Demographics of Bulgaria

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Demographics of Bulgaria
Bulgaria-demography.png
Bulgarian demographic scale
Population Decrease 7 050 034 (31 December 2017) [1]
Growth rate Decrease -7.3 people/1,000 population (2017) [1]
Birth rate Decrease 9.0 births/1,000 population (2017) [2]
Death rate Negative increase 15.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017) [1]
Life expectancy Increase 74.8 years (2017) [1]
 • male Increase 71.3 years
 • female Increase 78.4 years
Fertility rate Increase 1.56 children born/woman (2017) [1]
Infant mortality rate Positive decrease 6.4 deaths/1,000 infants (2017) [1]
Net migration rate Negative increase -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017)
Age structure
0–14 years Increase 14.3%
15–64 years Decrease 64.7%
65 and over Increase21.0% (2017) [3]
Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.97 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian
Major ethnic Bulgarian (84.8%)
Minor ethnic Turkish (8.8%)
Roma (4.9%)
Other and unknown (1.5%)
Language
Official Bulgarian (85.2%)

The demography of the Republic of Bulgaria is monitored by the "Natsionalen Statisticheski Institut" (National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria).

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bulgaria, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Bulgaria has a high Human Development Index of 0.794, ranking 56th in the world in 2016[4] and holds the 38th position in Newsweek's rankings of the world's best countries to live in, measuring health, education, political environment and economic dynamism.[5]

Demographic history

Various estimates have put Bulgaria's medieval population at 1.1 million in 700 AD and 2.6 million in 1365.[6] The latest 2011 census, the population inhabiting Bulgaria is 7,364,570 in total.[7] The peak was in 1989, the year when the borders opened after a half of a century of communist regime, when the population numbered 9,009,018.

Census population and average annual growth rate
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1887 3,154,375 —    
1892 3,310,713 +0.97%
1900 3,744,283 +1.55%
1905 4,035,575 +1.51%
1910 4,337,513 +1.45%
1920 4,846,971 +1.12%
1926 5,528,741 +2.22%
1934 6,077,939 +1.19%
1946 7,029,349 +1.22%
1956 7,613,709 +0.80%
1965 8,227,966 +0.87%
1975 8,727,771 +0.59%
1985 8,948,649 +0.25%
1992 8,487,317 −0.75%
2001 7,932,984 −0.75%
2011 7,364,570 −0.74%
2015 7,168,009[8] −0.67%
2016 7,101,859 −0.92%
2017 7,050,034 −0.73%
Source: Censuses in Bulgaria

Vital statistics

Births and deaths, Bulgaria 1900-2015

Vital statistics 1900–1915

[9][10][11]

Average population (1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1900 3 710 157 000 84 000 73 000 42.3 22.6 19.7
1901 3 740 141 000 87 000 54 000 37.7 23.3 14.4
1902 3 800 149 000 91 000 58 000 39.2 23.9 15.3
1903 3 850 159 000 88 000 71 000 41.3 22.9 18.4
1904 3 910 167 000 84 000 83 000 42.7 21.5 21.2
1905 4 000 174 000 87 000 87 000 43.5 21.8 21.8
1906 4 100 179 000 91 000 88 000 43.7 22.2 21.5
1907 4 150 180 000 92 000 88 000 43.4 22.2 21.2
1908 4 200 169 000 102 000 67 000 40.2 24.3 16.0
1909 4 280 173 000 113 000 60 000 40.4 26.4 14.0
1910 4 350 180 000 100 000 80 000 41.4 23.0 18.4
1911 4 400 176 000 94 000 82 000 40.0 21.4 18.6
1912 4 430 185 000 91 000 94 000 41.8 20.5 21.2
1913 4 200 108 000 122 000 -14 000 25.7 29.0 -3.3
1914 4 240 191 000 88 000 103 000 45.0 20.8 24.3
1915 4 280 172 000 85 000 87 000 40.2 19.9 20.3

Vital statistics 1916–1940

Average population (1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1916 4 660 99 000 97 000 2 000 21.2 20.8 0.4
1917 4 690 81 000 99 000 -18 000 17.3 21.1 -3.8
1918 4 740 100 000 152 000 -52 000 21.1 32.1 -11.0
1919 4 790 157 000 97 000 60 000 32.8 20.3 12.5
1920 4 850 193 000 104 000 89 000 39.8 21.4 18.4
1921 4 890 197 000 106 000 91 000 40.3 21.7 18.6
1922 5 010 203 000 106 000 97 000 40.5 21.2 19.4
1923 5 090 192 000 108 000 84 000 37.7 21.2 16.5
1924 5 210 207 000 108 000 99 000 39.7 20.7 19.0
1925 5 310 196 000 102 000 94 000 36.9 19.2 17.7
1926 5 420 203 000 93 000 110 000 37.5 17.2 20.3
1927 5 510 183 000 112 000 71 000 33.2 20.3 12.9
1928 5 590 185 000 99 000 86 000 33.1 17.7 15.4
1929 5 670 173 000 103 000 70 000 30.5 18.2 12.3
1930 5 740 180 000 93 000 87 000 31.4 16.2 15.2 4,05
1931 5 800 171 000 98 000 73 000 29.5 16.9 12.6 3,80
1932 5 884 186 000 96 000 90 000 31.6 16.3 15.3 4,07
1933 5 961 174 000 93 000 81 000 29.2 15.6 13.6 3,76
1934 6 039 181 795 85 046 96 749 30.1 14.1 16.0 3,88
1935 6 102 160 951 89 086 71 865 26.4 14.6 11.8 3,39
1936 6 154 159 146 87 723 71 423 25.9 14.3 11.6 3,33
1937 6 196 150 771 84 674 66 097 24.3 13.7 10.7 3,12
1938 6 244 142 415 85 373 57 042 22.8 13.7 9.1 2,92
1939 6 292 138 883 84 150 54 733 22.1 13.4 8.7 2,81
1940 6 341 140 564 85 046 55 518 22.2 13.4 8.8 2,84

