10,352,274
7 Delhi 14,782,725 7,920,675 6,862,050
8 Rajasthan 58,116,096 30,039,874 28,076,222
9 Uttar Pradesh 169,853,242 88,943,240 80,910,002
10 Bihar 85,222,408 44,570,067 40,652,341
11 Sikkim 546,611 290,243 256,368
12 Arunachal Pradesh 1,179,852 616,802 563,050
13 Nagaland 1,694,621 878,596 816,025
14 Manipur 2,368,519 1,187,080 1,181,439
15 Mizoram 925,478 468,374 457,104
16 Tripura 3,226,977 1,644,513 1,582,464
17 Meghalaya 2,408,185 1,210,479 1,197,706
18 Assam 26,657,965 13,649,839 13,008,126
19 West Bengal 81,235,137 41,740,125 39,495,012
20 Jharkhand 27,728,656 14,235,767 13,492,889
21 Odisha 36,911,708 18,598,470 18,313,238
22 Chhattisgarh 21,956,168 11,002,928 10,953,240
23 Madhya Pradesh 62,049,270 32,095,963 29,953,307
24 Gujarat 52,889,452 27,507,996 25,381,456
25 Daman and Diu 217,031 136,544 80,487
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 293,657 167,603 126,054
27 Maharashtra 99,524,597 51,539,135 47,985,462
28 Andhra Pradesh 76,022,847 38,061,551 37,961,296
29 Karnataka 54,274,903 27,529,898 26,745,005
30 Goa 1,318,228 668,042 650,186
31 Lakshadweep 57,341 29,391 27,950
32 Kerala
33 Tamil Nadu 65,244,137 32,616,520 32,627,617
34 Puducherry 1,116,854 545,553 571,301
35 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 340,447 182,236 158,211
Total (India) 1,051,404,135 540,772,113 510,632,022

Literacy rate

Literacy rate map of India, 2011.[73]

[citation needed]

Literacy rate by state/union territory[71]
State/UT Code State/UT Overall (%) Male (%) Female (%)
1 Jammu and Kashmir 86.61 87.26 86.23
2 Himachal Pradesh 83.78 90.83 76.60
3 Punjab 76.60 81.48 71.34
4 Chandigarh 86.43 90.54 81.38
5 Uttarakhand 79.63 88.33 70.70
6 Haryana 76.64 85.38 66.77
7 Delhi 86.34 91.03 80.93
8 Rajasthan 67.06 80.51 52.66
9 Uttar Pradesh 69.72 79.24 59.26
10 Bihar 63.82 73.39 53.33
11 Sikkim 82.20 87.29 76.43
12 Arunachal Pradesh 66.95 73.69 59.57
13 Nagaland 80.11 83.29 76.69
14 Manipur 79.85 86.49 73.17
15 Mizoram 91.58 93.72 89.40
16 Tripura 87.75 92.18 83.15
17 Meghalaya 75.48 77.17 73.78
18 Assam 73.18 78.81 67.27
19 West Bengal 77.08 82.67 71.16
20 Jharkhand 67.63 78.45 56.21
21 Odisha 72.90 82.40 64.36
22 Chhattisgarh 71.04 81.45 60.59
23 Madhya Pradesh 70.63 80.53 60.02
24 Gujarat 79.31 87.23 70.73
25 Daman and Diu 87.07 91.48 79.59
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 77.65 86.46 65.93
27 Maharashtra 83.20 89.82 75.48
28 Andhra Pradesh 67.66 75.56 59.74
29 Karnataka 75.60 82.85 68.13
30 Goa 87.40 92.81 81.84
31 Lakshadweep 92.28 96.11 88.25
32 Kerala 93.91 96.02 91.98
33 Tamil Nadu 80.33 86.81 73.86
34 Puducherry 86.55 92.12 81.22
35 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 86.27 90.11 81.84
Overall (India) 74.03 82.14 65.46

Linguistic demographics

41.03% of the Indians speak Hindi while the rest speak Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Maithili, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and a variety of other languages. There are a total of 122 languages and 234 mother tongues. The 22 languages are Languages specified in the Eighth Schedule of Indian Constitution and 100 non-specified languages.

The table immediately below excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results.

