Daniel 7

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Daniel's vision of the four beasts - woodcut by Hans Holbein the Younger

Daniel 7 (the seventh chapter of the Book of Daniel) tells of Daniel's vision of four world-kingdoms replaced by the kingdom of God. Four beasts come out of the sea, the Ancient of Days sits in judgement over them, and "one like a son of man" is given eternal kingship. An angelic guide interprets the beasts as kingdoms and kings, the last of whom will make war on the "holy ones" of God, but he will be destroyed and the "holy ones" will be given eternal dominion.

It is generally accepted that the Book of Daniel is a product of the mid-2nd century BC.[1] It is an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient;[2] it is also an eschatology, a divine revelation concerning the moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom.[3] Its context is oppression of the Jews by the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who outlawed Jewish customs and built an altar to Zeus in the Temple (the "abomination of desolation"), sparking a popular uprising which led to the retaking of Jerusalem and the Temple by Judas Maccabeus.[4][5] Chapter 7 introduces the theme of the "four kingdoms", which is that Israel would come under four successive world-empires, each worse than the last, until finally God would end oppression and introduce the eternal kingdom.[6]

Summary

In the first year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon (probably 553 BC), Daniel receives a dream-vision from God. He sees the "great sea" stirred up by the "four winds of heaven," and from the waters emerge four beasts, the first a lion with the wings of an eagle, the second a bear, the third a winged leopard with four heads, and the fourth a beast with ten horns, and a further horn appeared which uprooted three of the ten. As Daniel watches, the Ancient of Days takes his seat on the throne of heaven and sits in judgement in the midst of the heavenly court, the fourth and worst beast is put to death, and a being like a human ("like a son of man") approaches the Ancient One in the clouds of heaven and is given everlasting kingship. A heavenly being explains the vision: the four beasts are four earthly kings (or kingdoms), "but the holy ones of the Most High shall receive and possess the kingdom forever." Regarding the fourth beast, the ten horns are ten kings of this last and greatest earthly kingdom; the eleventh horn (king) will overthrow three kings and make war on the "holy ones of God", and attempt to change the sacred seasons and the law he will have power "for a time, two times and a half", but when his allotted time is done he will be destroyed, and the holy ones will possess the eternal kingdom.[7]

Structure and composition

Detailed structure of Daniel 7. The text is arranged to read top-to-bottom, and parallel left-to-right. (Words in bold font indicate parallel phrases, colors indicate the different kingdoms.[8]

Book of Daniel

It is generally accepted that the Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Jewish community in Babylon and Mesopotamia in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods (5th to 3rd centuries BC), expanded by the visions of chapters 7-12 in the Maccabean era (mid-2nd century BC).[1] Modern scholarship agrees that Daniel is a legendary figure.[9] It is possible that the name was chosen for the hero of the book because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition.[10] The tales are in the voice of an anonymous narrator, except for chapter 4 which is in the form of a letter from king Nebuchadnezzar II.[11] Chapters 2-7 are in Aramaic (after the first few lines of chapter 2 in Hebrew) and are in the form of a chiasmus, a poetic structure in which the main point or message of a passage is placed in the centre and framed by further repetitions on either side:[12]

  • A. (2:4b-49) – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth
    • B. (3:1–30) – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace
      • C. (4:1–37) – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar
      • C'. (5:1–31) – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar
    • B'. (6:1–28) – Daniel in the lions' den
  • A'. (7:1–28) – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifth

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 is pivotal to the larger structure of the entire book, acting as a bridge between the tales of chapters 1-6 and the visions of 7-12. The use of Aramaic and its place in the chiasm link it to the first half, while the use of Daniel as first-person narrator and its emphasis on visions link it to the second. There is also a temporal shift: the tales in chapters 1-6 have run from Nebuchadnezzar to Belshazzar to Darius, but in chapter 7 we move back to the first year of Belshazzar and the forward movement starts over again, to the third year of Belshazzar and then the third year of Cyrus.[13] Most scholars accept that the chapter was written as a unity, possibly based on an early anti-Hellenistic document from around 300 BC; verse 9 is usually printed as poetry, and may be a fragment of an ancient psalm. The overall structure can be described as follows:[8]

