December 1935

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The following events occurred in December 1935:

December 1, 1935 (Sunday)

December 2, 1935 (Monday)

  • The British cabinet decided to support a motion at the League of Nations that sanctions against Italy be expanded to include an oil embargo.[3]
  • French Fascist Marcel Bucard and 110 supporters were arrested in Strasbourg.[4]
  • Died: James Henry Breasted, 70, American archaeologist and historian

December 3, 1935 (Tuesday)

December 4, 1935 (Wednesday)

  • Nazi Germany placed an embargo on its own currency effective December 6. Foreign tourists were limited to bringing no more than 30 marks' worth of bank notes into the country at a time.[6]
  • Italian children had a three-hour school day (10 a.m. to 1 p.m.) in order to save coal.[7]
  • Died: Johan Halvorsen, 71, Norwegian composer, conductor and violinist; Charles Richet, 85, French physiologist and Nobel laureate

December 5, 1935 (Thursday)

December 6, 1935 (Friday)

December 7, 1935 (Saturday)

  • Dessie was heavily bombarded again. International Red Cross representatives sent a formal protest of the bombings to the League of Nations.[11]
  • Mussolini defiantly told his parliament that sanctions would not deter Italy from its path and that only "full recognition of our rights and the safeguarding of our East African interests" could solve the crisis.[12]
  • British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare arrived in Paris for talks with French Prime Minister Pierre Laval on the Italo-Abyssinian conflict.[13]
  • Japan publicly demanded absolute naval parity with the United States and Great Britain.[14]
  • The Winnipeg 'Pegs beat the Hamilton Tigers 18-12 to win the 23rd Grey Cup of Canadian football.

December 8, 1935 (Sunday)

  • The Anglo-French proposal known as the Hoare–Laval Pact was agreed upon, in which Abyssinia would be partitioned and much of its territory given to Italy. The two delegations informed the media that they had come up with a plan, but withheld the details so the interested governments could review them.[13]
  • Houston, Texas was ravaged by flood, causing hundreds to flee their homes.[15]
  • Born: Dharmendra, film actor, in Nasrali, Khanna, Punjab, British India

December 9, 1935 (Monday)

December 10, 1935 (Tuesday)

  • The British newspaper The Times published its own report of leaked details of the Hoare–Laval Pact. As public anger about the proposal grew, Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin responded to a question in the House of Commons by saying it would be "premature to make a statement on the subject at present" because he was not sure if the proposal had been finalized.[16][20]
  • The 1935 Nobel Prizes were awarded in Stockholm. The recipients were James Chadwick of the United Kingdom for Physics, Frédéric and Irène Joliot-Curie of France (Chemistry) and Hans Spemann of Germany (Physiology or Medicine). No Literature Prize was awarded and the Peace Prize was not awarded at the time either – Carl von Ossietzky was retroactively named the recipient one year later.[1][21]
  • Nazi Germany published the details of a new decree requiring a "certificate of fitness for marriage" before Germans were allowed to wed. Prospective spouses were required to fill out a six-page questionnaire about their health, parentage, childhood rates of development and present smoking, drinking and sexual habits. Doctors were instructed to evaluate the fitness of each candidate and could deny a certificate if not satisfied.[22]
  • Died: Sir John Carden, 6th Baronet, 43, English tank and vehicle designer (plane crash)

December 11, 1935 (Wednesday)

December 12, 1935 (Thursday)

December 13, 1935 (Friday)

  • The full text of the Hoare–Laval Pact was revealed to the public, causing a huge split at the League of Nations. Haile Selassie told the League that the plan violated the spirit of the League Covenant.[27]
  • Italy sent a protest to the League accusing Ethiopia of abusing the Red Cross emblem by placing it in militarized areas.[27]
  • Police in Nazi Germany closed Barasch Brothers' Department Store, a prominent Jewish establishment, for an "indefinite period". Police claimed that executives were forcing its female employees into illicit relations.[28]
  • The execution date for Richard Hauptmann was set for January 13 after the Supreme Court declined to review his trial.[29]
  • Representatives of the federal and provincial governments of Canada agreed unanimously to amend the constitution to allow the country to make its own constitutional amendments without recourse to the British Parliament.[17]
  • Born: Kenneth Hall, American football player, in Madisonville, Texas; Lindy McDaniel, baseball player, in Hollis, Oklahoma
  • Died: Victor Grignard, 64, French chemist and Nobel laureate

December 14, 1935 (Saturday)

December 15, 1935 (Sunday)

December 16, 1935 (Monday)

  • Haile Selassie held a conference for reporters on the porch of his headquarters to formally reject the Hoare–Laval Pact.[13] Selassie declared that acceptance of the proposal "would not only be cowardice toward our people, but a betrayal of the League of Nations and of all states that have thought up to now that they could have confidence in the system of collective security."[32]
  • Mussolini authorized the use of chemical weapons in Ethiopia.[33]
  • Pope Pius XI created eighteen new cardinals.
  • In Manhattan, the Frick Collection of art opened to the public.
  • Died: Thelma Todd, 30, American actress (accidental carbon monoxide poisoning)