Languages of India by number of native speakers at the 2001 census[74]
Rank Language Speakers Percentage (%)
1 Hindi[75] 422,048,642 41.030
2 Bengali 83,369,769 8.110
3 Telugu 74,002,856 7.190
4 Marathi 71,936,894 6.990
5 Tamil 60,793,814 5.910
6 Urdu 51,536,111 5.010
7 Gujarati 46,091,617 4.480
8 Kannada 37,924,011 3.690
9 Malayalam 33,066,392 3.210
10 Odia 33,017,446 3.210
11 Punjabi 29,102,477 2.830
12 Assamese 13,168,484 1.280
13 Maithili 12,179,122 1.180
14 Bhili/Bhilodi 9,582,957 0.930
15 Santali 6,469,600 0.630
16 Kashmiri 5,527,698 0.540
17 Nepali 2,871,749 0.280
18 Gondi 2,713,790 0.260
19 Sindhi 2,535,485 0.250
20 Konkani 2,489,015 0.240
21 Dogri 2,282,589 0.220
22 Khandeshi 2,075,258 0.200
23 Kurukh 1,751,489 0.170
24 Tulu 1,722,768 0.170
25 Meitei (Manipuri) 1,466,705 0.140
26 Bodo 1,350,478 0.130
27 Khasi – Garo 1,128,575 0.112
28 Mundari 1,061,352 0.105
29 Ho 1,042,724 0.103

Largest cities


Vital statistics

UN estimates

United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2015 revision – India[77]
Period Births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 16,832,000 9,928,000 6,904,000 43.3 25.5 17.7 5.90 165.0
1955–1960 17,981,000 9,686,000 8,295,000 42.1 22.7 19.4 5.90 153.1
1960–1965 19,086,000 9,358,000 9,728,000 40.4 19.8 20.6 5.82 140.1
1965–1970 20,611,000 9,057,000 11,554,000 39.2 17.2 22.0 5.69 128.5
1970–1975 22,022,000 8,821,000 13,201,000 37.5 15.0 22.5 5.26 118.0
1975–1980 24,003,000 8,584,000 15,419,000 36.3 13.0 23.3 4.89 106.4
1980–1985 25,577,000 8,763,000 16,814,000 34.5 11.8 22.7 4.47 95.0
1985–1990 26,935,000 9,073,000 17,862,000 32.5 10.9 21.5 4.11 85.1
1990–1995 27,566,000 9,400,000 18,166,000 30.0 10.2 19.8 3.72 76.4
1995–2000 27,443,000 9,458,000 17,985,000 27.2 9.4 17.8 3.31 68.9
2000–2005 27,158,000 9,545,000 17,614,000 25.3 8.4 16.9 3.14 60.7
2005–2010 27,271,000 9,757,000 17,514,000 22.9 7.9 15.0 2.80 52.9
2010–2015 20.4 7.4 14.0 2.48
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Census of India: sample registration system