  • Introduction (verses 1-2a)
  • Vision report: vision of the four beasts; vision of the "little horn"; throne vision; vision of judgement; vision of a figure on the clouds (2b-14)
  • Interpretation (15-18)
  • Additional clarification of the vision (19-27)
  • Conclusion (28)

Genre and themes

Genre

The Book of Daniel is an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient. Apocalypses are characterized by visions, symbolism, an other-worldly mediator, an emphasis on cosmic events, angels and demons, and pseudonymity (false authorship).[2] Apocalypses were common from 300 BC to AD 100, not only among Jews and Christians, but Greeks, Romans, Persians and Egyptians.[14] Daniel, the book's hero, is a representative apocalyptic seer, the recipient of the divine revelation: has learned the wisdom of the Babylonian magicians and surpassed them, because his God is the true source of knowledge. Daniel is one of the maskilim, the wise, whose task is to teach righteousness.[14] The book is also an eschatology, meaning a divine revelation concerning the end of the present age, a moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom.[3]

Themes

The overall theme of the Book of Daniel is God's sovereignty over history.[15] Written to encourage Jews undergoing persecution at the hands of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Seleucid king of Syria, the visions of chapters 7-12 predict the end of the earthly Seleucid kingdom, its replacement by the eternal kingdom of God, the resurrection of the dead, and the final judgement.[16] Chapter 7 introduces the specific apocalyptic theme of the "four kingdoms", which is that Israel (or the world) would come under four successive world-empires, each worse than the last, until finally God and his hosts would end oppression and introduce the eternal kingdom.[6]

Interpretation

Historical background: from Babylon to the Greeks

In the late 7th and early 6th centuries BC the Neo-Babylonian empire dominated the Middle East. The Kingdom of Judah began the period as a Babylonian client state, but after a series of rebellions Babylon reduced it to the status of a province and carried off its élite (not all its population) into captivity. This "Babylonian exile" ended in 538 BC when Medes and Persians led by Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and ushered in the Persian or Achaemenid empire (with the Achaemenids as the ruling dynasty). The Persian empire in turn succumbed to Alexander the Great in the second half of the 4th century, and following Alexander's death in 323 BC his generals divided his empire between themselves. The Roman Empire in turn eventually took control over those parts of the Middle East to the west of Mesopotamia. Palestine fell first under the control of the Ptolemies of Egypt, but around 200 BC it passed to the Seleucids, then based in Syria. Both dynasties were Greek and both promoted Greek culture, usually peacefully, but the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV, also called Antiochus Epiphanes (reigned 175-164 BC) proved an exception. Interpreting Jewish opposition as motivated by religion and culture, he outlawed Jewish customs such as circumcision, kosher dietary restrictions, Sabbath observance, and the Jewish scriptures (the Torah). In his most infamous act he built an altar to Zeus over the altar of burnt offerings in the Temple (the "abomination of desolation"), sparking in 167 BC a massive popular uprising against Hellenic Greek rule which led to the retaking of Jerusalem and the Temple by Judas Maccabeus[4][5] (164 BC).

The following table shows the prophetic symbols and the empires they probably represent in the original historical context of the Book of Daniel, comparing chapters 2 and 7.

Chapter Historical Empires
Babylonian Empire Medean Empire Achaemenid Persian Empire Macedonian Empire
Daniel 2 Head of gold Chest and 2 arms of silver Belly and thighs of bronze 2 Legs of Iron (Empire of Alexander)
Feet of mixed iron and clay
(division of the empire among diadochi)
Daniel 7 Winged Lion Lopsided Bear 4 Headed/4 Winged
Leopard
Iron toothed beast
w/Little Horn (Antiochus IV)

Imagery and symbolism

The imagery of Daniel 7 comes ultimately from the Canaanite myth of Baʿal's battle with Yamm (lit. "Sea"), symbolic of chaos.[17] The four beasts are chaos monsters[17] which appeared as serpents in the Baʿal Cycle discovered in the ruins of Ugarit in the 1920s. In Daniel 7, composed sometime before Judas Maccabeus purified the temple in 164 BC, they symbolise Babylon, the Medes, Persia and Greece:[18]

  • The lion: Babylon. Its transformation into a man reverses Nebuchadnezzar's transformation into a beast in chapter 4, and the "human mind" may reflect his regaining sanity; the "plucked wings" reflect both loss of power and the transformation to a human state.
  • The bear: the Medes - compare Jeremiah 51:11 on the Medes attacking Babylon.
  • The leopard: Persia. The four heads may reflect the four Persian kings of Daniel 11:2-7.
  • The fourth beast: The Greeks and particularly the Seleucids of Syria.