Vital statistics 1941 to present

Average population (1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1941 6 711 147 293 85 011 62 282 21.9 12.7 9.3 2,80
1942 6 767 153 272 88 082 65 190 22.6 13.0 9.6 2,91
1943 6 823 148 840 88 386 60 454 21.8 13.0 8.9 2,79
1944 6 879 151 013 94 082 56 931 22.0 13.7 8.3 2,83
1945 6 936 166 960 103 591 63 369 24.1 14.9 9.1 3,09
1946 6 993 179 226 95 799 83 427 25.6 13.7 11.9 3,29
1947 7 048 169 501 94 395 75 106 24.0 13.4 10.7 3,06
1948 7 130 175 771 89 927 85 844 24.7 12.6 12.0 3,16
1949 7 195 177 734 84 675 93 059 24.7 11.8 12.9 3,17
1950 7 251 182 571 74 134 108 437 25.2 10.2 15.0 2,94
1951 7 258 152 803 77 364 75 439 21.1 10.7 10.4 2,45
1952 7 275 154 014 84 254 69 760 21.2 11.6 9.6 2,44
1953 7 346 153 220 68 055 85 165 20.9 9.3 11.6 2,41
1954 7 423 149 902 68 384 81 518 20.2 9.2 11.0 2,36
1955 7 499 150 978 67 960 83 018 20.1 9.1 11.1 2,41
1956 7 576 147 910 71 153 76 757 19.5 9.4 10.1 2,36
1957 7 651 141 035 65 807 75 228 18.4 8.6 9.8 2,26
1958 7 728 138 294 60 734 77 560 17.9 7.9 10.0 2,23
1959 7 798 136 892 73 850 63 042 17.6 9.5 8.1 2,23
1960 7 867 140 082 63 665 76 417 17.8 8.1 9.7 2,31
1961 7 943 137 861 62 562 75 299 17.4 7.9 9.5 2,29
1962 8 013 134 148 69 640 64 508 16.7 8.7 8.1 2,24
1963 8 078 132 143 66 057 66 086 16.4 8.2 8.2 2,21
1964 8 144 130 958 64 479 66 479 16.1 7.9 8.2 2,19
1965 8 201 125 791 66 970 58 821 15.3 8.2 7.2 2,09
1966 8 258 123 039 68 366 54 673 14.9 8.3 6.6 2,03
1967 8 310 124 582 74 696 49 886 15.0 9.0 6.0 2,02
1968 8 370 141 460 72 176 69 284 16.9 8.6 8.3 2,27
1969 8 434 143 060 80 183 62 877 17.0 9.5 7.5 2,27
1970 8 490 138 745 77 095 61 650 16.3 9.1 7.3 2,17
1971 8 536 135 422 82 805 52 617 15.9 9.7 6.2 2,10
1972 8 576 131 316 84 174 47 142 15.3 9.8 5.5 2,03
1973 8 621 139 713 81 470 58 243 16.2 9.5 6.8 2,15
1974 8 679 149 196 85 239 63 957 17.2 9.8 7.4 2,29
1975 8 721 144 668 89 974 54 694 16.6 10.3 6.3 2,23
1976 8 759 144 929 88 348 56 581 16.5 10.1 6.5 2,24
1977 8 804 141 702 94 362 47 340 16.1 10.7 5.4 2,20
1978 8 814 136 442 92 445 43 997 15.5 10.5 5.0 2,15
1979 8 826 135 358 94 403 40 955 15.3 10.7 4.6 2,11
1980 8 862 128 190 97 950 30 240 14.5 11.1 3.4 2,05
1981 8 891 124 372 95 441 28 931 14.0 10.7 3.3 1,99
1982 8 917 124 166 100 293 23 873 13.9 11.2 2.7 2,02
1983 8 940 122 993 102 182 20 811 13.8 11.4 2.3 2,00
1984 8 961 122 303 101 419 20 884 13.6 11.3 2.3 1,97
1985 8 960 118 955 107 485 11 470 13.3 12.0 1.3 1,95
1986 8 958 120 078 104 039 16 039 13.4 11.6 1.8 2,00
1987 8 971 116 672 107 213 9 459 13.0 12.0 1.0 1,96
1988 8 981 117 440 107 385 10 055 13.1 12.0 1.1 1,97
1989 8 877 112 289 106 902 5 387 12.6 12.0 0.6 1,90
1990 8 718 105 180 108 608 -3 428 12.1 12.5 -0.4 1,81
1991 8 632 95 910 110 423 -14 513 11.1 12.8 -1.7 1,65
1992 8 540 89 134 107 998 -18 864 10.4 12.6 -2.2 1,54
1993 8 472 84 400 109 540 -25 140 10.0 12.9 -2.9 1,45
1994 8 444 79 442 111 787 -32 345 9.4 13.2 -3.8 1,37
1995 8 406 71 967 114 670 -42 703 8.6 13.6 -5.0 1,23
1996 8 363 72 188 117 056 -44 868 8.6 14.0 -5.4 1,24
1997 8 312 64 125 121 861 -57 736 7.7 14.7 -7.0 1,09
1998 8 257 65 361 118 190 -52 829 7.9 14.3 -6.4 1,11
1999 8 211 72 291 111 786 -39 495 8.8 13.6 -4.8 1,23
2000 8 170 73 679 115 087 -41 408 9.0 14.1 -5.1 1,26
2001 7 910 68 180 112 368 -44 188 8.6 14.2 -5.6 1,22
2002 7 849 66 499 112 617 -46 118 8.5 14.3 -5.8 1,21
2003 7 786 67 359 111 927 -44 568 8.6 14.3 -5.7 1,23
2004 7 781 69 886 110 110 -40 224 9.0 14.2 -5.2 1,29
2005 7 740 71 075 113 374 -42 299 9.2 14.6 -5.4 1,31
2006 7 699 73 978 113 438 -39 460 9.6 14.7 -5.1 1,38
2007 7 660 75 349 113 004 -37 655 9.8 14.8 -5.0 1,42
2008 7 623 77 712 110 523 -32 811 10.2 14.5 -4.3 1,48
2009 7 585 80 956 108 068 -27 112 10.7 14.2 -3.5 1,57
2010 7 534 75 513 110 165 -34 652 10.0 14.6 -4.6 1,49
2011 7 348 70 846 108 258 -37 412 9.6 14.7 -5.1 1,51
2012 7 305 69 678 109 281 -39 603 9.5 15.0 -5.4 1,50
2013 7 246 66 578 104 345 -37 767 9.2 14.4 -5.2 1,48
2014 7 202 67 585 108 952 -41 367 9.4 15.1 -5.7 1,52
2015[12] 7 154 66 370 110 117 -43 747 9.2 15.3 -6.1 1,50
2016[13] 7 102 64 984 107 580 -42 596 9.1 15.1 -6.0 1,54
2017[14] 7 050 63 955 109 791 -45 836 9.0 15.5 -6.5 1,56