Total fertility rate map: average births per woman by states and union territories, 2012[78]
Total fertility rate map: average births per woman by districts, 2011
Census of India: sample registration system[79][80][81]
Year Average population
(x 1000)
Live births1 Deaths1 Natural change Crude birth rate
(per 1000)
Crude death rate
(per 1000)
Natural change
(per 1000)
Total fertility rate
1981 716,493 24,289,000 8,956,000 15,333,000 33.9 12.5 21.4
1982 733,152 24,781,000 8,725,000 16,056,000 33.8 11.9 21.9
1983 750,034 25,276,000 8,925,000 16,351,000 33.7 11.9 21.8
1984 767,147 26,006,000 9,666,000 16,340,000 33.9 12.6 21.3
1985 784,491 25,810,000 9,257,000 16,553,000 32.9 11.8 21.1
1986 802,052 26,147,000 8,903,000 17,244,000 32.6 11.1 21.5
1987 819,800 26,316,000 8,936,000 17,380,000 32.1 10.9 21.2
1988 837,700 26,388,000 9,215,000 17,173,000 31.5 11.0 20.5
1989 855,707 26,185,000 8,814,000 17,371,000 30.6 10.3 20.3
1990 873,785 26,388,000 8,476,000 17,912,000 30.2 9.7 20.5 3.80
1991 891,910 26,133,000 8,741,000 17,392,000 29.3 9.8 19.5
1992 910,065 26,392,000 9,192,000 17,200,000 29.0 10.1 18.9
1993 928,226 26,640,000 8,633,000 18,007,000 28.7 9.3 19.4
1994 946,373 27,161,000 8,801,000 18,360,000 28.7 9.3 19.4
1995 964,486 27,295,000 8,680,000 18,615,000 28.3 9.0 19.3 3.50
1996 982,553 26,824,000 8,745,000 18,079,000 27.3 8.9 18.4
1997 1,000,558 27,215,000 8,905,000 18,310,000 27.2 8.9 18.3
1998 1,018,471 26,989,000 9,166,000 17,823,000 26.5 9.0 17.5
1999 1,036,259 26,943,000 9,015,000 17,928,000 26.0 8.7 17.3
2000 1,053,898 27,191,000 8,958,000 18,233,000 25.8 8.5 17.3 3.20
2001 1,071,374 27,213,000 9,000,000 18,213,000 25.4 8.4 17.0
2002 1,088,694 27,217,000 8,818,000 18,399,000 25.0 8.1 16.9
2003 1,105,886 27,426,000 8,847,000 18,579,000 24.8 8.0 16.8
2004 1,122,991 27,064,000 8,422,000 18,642,000 24.1 7.5 16.6
2005 1,140,043 27,133,000 8,664,000 18,469,000 23.8 7.6 16.2 2.90
2006 1,157,039 27,190,000 8,678,000 18,512,000 23.5 7.5 16.0
2007 1,134,024 26,195,954 8,391,778 17,804,176 23.1 7.4 15.7
2008 1,150,196 26,224,469 8,511,450 17,713,019 22.8 7.4 15.4 2.60
2009 1,166,228 26,240,130 8,513,464 17,726,666 22.5 7.3 15.2 2.60
2010 1,182,108 26,124,587 8,511,178 17,613,409 22.1 7.2 14.9 2.50
2011 1,197,658 26,108,944 8,503,372 17,605,572 21.8 7.1 14.7 2.44
2012 1,212,827 26,197,063 8,489,789 17,707,274 21.6 7.0 14.6 2.40
2013 1,227,012 26,258,057 8,589,084 17,668,973 21.4 7.0 14.4 2.30
2014 1,233,542 25,904,377 8,264,730 17,639,647 21.0 6.7 14.3 2.30
2015 1,259,108 26,189,446 8,184,202 18,005,244 20.8 6.5 14.3
1 The numbers of births and deaths were calculated from the birth and death rates and the average population.

Structure of the population

Structure of the population (09.02.2011) (Census) (Includes data for the Indian-held part of Jammu and Kashmir, the final status of which has not yet been determined):[82]

Population by age group
Age group Male Female Total Percentage (%)
0–4 58,632,074 54,174,704 112,806,778 9.32
5–9 66,300,466 60,627,660 126,928,126 10.48
10–14 69,418,835 63,290,377 132,709,212 10.96
15–19 63,982,396 56,544,053 120,526,449 9.95
20–24 57,584,693 53,839,529 111,424,222 9.20
25–29 51,344,208 50,069,757 101,413,965 8.38
30–34 44,660,674 43,934,277 88,594,951 7.32
35–39 42,919,381 42,221,303 85,140,684 7.03
40–44 37,545,386 34,892,726 72,438,112 5.98
45–49 32,138,114 30,180,213 62,318,327 5.15
50–54 25,843,266 23,225,988 49,069,254 4.05
55–59 19,456,012 19,690,043 39,146,055 3.23
60–64 18,701,749 18,961,958 37,663,707 3.11
65–69 12,944,326 13,510,657 26,454,983 2.18
70–74 9,651,499 9,557,343 19,208,842 1.59
75–79 4,490,603 4,741,900 9,232,503 0.76
80–84 2,927,040 3,293,189 6,220,229 0.51
85–89 1,120,106 1,263,061 2,383,167 0.20
90–94 652,465 794,069 1,446,534 0.12
95–99 294,759 338,538 633,297 0.05
100+ 289,325 316,453 605,778 0.05
Unknown 2,372,881 2,116,921 4,489,802 0.37
Total 623,270,258 587,584,719 1,210,854,977 100.00

Fertility rate

From the Demographic Health Survey:[83]

Crude Birth Rate and Total Fertility Rate (Wanted Fertility Rate)
Year CBR – Total TFR – Total1 CBR – Urban TFR – Urban1 CBR – Rural TFR – Rural1
1992–1993 28.7 3.39 (2.64) 24.1 2.70 (2.09) 30.4 3.67 (2.86)
1998–1999 24.8 2.85 (2.13) 20.9 2.27 (1.73) 26.2 3.07 (2.28)
2005–2006 23.1 2.68 (1.90) 18.8 2.06 (1.60) 25.0 2.98 (2.10)
2015–2016 2.2 1.8 2.4
CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman). 1Number in parenthesis represents the wanted fertility rate.