The "ten horns" that appear on the beast stand for the ten Seleucid kings between Seleucus I, the founder of the kingdom, and Antiochus Epiphanes. The "little horn" is Antiochus himself. The "three horns" uprooted by the "little horn" reflect the fact that Antiochus was fourth in line to the throne, and became king after his brother and one of his brother's sons were murdered and the second son exiled to Rome. Antiochus was responsible only for the murder of one of his nephews, but the author of Daniel 7 holds him responsible for all.[19] Anthiochus called himself Theos Epiphanes, "God Manifest", suiting the "arrogant" speech of the little horn.[20]

The next scene is the divine court. Israelite monotheism should have only one throne as there is only one god, but here we see multiple thrones, suggesting the mythic background to the vision. The "Ancient of Days" echoes Canaanite El, but his wheeled throne suggests Ezekiel's mobile throne of God. He is surrounded by fire and an entourage of "ten thousand times ten thousand", an allusion to the heavenly hosts attending Yahweh, the God of Israel, as he rides to battle against his people's enemies. There is no battle, however; instead "the books" are opened and the fate of Israel's enemies is decided by God's sovereign judgement.[21]

The identity of the "one like a son of man" who approaches God on his throne has been much discussed. The usual suggestion is that this figure represents the triumph of the Jewish people over their oppressor; the main alternative view is that he is the angelic leader of God's heavenly host, a connection made explicitly in chapters 10-12, where the reader is told that the conflict on Earth is mirrored by a war in heaven between Michael, the angelic champion of Israel, assisted by Gabriel, and the angelic "princes" of Greece and Persia; the idea that he is the messiah is sometimes advanced, but Daniel makes no clear reference to the messiah elsewhere.[22]

The "holy ones" seems to refer to the persecuted Jews under Antiochus; the "sacred seasons and the law" are the Jewish religious customs disrupted by him; the "time, two times and a half" is approximately the time of the persecution, from 167 to 164 BC, as well as being half the "perfect number" seven.[23]

"Their kingly power is an everlasting power": the hasidim (the sect of "the pious ones") believed that the restoration of Jewish worship in the temple would usher in the final age.[24]

Millennial interpretation

Just as scholars note parallels between the prophetic chapters in Daniel and Revelation, so too have historicists since the Protestant Reformation. "The Reformation ... was really born of a twofold discovery--first, the rediscovery of Christ and His salvation; and second, the discovery of the identity of Antichrist and his subversions."[25] "The reformers were unanimous in its acceptance. And it was this interpretation of prophecy that lent emphasis to their reformatory action. It led them to protest against Rome with extraordinary strength and undaunted courage. ... This was the rallying point and the battle cry that made the Reformation unconquerable."[26]

The following is a historicist-based illustration of the parallels.

Chapter Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by Historicists[27][28]
Past Present Future
Daniel 2 Head
Gold
(Babylon)
Chest & 2 arms
Silver
(Persia)
Belly and thighs
Bronze
(Greece)
2 Legs
Iron
(Rome)
2 Feet with toes
Clay & Iron
Rock
God's unending kingdom
left to no other people
Daniel 7 Winged Lion Lopsided Bear 4 Headed/4 Winged
Leopard
Iron toothed Beast
w/Little Horn
Judgment scene
Beast w/Horn
slain
A "son of man" comes in clouds
Given "everlasting dominion"
He gives it to the saints.