Birth rates and fertility

In 2016 a total of 64,984 live births were recorded in Bulgaria.[15] The country has a crude birth rate of 9.1‰.

Seventy years ago (in the census of 1946), Bulgaria had a crude birth rate of 25,6‰. Ethnic Bulgarians (23,3‰) had a much lower crude birth rate compared to the two largest minorities: Turks (40,9‰) and Roma (47,2‰).[16] However, it is unlikely that this difference continued since then, as birth rates in the Balkan countries dropped sharply.

Bulgaria has a low total fertility rate of 1.54 children per woman (at the end of 2016). This is up significantly from the late 1990s, but still below replacement and not enough to prevent further population decline, especially with emigration. Provinces with large Roma populations (for example Sliven, Montana and Yambol) tend to have higher fertility rates (and higher death rates) compared to other areas, whereas Turkish fertility is similar to the Bulgarian majority.

Total fertility rate and crude birth rate by province in 2016 and 2017 (NSI) [17]
Province TFR (2016) TFR (2017) CBR (2016) CBR (2017)
Bulgaria 1.54 1.56 Increase 9,1 9,0 Decrease
Sliven 2.24 2.34 Increase 12,2 12,5 Increase
Yambol 1.98 2.00 Increase 9,5 9,4 Decrease
Stara Zagora 1.73 1.80 Increase 9,4 9,6 Increase
Pleven 1.80 1.79 Decrease 8,7 8,6 Decrease
Lovech 1.66 1.79 Increase 7,4 7,9 Increase
Pazardzhik 1.72 1.75 Increase 9,2 9,0 Decrease
Haskovo 1.70 1.75 Increase 8,7 8,7 Steady
Kyustendil 1.63 1.75 Increase 6,9 7,2 Increase
Sofia 1.74 1.73 Decrease 8,7 8,5 Decrease
Silistra 1.77 1.71 Decrease 8,9 8,3 Decrease
Vratsa 1.77 1.68 Decrease 8,5 7,9 Decrease
Kardzhali 1.64 1.66 Increase 9,3 9,1 Decrease
Pernik 1.62 1.66 Increase 7,6 7,5 Decrease
Montana 1.74 1.65 Decrease 8,1 7,6 Decrease
Burgas 1.63 1.65 Increase 9,6 9,5 Decrease
Plovdiv 1.56 1.60 Increase 9,5 9,6 Increase
Vidin 1.45 1.58 Increase 6,2 6,5 Increase
Targovishte 1.59 1.57 Decrease 8,5 8,3 Decrease
Dobrich 1.53 1.51 Decrease 8,2 7,9 Decrease
Gabrovo 1.41 1.49 Increase 6,4 6,5 Increase
Razgrad 1.49 1.48 Decrease 8,0 7,7 Decrease
Smolyan 1.45 1.47 Increase 7,0 6,8 Decrease
Shumen 1.54 1.45 Decrease 9,0 8,1 Decrease
Blagoevgrad 1.46 1.45 Decrease 9,1 8,7 Decrease
Varna 1.45 1.44 Decrease 9,6 9,3 Decrease
Veliko Tarnovo 1.40 1.43 Increase 8,8 8,7 Decrease
Ruse 1.40 1.37 Decrease 7,9 7,6 Decrease
Sofia (city) 1.27 1.29 Increase 10,2 10,3 Increase

Regional differences

As of 2017, the municipality of Nikolaevo has the highest crude birth rate with 18.6‰, followed by Tvarditsa (16.7‰) and Kaynardzha (15.7‰). All these municipalities have relatively large Romani populations.