Regional vital statistics

Birth Rate, Death Rate, Natural Growth Rate, and Infant Mortality Rate, by state/UT (2010) [84]
State/UT Birth Rate Death Rate Natural Growth Rate Infant Mortality Rate
Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 15.6 15.5 15.8 4.3 4.8 3.3 11.3 10.7 12.6 25 29 18
Andhra Pradesh 17.9 18.3 16.7 7.6 8.6 5.4 10.2 9.7 11.3 46 51 33
Arunachal Pradesh 20.5 22.1 14.6 5.9 6.9 2.3 14.6 15.2 12.3 31 34 12
Assam 23.2 24.4 15.8 8.2 8.6 5.8 14.9 15.8 10.1 58 60 36
Bihar 28.1 28.8 22.0 6.8 7.0 5.6 21.3 21.8 16.4 48 49 38
Chandigarh 15.6 21.6 15.0 3.9 3.7 3.9 11.6 17.9 11.0 22 20 23
Chhattisgarh 25.3 26.8 18.6 8.0 8.4 6.2 17.3 18.4 12.4 51 52 44
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 26.6 26.0 28.6 4.7 5.1 3.3 21.9 20.9 25.3 38 43 22
Daman and Diu 18.8 19.1 18.3 4.9 4.9 4.8 13.9 14.2 13.6 23 19 29
Delhi 17.8 19.7 17.5 4.2 4.6 4.1 13.6 15.0 13.4 30 37 29
Goa 13.2 12.6 13.7 6.6 8.1 5.7 6.6 4.5 8.0 10 10 10
Gujarat 21.8 23.3 19.4 6.7 7.5 5.5 15.1 15.8 14.0 44 51 30
Haryana 22.3 23.3 19.8 6.6 7.0 5.6 15.7 16.3 14.3 48 51 38
Himachal Pradesh 16.9 17.5 11.5 6.9 7.2 4.2 10.0 10.3 7.3 40 41 29
Jammu and Kashmir 18.3 19.5 13.5 5.7 5.9 4.7 12.6 13.6 8.8 43 45 32
Jharkhand 25.3 26.7 19.3 7.0 7.4 5.4 18.3 19.3 13.9 42 44 30
Karnataka 19.2 20.2 17.5 7.1 8.1 5.4 12.1 12.1 12.1 38 43 28
Kerala 14.8 14.8 14.8 7.0 7.1 6.7 7.8 7.7 8.1 13 14 10
Lakshadweep 14.3 15.5 13.2 6.4 6.1 6.7 8.0 9.5 6.5 25 23 27
Madhya Pradesh 27.3 29.2 20.5 8.3 9.0 6.0 18.9 20.2 14.5 62 67 42
Maharashtra 17.1 17.6 16.4 6.5 7.5 5.3 10.6 10.2 11.1 28 34 20
Manipur 14.9 14.8 15.3 4.2 4.3 4.0 10.7 10.5 11.3 14 15 9
Meghalaya 24.5 26.6 14.8 7.9 8.4 5.6 16.6 18.2 9.2 55 58 37
Mizoram 17.1 21.1 13.0 4.5 5.4 3.7 12.5 15.7 9.3 37 47 21
Nagaland 16.8 17.0 16.0 3.6 3.7 3.3 13.2 13.3 12.7 23 24 20
Odisha 20.5 21.4 15.2 8.6 9.0 6.6 11.9 12.4 8.6 61 63 43
Puducherry 16.7 16.7 16.7 7.4 8.2 7.0 9.3 8.5 9.6 22 25 21
Punjab 16.6 17.2 15.6 7.0 7.7 5.8 9.6 9.5 9.8 34 37 28
Rajasthan 26.7 27.9 22.9 6.7 6.9 6.0 20.0 20.9 16.9 55 61 31
Sikkim 17.8 18.1 16.1 5.6 5.9 3.8 12.3 12.3 12.3 30 31 19
Tamil Nadu 15.9 16.0 15.8 7.6 8.2 6.9 8.3 7.8 8.9 24 25 22
Tripura 14.9 15.6 11.5 5.0 4.8 5.7 9.9 10.8 5.8 27 29 19
Uttar Pradesh 28.3 29.2 24.2 8.1 8.5 6.3 20.2 20.7 17.9 61 64 44
Uttarakhand 19.3 20.2 16.2 6.3 6.7 5.1 13.0 13.5 11.1 38 41 25
West Bengal 16.8 18.6 11.9 6.0 6.0 6.3 10.7 12.6 5.6 31 32 25