Anglican

verses "15-28 It is desirable to obtain the right and full sense of what we see and hear from God; and those that would know must ask by faithful and fervent prayer. The angel told Daniel plainly. He especially desired to know respecting the little horn which made war with the saints and prevailed against them. Here is foretold the rage of papal Rome against true Christians. St. John in his visions and prophecies which point in the first place at Rome has plain reference to these visions. Daniel had a joyful prospect of the prevalence of God's kingdom among men. This refers to the second coming of our blessed Lord when the saints shall triumph in the complete fall of Satan's kingdom." [29]

Baptist

Verse 7. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast,.... Not in another night, as Jarchi; but in the same night, and in the same visions of it; only after he had seen the other three successively, then last of all he saw this fourth beast; and more being said of this than of the rest, shows that this was the principal thing in the vision to be observed, as being to endure until, and having a close connection with, the kingdom of the Messiah; which, arising, shall destroy it, and take place of it: this is not the Turkish empire, as Aben Ezra, and others: nor the kingdom of the Seleucidae, as Grotius, and others; to which neither the characters, nor the duration of it, agree; but the Roman empire, which succeeded the Grecian, so Gorionides:

dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; exceeding powerful, as the Roman empire was, and terrible to all the kingdoms of the earth; its armies, wherever they came, struck terror among the nations, and threw them into a panic, killing, wasting, robbing all they met with; and especially it was terrible to Christians, by their persecutions of them, as both Rome Pagan and Rome Papal have been. Rome has its name from strength with the Greeks, and from height with the Hebrews, as Jerome observes:

it had great iron teeth; which may design its generals and emperors, such as Scipio, Pompey, Julius Caesar, and others; which crushed and devoured all that came in their way: this monarchy answers to the legs and feet of iron in Nebuchadnezzar's dream:

it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it; it devoured nations, broke kingdoms in pieces, and brought them in subjection to them; reducing them to the greatest servitude, and obliging them to pay heavy taxes and tribute:

it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it: in its original, language, laws, customs, and forms of government; it was such a monster, that no name could be given it; there was no one beast in nature to which it could be compared; it had all the ill properties of the other beasts, for craft, cruelty oppression, and tyranny; and therefore John describes this same beast as being like a leopard, having the feet of a bear and the mouth of a lion. Revelation 13:2. [30]

Church of Christ

In the mid-19th century, Alexander Campbell debated Bishop Purcell of the Roman Catholic Church, affirming that, "The Scriptures teach that the hierarchical Papacy of the Roman Church is `The great Harlot' of John's apocalypse, `The Man of Sin' of Paul, and `the Little Horn' of Daniel." It is the resistance of this interpretation that leads to the false allegations seeking to deny this. This interpretation is still true, no matter how men may resent it. Sir Isaac Newton, one of the greatest intellectual giants of an entire millennium, unequivocally interpreted this `little horn" as follows: "The little horn is a little kingdom. It was a horn of the fourth beast, and rooted up three of the first horns; and therefore we are to look for it among the nations of the Latin Empire. But it was a kingdom of a different kind from the other ten kingdoms, having a life and soul peculiar to itself, with eyes and a mouth. By its eyes it was a Seer;, and by its mouth speaking great things and changing times and laws, it was a Prophet as well as a King. And such a Seer, Prophet, and King, is the Church of Rome."[14] There is not a Protestant church of any name on earth today that was not founded upon the premise that this interpretation of "the little horn" is true and correct. Furthermore, Sir Isaac Newton went on to identify in detail the "ten kingdoms" (the ten horns) that succeeded the fall of Rome in 476 A.D., and to identify the "three" which were rooted up by the "little horn," the same three being "The Exarchate of Ravenna," "The kingdom of Lombardy," and "the Duchy of Rome," these three becoming "the Patrimony of Peter," making the Roman church a small temporal kingdom, which began about that time to coin money, and to assume other signs of temporal authority, such as the establishment of an armed force (the Papal Guards), etc. It was shortly after the development of this usurpation that the Papacy claimed authority over the kings of the earth, one Pope even presuming to crown Charlemagne as "King of the Holy Roman Empire" on Christmas Day, 800 A.D.[31]