Top 20 municipalities with the highest birth rate (2017) [18]
Municipality Birth rate (‰)
Nikolaevo Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 18.6
Tvarditsa Municipality, Sliven Province 16.7
Kaynardzha Municipality, Silistra Province 15.7
Gurkovo Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 14.6
Yablanitsa Municipality, Lovech Province 14.2
Nikola Kozlevo Municipality, Shumen Province 13.4
Kotel Municipality, Sliven Province 13.2
Straldzha Municipality, Yambol Province 13.1
Simeonovgrad Municipality, Haskovo Province 12.5
Chelopech Municipality, Sofia Province 12.4
Maglizh Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 12.4
Sliven Municipality, Sliven Province 12.2
Nova Zagora Municipality, Sliven Province 12.1
Bratya Daskalovi Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 12.1
Ihtiman Municipality, Sofia Province 12.0
Dolni Dabnik Municipality, Pleven Province 11.8
Pavel Banya Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 11.6
Lukovit Municipality, Lovech Province 11.6
Rakovski Municipality, Plovdiv Province 11.5
Kameno Municipality, Burgas Province 11.4
Top 20 municipalities with the lowest birth rate (2017) [18]
Nedelino Municipality, Smolyan Province 5.7
Hisarya Municipality, Plovdiv Province 5.6
Kocherinovo Municipality, Kyustendil Province 5.6
Devin Municipality, Smolyan Province 5.5
Gramada Municipality, Vidin Province 5.5
Svoge Municipality, Sofia Province 5.5
Godech Municipality, Sofia Province 5.4
Apriltsi Municipality, Lovech Province 5.3
Novo Selo Municipality, Vidin Province 5.0
Chepelare Municipality, Smolyan Province 4.9
Zemen Municipality, Pernik Province 4.9
Hitrino Municipality, Shumen Province 4.8
Chiprovtsi Municipality, Montana Province 4.7
Borovo Municipality, Ruse Province 4.5
Belene Municipality, Pleven Province 4.4
Tryavna Municipality, Gabrovo Province 4.2
Boynitsa Municipality, Vidin Province 4.0
Nevestino Municipality, Kyustendil Province 3.8
Banite Municipality, Smolyan Province 3.2
Georgi Damyanovo Municipality, Montana Province 3.1

On the other hand, the municipalities of Georgi Damyanovo, Banite and Nevestino have a extremely low birth rates. These municipalities are almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Bulgarians.

Teenage pregnancy

Bulgaria has one of the highest share of teenage pregnancy in Europe. Nevertheless, this number is declining rapidly in recent years.

Number of teenage mothers in Bulgaria in the period 1990-2017 [19]
Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2017
All live births in Bulgaria 105,180 71,967 73,679 69,886 75,513 65,950 63,955
Mothers aged under twenty 22,518 16,278 12,787 10,625 8,411 6,274 6,038
Share of teenage mothers Increase 21.4% Increase22.6% Decrease 17.4% Decrease 15.2% Decrease 11.1% Decrease 9.5% Decrease 9.4%

The ten municipalities with the largest absolute number of teenage mothers are: Sliven (373), Sofia (339), Plovdiv (245), Pazardzhik (161), Stara Zagora (141), Nova Zagora (131), Burgas (108), Yambol (106), Haskovo (96) and Varna (86). [20]

Top ten municipalities with the highest share of mothers aged under twenty (2017) [18]
Municipality All live births Births to mothers aged under twenty % of all live births
Bolyarovo Municipality 25 10 40.0%
Gramada Municipality 10 4 40.0%
Bratya Daskalovi Municipality 98 37 37.8%
Nikolaevo Municipality 82 31 37.8%
Gurkovo Municipality 73 27 37.0%
Kaynardzha Municipality 80 29 36.3%
Maglizh Municipality 121 43 35.5%
Yablanitsa Municipality 82 29 35.4%
Ihtiman Municipality 205 71 34.6%
Dimovo Municipality 65 22 33.8%

Projections

The following forecast for the future population is an official estimate of the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.[21]

Year Population
2015 7,159,819
2020 6,950,436
2025 6,734,989
2030 6,519,217
2035 6,311,454
2040 6,115,526
2045 5,929,267
2050 5,748,061
2055 5,567,060
2060 5,384,040

Demographic policies

The progressive decrease of the Bulgarian population is hindering economic growth and welfare improvement, and the management measures taken to mitigate the negative consequences do not address the essence of the problem. The Government Program for the period 2017 - 2021 is the first one that aims at overturning the trend. The program also identifies the priority means for achieving this goal: measures to increase the birth rate, reduce youth emigration, and build up regulatory and institutional capacity to implement a modern immigration policy tailored to the needs of the Bulgarian business.[22][23]

