Demographics of East Timor

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East Timor demographic change
East Timor's population (1861-2011).

This article is about the demographic features of the population of East Timor, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Vital statistics

UN estimates [1]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 21 000 15 000 5 000 46.5 34.3 12.2 6.44 264.4
1955-1960 22 000 15 000 7 000 46.0 30.9 15.1 6.35 241.6
1960-1965 24 000 15 000 9 000 45.9 28.0 17.8 6.37 220.7
1965-1970 25 000 15 000 11 000 44.2 25.2 19.0 6.16 201.1
1970-1975 25 000 14 000 11 000 40.0 22.2 17.8 5.54 183.3
1975-1980 21 000 18 000 3 000 33.0 28.2 4.9 4.31 253.4
1980-1985 27 000 14 000 14 000 44.0 22.0 22.0 5.39 183.5
1985-1990 30 000 14 000 16 000 42.1 19.3 22.7 5.21 161.0
1990-1995 35 000 13 000 23 000 44.5 15.9 28.6 5.69 129.0
1995-2000 39 000 11 000 28 000 46.1 12.9 33.2 7.01 100.6
2000-2005 37 000 9 000 28 000 40.4 10.0 30.4 6.96 78.9
2005-2010 42 000 9 000 33 000 39.4 8.7 30.7 6.53 66.8
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Fertility and Births

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[2]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2003 52.1 7.8 50.5 7.4
2009-2010 33.2 5.7 (5.1) 33.1 4.9 (4.2) 33.2 6.0 (5.4)
2016 26.8 4.2 (3.5) 28.4 3.5 (3.0) 26.2 4.6 (3.8)

Population pyramids[3]

Census (01/07/2010)

Census (01/07/2010) :

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 544 198 522 211 1 066 409 100
0-4 79 169 74 165 153 334 14.38
5-9 79 980 74 128 153 108 14.36
10-14 70 513 64 951 135 464 12.70
15-19 58 754 57 781 116 535 10.93
20-24 47 336 47 091 94 427 8.85
25-29 38 269 38 567 76 836 7.21
30-34 25 805 26 106 51 911 4.87
35-39 29 961 27 547 57 508 5.39
40-44 25 407 22 965 48 372 4.54
45-49 20 430 18 487 38 917 3.65
50-54 15 539 14 545 30 084 2.82
55-59 11 796 10 550 22 346 2.10
60-64 17 419 19 914 37 333 3.50
65-69 11 573 11 533 23 106 2.17
70-74 6 285 6 420 12 705 1.19
75-79 3 404 3 721 7 125 0.67
80-84 1 818 1 937 3 755 0.35
85+ 1 740 1 803 3 543 0.33
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 228 662 213 244 441 906 41.44
15-64 290 716 283 553 574 269 53.85
65+ 24 820 25 414 50 234 4.71

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook [4]

Population

1,242 (2017)

Birth rate

33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate

5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

2.36% (2017 est.)

Net migration rate

-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 68.4 years
male: 66.8 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.97 children born/woman (2017 est)

Nationality

noun: East Timorese
adjective: East Timorese

Ethnic groups

Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese and European Portuguese descent.

Religions

Roman Catholic 97.6% (2015 est.)
Protestant/Evangelical 2% (2015 est.)
Islam 0.2% (2015 est.)
Other 0.2% (2015 est.)

Languages

Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian (constitutionally defined as a 'working language') and English (constitutionally defined as a 'working language')).
Note: There are a total of about 16 indigenous languages, of which Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people. The Tetum language is partially influenced by European languages, particularly Portuguese, which is legacy of Portuguese rule.

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.5% (2015 est.)
male: 71.5%
female: 63.4%

After achieving independence, East Timor has a high illiteracy rate, with 55% of women and 46% of men illiterate. Only 18% of the adult population has secondary education and only 1.4% of them have higher education. Attempts to improve education services face challenges in the form of a lack of educated and experienced teachers. Continuing high fertility rates also translates to greater strains on the government to increase education budgets. The United Nations (UN) has assisted in rebuilding the education system increasing the number of teachers and rehabilitating many schools, leading to a rapid increase in school enrollment. However, problems remain as the quality of education was deemed secondary to the need to increase enrollment in East Timor.

Another problem faced in increasing the education levels includes the economic conditions of the population. With high proportions of the population living below the poverty line and large households with many children, the direct costs of schooling is significant for families. Lack of monetary resources to send children to school imposes greater difficulty in increasing enrollment rates in schools. In addition, parents may be disillusioned with the poor quality of education and thus may not even be interested to send their children to schools. Much remains to be done to establish a new curriculum and support it with texts and learning materials to improve the quality of education. The variety of language spoken also means a large number of children do not speak the language of instruction – Portuguese – and this causes them to be marginalised. Many teachers do not speak Portuguese.

The inaccessibility of schools with proper facilities adds to the problem of providing adequate education to the population. Schools are located far away from homes and, coupled with the poor conditions of schools, may inhibit the early enrollment of children or lead to early drop-outs. Schools in rural areas face substantial lack of facilities to render them safe. As for the schools in urban areas, significant urban migration has meant that the supply of schools in urban areas have not managed to keep up with the increasing demand; leading to overcrowding in urban schools.

Besides the problems faced at the level of the individual households and the schools, problems in the governance and management of education are also significant impediments to raising education levels in East Timor. The lack of qualified personnel in critical positions within the education ministry has meant that overall policy making, planning and management functions are restricted. Management of schools at the district level is often under-qualified due to the lack of formal training. Today therefore, East Timor faces many challenges in increasing the literacy rates of their people.

References

  1. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  2. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=15&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  3. ^ "Demographic Yearbook". UN Data. United Nations. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  4. ^ "East & Southeast Asia :: TIMOR-LESTE". CIA The World Factbook. 
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