Congregationalist

Little horn the vision is of the end of gentile world-dominion. the former Roman empire (the iron kingdom of Daniel 2:33-35,40-44 ; 7:7 will have ten horns (i.e. kings, revelation 17:12 corresponding to the ten toes of the image. as Daniel considers this vision of the ten kings, there rises up amongst them a little horn (king), who subdues three of the ten kings so completely that the separate identity of their kingdoms is destroyed. seven kings of the ten are left, and the little horn. he is the king of fierce countenance typified by that other king of fierce countenance, antiochus epiphanes, Daniel 8:23-25 the prince that shall come of Daniel 9:26,27 the king of Daniel 11:36-45 the abomination of ; Daniel 12:11 ; matthew 24:15 the man of sin of 2 thessalonians 2:4-8 and the beast of revelation 13:4-10 . see beast ; Daniel 7:8 ; revelation 19:20" [32]

Lutherans

Phillip Melanchton the author of the Augsburg confession wrote these words in his commentary on Daniel 7 "He changeth the tymes and lawes that any of the sixe worke dayes commanded of God will make them unholy and idle dayes when he lyste, or of their own holy days abolished make work days agen, or when they changed the Saturday into Sunday...They have changed God’s lawes and turned them into their owne tradicions to be kept above God’s precepts. And this power shall Anticrist have whether it be for long or short tyme. [33]

“Moreover, it is disputed whether bishops or pastors have the right to introduce ceremonies in the Church, and to make laws concerning meats, holy-days and grades, that is, orders of ministers, etc. They that give this right to the bishops refer to this testimony John 16:12-13, I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit when He, the Spirit of Truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth. They also refer to the example of the Apostles, who commanded to abstain from blood and from things strangled, Acts 15:29. They refer to the Sabbath-day as having been changed into the Lord's Day, contrary to the Decalog, as it seems. Neither is there any example whereof they make more than concerning the changing of the Sabbath-day. Great, say they, is the power of the Church, since it has dispensed with one of the Ten Commandments!” [34]

Methodists

Adam Clarke's commentary published in 1831 supports the interpretation that the little horn is Papal Rome by this comment "Among Protestant writers this is considered to be the popedom."[35]

He stated that the 1260-year period should commence in 755, the year Pepin the Short actually invaded Lombard territory, resulting in the Pope's elevation from a subject of the Byzantine Empire to an independent head of state.[36] The Donation of Pepin, which first occurred in 754 and again in 756 gave to the Pope temporal power of the Papal States. His time line, which began in 755 will end in 2015. But his introductory comments on Daniel 7 added 756 as an alternative commencement date [37] Based on this, commentators anticipate the end of the Papacy in 2016:

"As the date of the prevalence and reign of antichrist must, according to the principles here laid down, be fixed at AD 756, therefore the end of this period of his reign must be AD 756 added to 1260; equal to 2016, the year of the Christian era set by infinite wisdom for this long-prayed-for event. Amen and amen!" [38][39]

"I was considering the horns, and there was another horn, a little one, coming up among them, before whom three of the first horns were plucked out by the roots. And there, in this horn, were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking pompous words. Another little horn - Probably either the Turk or the Romish antichrist."[40]

Roman Catholic Church

Verse 7. "After this, I beheld in the night-vision, and behold, there was a fourth beast, terrible and wonderful and exceedingly strong. He had large iron teeth, devouring and crushing, and everything that was left he stamped to pieces under his feet." The fourth empire is the Roman Empire, which now occupies the entire world, and concerning which it was said in connection with the image, "Its lower legs were of iron, and part of its feet were of iron, and part of clay." And yet from the iron |76 portion itself Daniel calls to mind that its teeth were iron, and solemnly avers that they were large in size. I find it strange that although he had set forth a lioness, a bear and a leopard in the case of the three previous kingdoms, he did not compare the Roman realm to any sort of beast. Perhaps it was in order to render the beast fearsome indeed that he gave it no name, intending thereby that we should understand the Romans to partake of all the more ferocious characteristics we might think of in connection with beasts. The Hebrews believe that the beast which is here not named is the one spoken of in the Psalms: "A boar from the forest laid her waste, and a strange wild animal consumed her" (Ps. 79:14). [This is the citation according to the Septuagint and Vulgate, whose translation of the Septuagint is here quoted; but the citation in the Hebrew text is Ps. 80:14, and in the English Version, 80:13.] Instead of this the Hebrew reads: "All the beasts of the field have torn her." [A more accurate rendering of the Hebrew would be: ". . .and the moving creatures (or "swarms") of the field do feed upon her."] While they are all included in the one Empire of the Romans, we recognize at the same time those kingdoms which were previously separate. And as for the next statement, ". . .devouring and crushing, and pounding all the rest to pieces under his feet," this signifies that all nations have either been slain by the Romans or else have been subjected to tribute and servitude.