Ethnic groups

Population of Bulgaria according to ethnic group 1900–1946
Ethnic
group
census 1900 census 1905 census 1910 census 1920 census 1926 census 1934 census 1946 census 1956
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Bulgarians[24] 2,888,219 77.1 3,203,810 79.4 3,518,756 81.1 4,036,056 83.3 4,557,706 83.2 5,204,217 85.6 5,903,580 84.0 6,506,541 85.5
Turks[24] 531,240 14.2 488,010 12.1 465,641 10.7 520,339 10.7 577,552 10.5 591,193 9.7 675,500 9.6 656,025 8.6
Roma[24] 89,549 2.4 99,004 2.5 122,296 2.8 98,451 2.0 134,844 2.5 149,385 2.5 170,011 2.4 197,865 2.6
Russians 1,685 0.0 3,275 0.2 2,505 0.2 9,080 0.2 19,706 0.4 11,928 0.2 13,200 0.2 10,551 0.1
Armenians 14,581 0.4 12,932 0.3 11,509 0.2 27,332 0.5 25,963 0.4 21,637 0.3 21,954 0.3
Sarakatsani 6,128 0.2 7,251 0.2 2,085 0.0
Macedonians - - - - - - [25] 169,5442 2.4 187,7892 2.5
Greeks 66,635 1.8 63,487 1.6 43,275 1.0 42,074 0.9 10,564 0.2 9,601 0.2 7,437 0.1
Jews 33,661 0.9 37,663 0.9 40,133 0.9 43,209 0.9 46,558 0.8 48,565 0.8 44,209 0.6 6,027 0.1
Romanians 71,063 1.9 75,773 1.9 79,429 1.8 57,312 1.2 69,080 1.2 16,504 0.3 3,749 0.0
Tatars 18,884 0.5 17,942 0.4 18,228 0.4 6,191 0.1 5,993 0.1
Gagauzes 10,175 0.3 4,362 0.1
Others 13,199 0.2
Undeclared 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 -
Total 3,744,283 4,035,575 4,337,513 4,846,971 5,528,741 6,077,939 7,029,349 7,613,709
2There are strong indications that in the 1946 and the 1956 census the population was forced to list as ethnic Macedonians against their will by the communist government in accordance with an agreement with Yugoslavia.[26][27]
Population of Bulgaria according to nationality group 1965–2011
Nationalities census 1965 census 1975 [28] census 1992 [29] census 2001 [24] census 20111
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % / % of Total
Bulgarians[24] 7,231,243 87.9 7,930,024 90.9 7,271,185 85.7 6,655,210 83.9 5,664,624 84.8 / 76.9
Turks[24] 780,928 9.5 730,728 8.4 800,052 9.4 746,664 9.4 588,318 8.8 / 8.0
Roma[24] 148,874 1.8 313,396 3.7 370,908 4.7 325,343 4.9 / 4.4
Russians 10,815 0.1 17,139 0.2 15,595 0.2 9,978 0.1
Armenians 20,282 0.2 14,526 0.2 13,677 0.2 10,832 0.1 6,552 0.1
Vlachs 5,159 0.1 10,566 0.1 3,684 0.1
Sarakatsani 5,144 0.1 4,107 0.1 2,556 0.0
Ukrainians 1,864 0.0 2,489 0.0 1,789 0.0
Macedonians 9,632 0.1 10,803 0.1 5,071 0.1 1,654 0.0
Greeks 8,241 0.1 4,930 0.1 3,408 0.0 1,379 0.0
Jews 5,108 0.1 3,076 0.0 3,461 0.0 1,363 0.0 1,162 0.0
Romanians 2,491 0.0 1,088 0.0 891 0.0
Tatars 6,430 0.1 5,963 0.1 4,515 0.1 1,803 0.0
Gagauzes 1,478 0.0 540 0.0
Other 23,542 0.3 12,342 0.2 19,659 0.3
Undeclared 0 - 0 - 8,481 0.1 86,915 1.1 736,981 10.01
Total 8,227,966 8,727,771 8,487,317 7,932,984 7,364,570
1 The 2011 percentage of the ethnic groups is calculated only from those who answered the optional question on ethnicity (6,680,980 in total) and does not include around 700,000 people who did not answer the question or 10% from the population,

Note that the distinction between Sarakatsani and Greeks, and between Vlachs and Romanians, is fluid. Sarakatsani were counted as Greeks in the 1900, 1920, 1926, 1934, and 1965 censuses.

Ethnic structure of the entire population (7,364,570) by most detailed cadastral division according to the 2011 census
Distribution of the ethnic groups by municipalities according to the 2011 census within those who answered the question (6,680,000)
Distribution of Turks according to the 2001 census

The censuses in 1880, 1887 and 1892 did not have a question on ethnic affiliation. The following table shows the ethnic composition of all Provinces of Bulgaria according to the 2011 census:

Province Ethnicity Ethnicity Ethnicity
Bulgarian Turkish Roma
Blagoevgrad Province 89% 6% 3%
Burgas Province 80% 13% 5%
Dobrich Province 75% 13% 9%
Gabrovo Province 92% 6% 1%
Haskovo Province 79% 13% 7%
Kardzhali Province 30% 66%
Kyustendil Province 93% 0% 6%
Lovech Province 91% 3% 4%
Montana Province 86% 0% 13%
Pazardzhik Province 84% 6% 8%
Pernik Province 96% 0% 3%
Pleven Province 91% 4% 4%
Plovdiv Province 87% 6% 5%
Razgrad Province 43% 50% 5%
Ruse Province 81% 13% 4%
Shumen Province 59% 30% 8%
Silistra Province 57% 36% 5%
Sliven Province 77% 10% 12%
Smolyan Province 91% 5% 0%
Sofia City 96% 1% 2%
Sofia Province 91% 0% 7%
Stara Zagora Province 86% 5% 8%
Targovishte Province 55% 36% 7%
Varna Province 87% 7% 3%
Veliko Tarnovo Province 90% 7% 2%
Vidin Province 91% 0% 8%
Vratsa Province 93% 0% 6%
Yambol Province 87% 3% 8%
Source (2011 census):[30]