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total population

1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est. CIA);[85] 1,210 million (2011 census)[86]

Map showing the population density in India, per 2011 Census.[87]
Rural population

72.2%; male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 census)

Age structure

0–14 years: 30.8%; male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
15–64 years: 64.3%; male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
65+ years: 4.9%; male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.)

Median age

25.1 years

Population growth rate

1.548% (2009 est.)

Literacy rate

74% (age 7 and above, in 2011)[73]
81.4% (total population, age 15–25, in 2006)[88]

Per cent of population below poverty line

22% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.8%

Net migration rate

−0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
Under 10 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
24–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total population: 68.3 years (source: UN Human Development Report, 2015)[89]

Total fertility rate

2.45 (2016 est.)[90][91]

The TFR (total number of children born per women) by religion in 2005-2006 was: Hindus, 2.7; Muslims, 3.1; Christians, 2.4; and Sikhs, 2.0.[92]

Religions

Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.8%, Buddhists 0.8%, Jains 0.4%, others 0.7%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)[93][94][95][96]

Scheduled castes and tribes

Scheduled castes: 16.6% (2011 census);[97][98] scheduled tribes: 8.6% (2011 census)

Languages

See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers. There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with some 337 million, and the second largest is Bengali with 238 million. 22 languages are recognised as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.[99][100]

Population projections

India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2030. India's population growth has raised concerns that it would lead to widespread unemployment and political instability.[101][102] Note that these projections make assumptions about future fertility and death rates which may not turn out to be correct in the event. Fertility rates also vary from region to region, with some higher than the national average and some lower.

Source:[103]

  • 2020: 1,326,093,000
  • 2030: 1,460,743,000
  • 2040: 1,571,715,000
  • 2050: 1,656,554,000

2020 estimate

In millions (example: 361 = 361,000,000)

Source:[104]

Year Under 15 15–64 65+ Total
2000 361 604 45 1010
2005 368 673 51 1093
2010 370 747 58 1175
2015 372 819 65 1256
2020 373 882 76 1332

Ethnic groups

The national Census of India does not recognise racial or ethnic groups within India,[105] but recognises many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India).

According to a 2009 study published by Reich et al., the modern Indian population is composed of two genetically divergent and heterogeneous populations which mixed in ancient times (about 1,200–3,500 BC), known as Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI). ASI corresponds to the Dravidian-speaking population of southern India, whereas ANI corresponds to the Indo-Aryan-speaking population of northern India.[106][107]

For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighbouring countries) see ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent.

Linguistic groups in India chart[108][109]

  Indo-Aryan (75%)
  Dravidian (20%)
  Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai and others (5%)

Genetics

Y-chromosome DNA

[110]

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Indian Y-chromosome pool may be summarised as follows where haplogroups R-M420, H, R2, L and NOP comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes.[111]

  • H ~ 30%
  • R1a ~ 34%
  • R2 ~ 15%
  • L ~ 10%
  • NOP ~ 10% (Excluding R)
  • Other Haplogroups 15%

Mitochondrial DNA

[112]

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage. The Indian mitochondrial DNA is primarily made up of Haplogroup M[113]

Autosomal DNA

Numerous genomic studies have been conducted in the last 15 years to seek insights into India's demographic and cultural diversity. These studies paint a complex and conflicting picture.