December 17, 1935 (Tuesday)

December 18, 1935 (Wednesday)

  • Samuel Hoare resigned as British Foreign Secretary over the unpopular Hoare–Laval Pact.[17]
  • A magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck Sichuan Province in China that killed about 100 people and destroyed many homes.[35][36]
  • While inaugurating the new municipality of Pontinia, Mussolini introduced "Faith Day", in which Italians were to donate their wedding rings so the material could be melted down for use by the state. Queen Elena inaugurated the day in Rome by donating the King and Queen's own rings and receiving steel substitutes in return.[37]
  • Edvard Beneš became President of Czechoslovakia.[1]
  • The Lanka Sama Samaja Party was founded in Sri Lanka.

December 19, 1935 (Thursday)

  • Labour Party leader Clement Attlee brought a motion of censure against the government of Stanley Baldwin, explaining, "If it is right for (Samuel Hoare) to resign, then it is right for the Government to resign." Baldwin stood and took chief responsibility for the Hoare–Laval debacle, and declared that the proposals were "absolutely and completely dead" and that the government would "make no attempt to resurrect them." Attlee's motion was defeated, 397 to 165.[38]
  • Born: Tony Taylor, baseball player, in Central Álava, Cuba; Bobby Timmons, jazz pianist and composer, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1974)

December 20, 1935 (Friday)

  • British scientist Michael Perrin and his team at Imperial Chemical Industries were able to successfully reproduce a substance created by accident two years earlier. The new substance was named polyethylene.[39]
  • Idaho Republican Senator William Borah announced his willingness to run for president in 1936. "My primary objective is a convention of liberal delegates which will write a liberal platform and name a liberal candidate", Borah explained in a statement. "To that end I shall devote my efforts. If in any state or district the liberal forces think that it will help the liberal cause to pledge delegates to me, I shall cooperate fully with that plan."[40]
  • Died: Martin O'Meara, 50, Irish-born Australian soldier

December 21, 1935 (Saturday)

December 22, 1935 (Sunday)

December 23, 1935 (Monday)

  • The Italians first used chemical weapons in Ethiopia, spraying mustard gas and dropping bombs with mustard agent on Ethiopian soldiers and civilians.[33]
  • In a Christmas radio message, Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg announced an extensive amnesty for political prisoners. It benefited both Socialists who fought in the Austrian Civil War and Nazis who participated in the July Putsch.[43]
  • It was announced that Charles Lindbergh and his family had departed the United States for England due to kidnapping threats against their 3-year-old son.[44]
  • Born: Paul Hornung, American football player, in Louisville, Kentucky

December 24, 1935 (Tuesday)

  • The Soviet Union announced that its submarine and destroyer fleets had quadrupled in size over the last four years.[45]
  • 20 were killed and 80 injured in a train collision in Großheringen, Germany.[46]
  • Haile Selassie gave a Christmas message asking all Christian nations to pray for peace.[47]

December 25, 1935 (Wednesday)

December 26, 1935 (Thursday)

December 27, 1935 (Friday)

December 28, 1935 (Saturday)

December 29, 1935 (Sunday)

  • James Grover McDonald announced his resignation, effective tomorrow, as League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Coming from Germany. In his letter of resignation he explained that racial persecution in Germany had become so large a problem that only the League itself could solve it by addressing its source.[53]
  • The Soviet Union decided to allow Christmas trees again, but only for New Year's when they would be designated as New Year trees.[54]
  • Died: Photios II of Constantinople, 60 or 61, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

December 30, 1935 (Monday)

December 31, 1935 (Tuesday)