Languages

Distribution of the mother tongues by municipalities according to the 2011 census
Distribution of languages of Bulgaria (2001) [31]
Bulgarian
84.5%
Turkish
9.6%
Roma (Gypsy)
4.1%
others
0.9%
undeclared
0.9%
Population of Bulgaria according to mother tongue 1880–1892
Mother
tongue
census 1880[32][33] census 1887[34] census 1892[35]
Number % Number % Number %
Bulgarian 1,345,507 67.0 2,326,250 73.7 2,505,326 75.7
Turkish/Gagauz 527,284 26.3 607,331 19.3 569,728 17.2
Vlach 49,070 2.4
Romanian 62,628 1.9
Roma 37,600 1.9 50,291 1.6 52,132 1.6
Ladino 14,020 0.7 27,531 0.8
Tatar 12,376 0.6 16,290 0.5
Greek 11,152 0.6 58,326 1.8 58,518 1.8
Armenian 3,837 6,445 0.2
Serbo-Croatian 1,894
Serbian 818
German/Yiddish 1,280
German 3,620
Russian 1,123 928
Albanian 530
Italian 515 803
Hungarian 220
Czech 174
French 164 356
Arab 97
Polish 92
English 64
Circassian 63
Persian 58
Others 402 4,425
Unknown 1,165
Total 2,007,919 3 154 375 3,310,713
Territory (km2) 63,752 95,223 95,223

The 2001 census defines an ethnic group as a "community of people, related to each other by origin and language, and close to each other by mode of life and culture"; and one's mother tongue as "the language a person speaks best and usually uses for communication in the family (household)".[36] According to the 2011 census, among the Bulgarians 99.4% indicate Bulgarian as a mother tongue, 0.3% - Turkish, 0.1% - Roma and 0.1% others; among Turks 96.6% have pointed the Turkish as a mother tongue and 3.2% - Bulgarian; among the Roma 85% indicate Roma language as a mother tongue, 7.5% - Bulgarian, 6.7% - Turkish and 0.6% - Romanian.

Religion

Bulgaria's traditional religion according to the constitution is the Orthodox Christianity, while Bulgaria is a secular state too. Since the last two censuses (2001 and 2011) provide widely divergent results, they are both shown in the table below. It is noteworthy that over a fifth of the population chose not to respond to this question in the 2011 census.

Religious structure of Bulgaria according to the 2011 census.
Muslim areas in Bulgaria according to the 2001 census
2001 [37] 2011 [7][38]
Orthodox Christian 82.6% 59.4%
Muslim 12.2% 7.8% (7.4% Sunni; 0.4% Shia)
Catholic 0.6% 0.7%
Protestant 0.5% 0.9%
Other 0.2% 0.15%
None 3.9% 9.3%
No response - 21.8%

The results of the Bulgarian 2011 Census, in which the indication of answer regarding the question for confession was optional, are as follows:[39]

Group Population % of declared % of total
Orthodoxy 4,374,135 76.0% 59.4%
Undeclared 1,606,269 - 21.8%
Irreligion 682,162 11.8% 9.3%
Islam 577,139 10.0% 7.8%
Protestantism 64,476 1.1% 0.9%
Roman Catholicism 48,945 0.8% 0.7%
Oriental Orthodoxy 1,715 0.0% 0.0%
Jews 706 0.0% 0.0%
Others 9,023 0.2% 0.1%
Figure of percentage - 5,758,301 7,364,570
Municipalities where the prevalence is Bulgarian and Muslim/Irreligious according to the 2001 census

The results of the Bulgarian 2001 Census by ethnic groups, the latest census in which the indication of identification(whether by confession or as irreligious) in the question for confession was obligatory, are as follows:[40][41]

Ethnic groups
by confession
Total Bulgarians Turks Roma Others
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Orthodoxy 6,552,751 82.6 6,315,938 94.9 5,425 0.7 180,326 48.6 51,062
Islam 966,978 12.2 131,531 2.0 713,024 95.5 103,436 27.9 18,987
Irreligion 308,116 3.9 151,008 2.3 23,146 3.1 59,669 16.1
Roman Catholicism 43,811 0.6 37,811 0.6 2,561 0.3
Protestantism 42,308 0.5 14,591 0.2 2,066 0.3 24,651 6.6 1,000
Others 14,937 0.2 4,331 0.1 442 0.1
Total population 7,928,901 100.0 6,655,210 100.0 746,664 100.0 370,908 100.0 100.0

Migration

In relation to internal migration, according to the 1910 census, 300,000 or almost 10% of the ethnic Bulgarians were born in another Bulgarian municipality than the one they were enumerated in. The same data shows that the foreign-born ethnic Bulgarians numbered 78,000, or 2% of them, most numerous of whom were the 61,000 Ottoman-born, 9,000 Romanian-born and by less than 2,000 Austro-Hungarian, Serbian and Russian-born.[42] By the 1926 census, there had been 253,000 refugees with granted households and land or citizenship but with many more in towns of uncertain number. 35% came from Eastern Thrace, 30% came from Aegean Macedonia, another 18% from Western Thrace, 8% from Dobruja, 4% from the Western Outlands, 3% from Asia Minor, and 2% from Vardar Macedonia. They constituted 6% of the country's population. In 1940, 70,000 Bulgarians were exchanged from Northern Dobruja. The total number of refugees in 1878-1940 is estimated at between 700,000 and 1,200,000.[43]