  • In a 2003 study, Basu, Majumder et al. have concluded on the basis of results obtained from mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal markers that "(1) there is an underlying unity of female lineages in India, indicating that the initial number of female settlers may have been small; (2) the tribal and the caste populations are highly differentiated; (3) the Austroasiatic tribals are the earliest settlers in India, providing support to one anthropological hypothesis while refuting some others; (4) a major wave of humans entered India through the northeast; (5) the Tibeto-Burman tribals share considerable genetic commonalities with the Austroasiatic tribals, supporting the hypothesis that they may have shared a common habitat in southern China, but the two groups of tribals can be differentiated on the basis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes; (6) the Dravidian speaking populations were possibly widespread throughout India but are regulated to South India now ; (7) formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations; (8) the upper castes show closer genetic affinities with Central Asian populations, although those of southern India are more distant than those of northern India; (9) historical gene flow into India has contributed to a considerable obliteration of genetic histories of contemporary populations so that there is at present no clear congruence of genetic and geographical or sociocultural affinities."[114]
  • In a later 2010 review article, Majumder affirms some of these conclusions, introduces and revises some other. The ongoing studies, concludes Majumder, suggest India has served as the major early corridor for geographical dispersal of modern humans from out-of-Africa. The archaeological and genetic traces of the earliest settlers in India has not provided any conclusive evidence. The tribal populations of India are older than the non-tribal populations. The autosomal differentiation and genetic diversity within India's caste populations at 0.04 is significantly lower than 0.14 for continental populations and 0.09 for 31 world population sets studied by Watkins et al., suggesting that while tribal populations were differentiated, the differentiation effects within India's caste population was less than previously thought. Majumder also concludes that recent studies suggest India has been a major contributor to the gene pool of southeast Asia.[115][116]
  • Another study covering a large sample of Indian populations allowed Watkins et al. to examine eight Indian caste groups and four endogamous south Indian tribal populations. The Indian castes data show low between-group differences, while the tribal Indian groups show relatively high between-group differentiation. This suggests that people between Indian castes were not reproductively isolated, while Indian tribal populations experienced reproductive isolation and drift. Furthermore, the genetic fixation index data shows historical genetic differentiation and segregation between Indian castes population is much smaller than those found in east Asia, Africa and other continental populations; while being similar to the genetic differentiation and segregation observed in European populations.[116]
  • In 2006, Sahoo et al. reported their analysis of genomic data on 936 Y-chromosomes representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from different regions of India. These scientists find that the haplogroup frequency distribution across the country, between different caste groups, was found to be predominantly driven by geographical, rather than cultural determinants. They conclude there is clear evidence for both large-scale immigration into ancient India of Sino-Tibetan speakers and language change of former Austroasiatic speakers, in the northeast Indian region.[117][118]
  • The genome studies conducted up until 2010 have been on relatively small population sets. Many are from just one southeastern state of Andhra Pradesh (including Telangana, which was part of the state until June 2014). Thus, any conclusions on demographic history of India must be interpreted with caution. A larger national genome study with demographic growth and sex ratio balances may offer further insights on the extent of genetic differentiation and segregation in India over the millenniums.[115]

See also

Government

[119]

Lists

Notes

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  17. ^ Sing C. Chew, J. David Knottnerus (2002). Structure, Culture, and History: Recent Issues in Social Theory. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 185. 
  18. ^ Guillaume Wunsch, Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin (2005). "Population in Time and Space". Demography: Analysis and Synthesis. Academic Press. p. 34. 
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  30. ^ Irfan Habib, Dharma Kumar, Tapan Raychaudhuri (1987). The Cambridge Economic History of India (PDF). 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. 
  31. ^ Social Science Review, Volume 14, Issue 1, page 126, Dhaka University
  32. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  33. ^ Census of the British empire: 1901. Great Britain Census Office. 1906. p. xviii. 
  34. ^ a b c d "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  35. ^ Khan J.H. (2004). "Population growth and demographic change in India". Asian Profile. 32 (5): 441–460. 
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Further reading

  • Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry (August 2017), Busting at the seams: India is unprepared for a near future when it will be the world’s most populous country . Joseph Chamie is former director of the United Nations Population Division and Barry Mirkin is former chief of the Population Policy Section of the United Nations Population Division.

External links

  • Census of India; government site with detailed data from 2001 census
  • Population of India as per Census India 2011
  • Census of India map generator; generates maps based on 2001 census figures
  • Demographic data for India; provides sources of demographic data for India
  • 2001 maps; provides maps of social, economic and demographic data of India in 2001
  • Population of India 2011 map; distribution of population amongst states and union territories
  • India's Demographic Outlook: Implications and Trends
  • United Nations "World Population Prospects": Country Profile – India
  • Aggregated demographic statistics from Indian and global data sources
  • Demographic statistics for India – online on Bluenomics
  • India comparing with China population projection graph Based on data from database of UN Population Division
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