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Mercer, Derrik (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 460. ISBN 978-0-582-03919-3. 
  2. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (December 2, 1935). "Gag on Pastors Decreed by Nazi Church Ruler". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  3. ^ Darrah, David (December 3, 1935). "Vote for Oil Embargo". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  4. ^ "Tageseinträge für 2. Dezember 1935". chroniknet. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Britain to Seek Stronger Arms, King Declares". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 3, 1935. p. 1. 
  6. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (December 5, 1935). "Nazi Embargo Marks Held in Foreign Lands". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 10. 
  7. ^ "Il Duce Cancels Naval Leaves; Recruits Flyers". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 4, 1935. p. 2. 
  8. ^ Darrah, David (December 6, 1935). "Bar Women as Priests in English Church". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  9. ^ "Tageseinträge für 5. Dezember 1935". chroniknet. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Italian Planes Bomb American Hospital". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 6, 1935. pp. 1, 3. 
  11. ^ "Italians Bomb Selassie's Quarters". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 7, 1935. p. 1. 
  12. ^ "War Goes On! Italy Defiant". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 8, 1935. p. 1. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Pearce, Jeff (2014). Prevail: The Inspiring Story of Ethiopia's Victory over Mussolini's Invasion, 1935–1941. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-63220-096-9. 
  14. ^ "Japan Demands Naval Parity with U.S., Britain". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 8, 1935. p. 5. 
  15. ^ "Houston Counts Million Dollar Loss in Flood". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 9, 1935. p. 24. 
  16. ^ a b Brody, Kenneth (2000). The Avoidable War, Volume 2: Pierre Laval and the Politics of Reality, 1935–1936. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. pp. 146, 148. ISBN 978-1-4128-1777-6. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "Chronology 1935". indiana.edu. 2002. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  18. ^ Weiss, Jessica Chen (2014). Powerful Patriots: Nationalist Protest in China's Foreign Relations. Oxford University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-19-938756-4. 
  19. ^ Hamrin, Carol Lee; Bieler, Stacey (2009). Salt and Light, Volume 1: Lives of Faith That Shaped Modern China. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-62189-291-5. 
  20. ^ "Italy and Abyssinia". Hansard. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  21. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1935". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  22. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (December 11, 1935). "Who Is Fit to Wed? Nazis Fix new Rules". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  23. ^ "Ethiopia Rejects Plan for Peace, Branding it Reward for Aggression". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 11, 1935. p. 1. 
  24. ^ "Albert Meyer, 'Franc Defender,' Name as President of Swiss". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 12, 1935. p. 2. 
  25. ^ Darrah, David (December 13, 1935). "British Nobles Clear Baron of Manslaughter". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  26. ^ Albanese, Patrizia (2006). Mothers of the Nation: Women, Families and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century Europe. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8020-9015-7. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  27. ^ a b "French and British Offer Two-Thirds of Ethiopia to Italy in Peace Move". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 13, 1935. pp. 1–2. 
  28. ^ "Leading Jews Jailed; Nazis Shut Big Store". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 14, 1935. p. 1. 
  29. ^ "Hauptmann to chair Jan. 13". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 14, 1935. p. 1. 
  30. ^ Nicolle, David (2005). The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935–36. Osprey Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-85532-692-7. 
  31. ^ Forgacs, David (2014). Italy's Margins: Social Exclusion and Nation Formation since 1861. Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-107-05217-8. 
  32. ^ "To Accept Peace Plan Would Be Cowardice: Ethiopian King". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 17, 1935. p. 8. 
  33. ^ a b Air & Space Power Journal, Spring 2003. United States Air Force. p. 64. 
  34. ^ "British Boy Scouts to Remove Swastika from their Badges". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 18, 1935. p. 1. 
  35. ^ "Event 904703 Sichuan". International Seismological Centre. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Significant Earthquake". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
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  40. ^ Henning, Arthur Sears (December 21, 1935). "Borah Explains His Entry into President Race". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  41. ^ "5 Nations Join Britain in Fight to Quell Italy". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 22, 1935. p. 1. 
  42. ^ Darrah, David (December 23, 1935). "Baldwin Picks Edem as British Foreign Chief". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  43. ^ "Tageseinträge für 23. Dezember 1935". chroniknet. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  44. ^ "Lindbergh Exile Stirs U. S.". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 24, 1935. p. 1. 
  45. ^ "Russia Warns Japan of Power In Submarines". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 24, 1935. p. 1. 
  46. ^ "20 Die, 80 Hurt in German Yule Train Smashup". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 25, 1935. p. 1. 
  47. ^ "Ethiopianm Ruler Asks America to Pray for Peace". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 25, 1935. p. 2. 
  48. ^ "Martial Law Declared in 3 Chinese Cities". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 26, 1935. p. 1. 
  49. ^ "Italy to Shoot 3 Eritreans in Back as Spies". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 26, 1935. p. 2. 
  50. ^ "5 Planes Bomb River of Lava to Save Town". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 28, 1935. p. 1. 
  51. ^ "Bombs of Army Flyers Fail to Stop Fiery Lava". Chicago Daily Tribune: 3. December 29, 1935. 
  52. ^ "Russia Moves to Take Uruguayan Row to League". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 29, 1935. p. 5. 
  53. ^ "Resigns League Refugee Post; Rebukes Nazis". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 30, 1935. p. 1. 
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  55. ^ a b "Italians Bomb Red Cross Unit; Kill 9 Swedes". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 1, 1936. p. 21. 
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  57. ^ "Germany Cuts Weight of Gold in Wedding Rings". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 31, 1935. p. 8. 
  58. ^ "Accident Details". PlaneCrashInfo. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  59. ^ "Lindy Secluded in Liverpool After Landing". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 1, 1936. p. 6. 
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