". . .But it did not resemble the other beasts which I had previously seen" (Vulgate: "...which I had seen before it"). In the earlier beasts he had seen various symbols of fright-fulness, but they were all concentrated in this one.

". ..and it had ten horns." Porphyry assigned the last two beasts, that of the Macedonians and that of the Romans, to the one realm of the Macedonians and divided them up as follows. He claimed that the leopard was Alexander himself, and that the beast which was dissimilar to the others represented the four successors of Alexander, and then he enumerates ten kings up to the time of Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, and who were very cruel. And he did not assign the kings themselves to separate kingdoms, for example Macedon, Syria, Asia, or Egypt, but rather he made out the various kingdoms a single realm consisting of a series. This he did of course in order that the words |77 which were written: ".. .a mouth uttering overweening boasts" [in the last part of verse 8] might be considered as spoken about Antiochus instead of about Antichrist.

Verse 8. "I was looking at the horns, and behold, another small horn rose up out of the midst of them, and three of the earlier horns were torn away before it. And behold, there were in that horn eyes like unto human eyes, and a mouth uttering overweening boasts." Porphyry vainly surmises that the little (p. 531) horn which rose up after the ten horns is Antiochus Epiphanes, and that the three uprooted horns out of the ten are (A) Ptolemy VI (surnamed Philometer), Ptolemy VII (Euergetes), and Artaraxias, King of Armenia. The first two of these kings died long before Antiochus was born. Against Artarxias, to be sure, we know that Antiochus indeed waged war, but also we know that Artarxias remained in possession of his original kingly authority. We should therefore concur with the traditional interpretation of all the commentators of the Christian Church, that at the end of the world, when the Roman Empire is to be destroyed, there shall be ten kings who will partition the Roman world amongst themselves. Then an insignificant eleventh king will arise, who will overcome three of the ten kings, that is, the king of Egypt, the king of [North] Africa, and the king of Ethiopia, as we shall show more clearly in our later discussion. Then after they have been slain, the seven other kings also will bow their necks to the victor. "And behold," he continues, "there were eyes like unto human eyes in that horn." Let us not follow the opinion of some commentators and suppose him to be either the Devil or some demon, but rather, one of the human race, in whom Satan will wholly take up his residence in bodily form. ". . .and a mouth uttering overweening boasts..." (cf. II Thess. 2). For this is the man of sin, the son (668) of perdition, and that too to such a degree that he dares to sit in the temple of God, making himself out to be like God. [41]

Seventh-day Adventists

Ellen White writing of what Adventist believe[42] of the Daniel 7 prophecy, and how it points to Papal Rome writes,

The special characteristic of the beast, and therefore of his image, is the breaking of God's commandments. Says Daniel, of the little horn, the papacy: "He shall think to change times and the law." Daniel 7:25, R.V. And Paul styled the same power the "man of sin," who was to exalt himself above God. One prophecy is a complement of the other. Only by changing God's law could the papacy exalt itself above God; whoever should understandingly keep the law as thus changed would be giving supreme honor to that power by which the change was made. Such an act of obedience to papal laws would be a mark of allegiance to the pope in the place of God.

The papacy has attempted to change the law of God. The second commandment, forbidding image worship, has been dropped from the law, and the fourth commandment has been so changed as to authorize the observance of the first instead of the seventh day as the Sabbath. But papists urge, as a reason for omitting the second commandment, that it is unnecessary, being included in the first, and that they are giving the law exactly as God designed it to be understood. This cannot be the change foretold by the prophet. An intentional, deliberate change is presented: "He shall think to change the times and the law." The change in the fourth commandment exactly fulfills the prophecy. For this the only authority claimed is that of the church. Here the papal power openly sets itself above God. [43]