According to the 2011 census Russian citizens are the most numerous foreigners - 11 991, followed by 8 444 EU citizens (UK- 2 605, Greece - 1 253, Germany- 848, Poland - 819 and Italy - 456), citizens of Ukraine - 3 064, Republic of Macedonia - 1 091, Moldova - 893 and Serbia - 569. 22.8% of them are from Asia, mostly from Turkey. Those with dual Bulgarian and other citizenship were 22 152, or 0.3% of the population. Of them persons with Bulgarian and Russian citizenship were 5 257 (23.7%), followed by persons with Bulgarian and Turkish citizenship - 4 282 (19.3%), Bulgarian and citizenship of the USA- 1 725 (7.8%). There are at least 17,527 Refugees of the Syrian Civil War with applications in Bulgaria. In 2001-2015 185,447 people applied for Bulgarian citizenship and 116,222 were provided with. 113,647 were granted on grounds of proven Bulgarian ancestry, including 59,968 Republic of Macedonia citizens. 29,218 were Moldovan citizens, 5930 Ukrainians, 5374 Serbians, 5194 Russians, 3840 Israeli, 2192 Albanians, 692 Turks and others.[44] In 2016, 12,880 foreigners were naturalized, including 6196 Macedonians.[45]

Population by country of birth:[46]

2011 2013 2015
 Bulgaria 7,290,666 7,188,273 7,077,389
Total foreign-born 78,621 96,113 123,803
 Russia 18,725 19,533 24,416
 Turkey 3,955 6,227 9,284
 Syria 1,250 1,298 8,318
 Greece 4,928 7,377 7,166
 Ukraine 5,877 6,084 7,039
 UK 3,042 5,066 6,738
 Germany 2,083 3,638 5,533
 Spain 1,558 4,065 5,240
 Romania 6,045 5,380 4,612
 Italia 1,082 2,261 2,830
 Macedonia 2,426 2,384 2,742
 USA 1,180 2,023 2,431
 Moldova 1,893 1,996 2,363
 Serbia 2,306 2,246 2,318
 Azerbaijan 2,152 1,871 1,886
 France 562 1,255 1,781
 Poland 1,196 1,443 1,648
 Armenia 1,472 1,422 1,565
 Kazakhstan 970 1,067 1,515
 Belgium 410 1,009 1,481
 China 860 929 1,236
 Czech Republic 924 1,028 1,186
 Albania 1,134 1,078 1,130
 Netherlands 298 735 1,040
 Cyprus 244 679 1,008
Unknown 144 166 1,006

Foreigners by nationality:

2011 2015
Total 36,723 65,622
 Russia 11,991 17,943
 Turkey 2,741 8,157
 Syria 729 7,508
 Ukraine 3,064 3,874
 UK 2,605 3,693
Unknown 2,538
 Greece 1,253 2,094
Stateless 1,875
 Macedonia 1,091 1,289
 Germany 848 1,266
 Armenia 1,167 1,175
 China 749 1,147
 Moldova 893 1,018
 Poland 819 978
 USA 876
 Italy 456 815
 Serbia 569 813
 Iraq 706 806
 Kazakhstan 712

Life expectancy at birth

Fertility rate (1980–2010)

% ethnic declaration of total population aged 0-9 (2011 census)[47][48]

  Bulgarians (62.0%)
  unanswered (14.9%)
  Romani (10.2%)
  Turks (9.0%)
  No identity (3.4%)
  Other (0.5%)
Birth rate (1990–2010)
Total population: Increase 74.02 years
Male: Increase 70.62 years
Female: Increase 77.55 years (2012 est.) [1]

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.[49]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 62.33
1955–1960 Increase 66.78
1960–1965 Increase 70.28
1965–1970 Increase 70.91
1970–1975 Increase 71.07
1975–1980 Increase 71.10
1980–1985 Increase 71.24
1985–1990 Increase 71.39
1990–1995 Decrease 71.11
1995–2000 Decrease 70.97
2000–2005 Increase 72.19
2005–2010 Increase 73.13
2010–2015 Increase 74.25

Infant mortality rate

Total: Positive decrease 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2012) [1]
Male: Positive decrease 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2012)
Female: Positive decrease 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2012)

Age structure

0–14 years: Decrease 13.2%
15–65 years: Increase 68.3%
65 years and over: Increase 18.5% (Census 2011) [7]

At the 2011 census the largest decadal age group of the identified as Romani people is the 0–9 years old or 21% of them, the same age group accounted for 10% of the Turks and 7% of the Bulgarians.[47] Experts estimate that the Romani in some provinces make up 40% of all aged between 0 and 9 years.[50] Amongst those who did not answer the question on ethnic group lowest is the share of people aged 60+ years.