Appendix

Over the centuries Bible Scholars have identified specific kingdoms as fulfillment of the beast and horn symbols as illustrated in the following table.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ a b Collins 1984, p. 29,34-35.
  2. ^ a b Crawford 2000, p. 73.
  3. ^ a b Carroll 2000, p. 420-421.
  4. ^ a b Bandstra 2008, p. 449.
  5. ^ a b Aune 2010, p. 15-19.
  6. ^ a b Cohen 2006, p. 188-189.
  7. ^ Levine 2003, p. 1247-1249.
  8. ^ a b Collins 1984, p. 74-75.
  9. ^ Collins 1984, p. 28.
  10. ^ Redditt 2008, p. 176-177,180.
  11. ^ Wesselius 2002, p. 295.
  12. ^ Redditt 2009, p. 177.
  13. ^ Hebbard 2009, p. 23.
  14. ^ a b Davies 2006, p. 397-406.
  15. ^ Levine 2010, p. 1234.
  16. ^ Nelson 2000, p. 311-312.
  17. ^ a b Collins 1984, p. 77.
  18. ^ Levine 2010, p. p.1247 footnotes.
  19. ^ Levine 2010, p. 1247-1248 footnotes.
  20. ^ Seow 2003, p. 106.
  21. ^ Seow 2003, p. 106-107.
  22. ^ Collins 1998, p. 101-103.
  23. ^ Levine 2010, p. 1248-1249, footnotes.
  24. ^ Hammer, 1976 & p.82.
  25. ^ Froom 1948, p. 243
  26. ^ Froom 1948, pp. 244, 245
  27. ^ Smith 1944
  28. ^ Anderson 1975
  29. ^ Daniel 7, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments (1708–10), Matthew Henry
  30. ^ John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible 1748-1763 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  31. ^ Coffman Commentaries Series, James B. Coffman May 1, 1974
  32. ^ Cyrus I. Scofield's Study Reference (1909)
  33. ^ The exposicion of Daniel the Prophete gathered oute of Philip Melanchton/ Johan Ecolampadius/ Conrade Pellicane & out of Johan Draconite. &c. By George Joye (1545), page 119
  34. ^ Augsburg Confession, Phillip Melanchton, June 25, 1530, Article XXVIII, Of Ecclesiastical Power
  35. ^ Adam Clarke's Commentary of Daniel, Chapter 7 (see notes on verse 8)
  36. ^ Earle, abridged by Ralph (1831). Adam Clarke's commentary on the Bible (Reprint 1967 ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: World Pub. ISBN 9780529106346. 
  37. ^ Adam Clarke "The Holy Bible" New York: Lane and Scott (1850) Vol. IV, Introduction to Chapter VII. Page 592 "It will be proper to remark that the period of a time, times, and a half, mentioned in the twenty-fifth verse are the duration of the dominion of the little horn that made war with the saints, (generally supposed to be a symbolic representation of the papal power,) had most probably its commencement in A.D. 755 or 756, when Pepin, king of France, invested the pope with temporal power. This hypothesis will bring the conclusion of the period to about the year of Christ 2000, a time fixed by Jews and Christians for some remarkable revolution; when the world, as they suppose, will be renewed, and the wicked cease from troubling the Church, and the saints of the Most High have dominion over the whole habitable globe."
  38. ^ Freeborn Garretson Hibbard "Eschatology: Or, The Doctrine of the Last Things" New York: Hunt & Eaton (1890) page 84
  39. ^ D. D. Whedon "The Methodist Quarterly Review" New York: Carlton & Porter (1866) Article V page 256
  40. ^ John Wesley's Commentary on the whole Bible (1754-1765)
  41. ^ Saint Jerome (407)
  42. ^ https://adventistbiblicalresearch.org/materials/prophecy/ellen-g-white-and-interpretation-daniel-and-revelation
  43. ^ White, Ellen G. (1999) [1888]. "Enmity Between Man and Satan". The Great Controversy: Between Christ and Satan. The Ellen G. White Estate. p. 446. ISBN 0-8163-1923-5. Archived from the original on 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2006-06-06. 
  44. ^ After table in Froom 1950, pp. 456–7
  45. ^ After table in Froom 1950, pp. 894-75
  46. ^ a b After table in Froom 1948, pp. 528–9
  47. ^ After table in Froom 1948, pp. 784–5
  48. ^ After table in Froom 1946, pp. 252–3
  49. ^ After table in Froom 1946, pp. 744–5

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