Children aged up to nine years old by ethnic structure per province
Province Ethnicity Ethnicity Ethnicity
Bulgarian Turkish Roma
Bulgaria 72.9% 10.6% 12.0%
Blagoevgrad Province 80.9% 7.3% 7.8%
Burgas Province 68.5% 16.2% 9.7%
Dobrich Province 56.9% 17.1% 18.9%
Gabrovo Province 85.0% 8.2% 3.8%
Haskovo Province 62.7% 16.5% 16.7%
Kardzhali Province 23.8% 67.8% 2.7%
Kyustendil Province 79.4% 0.0% 16.1%
Lovech Province 78.0% 3.6% 14.8%
Montana Province 66.8% 0.1% 29.0%
Pazardzhik Province 67.3% 8.7% 16.7%
Pernik Province 90.3% 0.1% 7.5%
Pleven Province 78.5% 4.4% 13.5%
Plovdiv Province 74.1% 9.3% 11.9%
Razgrad Province 33.9% 50.0% 10.2%
Ruse Province 72.2% 15.1% 8.9%
Shumen Province 45.5% 31.5% 17.6%
Silistra Province 38.2% 43.1% 14.4%
Sliven Province 55.0% 11.6% 28.3%
Smolyan Province 87.6% 5.0% 1.9%
Sofia City 92.2% 0.5% 3.6%
Sofia Province 77.1% 0.2% 18.8%
Stara Zagora Province 68.3% 7.3% 19.9%
Targovishte Province 39.6% 38.0% 15.5%
Varna Province 79.2% 8.9% 7.0%
Veliko Tarnovo Province 79.9% 11.0% 4.4%
Vidin Province 74.3% 0.1% 20.6%
Vratsa Province 80.3% 0.4% 15.6%
Yambol Province 62.4% 5.8% 26.7%
Source (2011 census):[24]

Bulgarian children constitute the majority of all children in 23 out of 28 provinces. They constitute more than ninety percent of all children in two provinces: Sofia (city) (92%) and Pernik Province (90%).

Turkish children constitute the majority in Kardzhali Province (68% of all children) and Razgrad Province (50% of all children); they also constitute the largest group of all children in Silistra Province (43%).

Roma children constitute 12% of all children in Bulgaria and more than a quarter in three provinces: Montana (29%), Sliven (28%) and Yambol (27%).

Age structure

Bulgaria is ageing rapidly, especially in some remote rural areas.

Age Structure (2011)
Under working age (0 – 17) Working age (18 – 64) Above working age (65 and over)
1 172 208 (16.0%) 4 789 967 (65.1%) 1 389 059 (18.9%)
Age Structure (2017) [51]
Under working age (0 – 17) Working age (18 – 64) Above working age (65 and over)
1 065 993 (15.1%) 4 248 503 (60.3%) 1 735 538 (24.6%)

The ageing of the population leads to an increase of the median age. The median age is 43.6 as of 2017, up from 40.4 years in 2001.[52]

Sex ratio

Of the total 7,364,570 as of 2011, 3 586 571 are males and 3,777,999 are females, or there are 1053 women for 1,000 men.

Education

Over 98% of the population is literate, the males being more literate than the females.

According to the 2011 census, about 112,778 people aged nine or more are illiterate. There are considerable differences in the share of illiterate persons amongst the three main ethnic groups. Amongst the Bulgarian ethnic group the share of illiterate is 0.5%, amongst the Turkish - 4.7% and amongst the Roma ethnic group - 11.8%. [53] About 81 thousand people aged seven or more never visited school. [54]

Unemployment

The median unemployment for the country in 2011 was 10.1%.

The number of unemployed people declined to 207 thousand people (or around 6.2% of the population) in 2017.[55]

Most unemployed people are aged 15 to 24 years old.

The unemployment rate in rural areas (around 10.0%) is nearly two times higher than the unemployment rate in urban areas (approximately 5.1%).

Vidin Province has the highest unemployment rate with almost one fifth of its labour force being unemployed. The provinces of Shumen (15.9%), Silistra (12.5%) and Targovishte (12.4%) have also very high unemployment rates.

Private ownership

According to Eurostat, 82.3% per cent of the population live in privately owned and owner-occupied homes, ranking it as 12th highest in ownership globally.[56] It is down from a recent peak of 87.6% in 2008, and has been steadily falling since.[56] The number of Internet users has increased rapidly since 2000—from 430,000 their number grew to 1.55 million in 2004, and 3.4 million (48 per cent penetration rate) in 2010.[57] Bulgaria has the third-fastest average Broadband Internet speed in the world after South Korea and Romania with an average speed of 1,611 KBps.[58][59] Currently there are three active mobile phone operators—Mtel, Telenor and Vivacom, Mtel is the largest one with 5.2 million users as of 2010,[60] Telenor has 3,9 million as of 2007 and Vivacom over 1 million[citation needed].

HIV

Bulgaria's HIV rate is among the lowest in the world, being 0.1% or 3,800 infected as of 2009.[citation needed]

Urbanization

Most Bulgarians (72.5 per cent) reside in urban areas. Approximately one-sixth of them live in Sofia, which has a population exceeding 1,200,000 people.

Urban population: Increase 5,338,261 or 72.5% of total population (Census 2011) [7]
Rural: 2,026,309 or 27.5%
Rate of urbanization: -0.3% annual rate of change (2005–10 est.)

Largest cities

See also

References

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External links

  • 2005 Report on European Demography, Eurostat
  • Annual report of the National Statistics Institute for 2005 regarding population and demographic processes
  • Bulgarian Subject Files – Social Issues: Minorities Open Society Archives, Budapest
  • Bulgarians – Species on the Brink
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