Czech Social Democratic Party

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Czech Social Democratic Party
Česká strana sociálně demokratická
Leader Jan Hamáček
Deputy Leaders Jiří Zimola
Jana Fialová
Jaroslav Foldyna
Martin Netolický
Roman Onderka
Chamber of Deputies Leader Jan Chvojka
Senate Leader Petr Vícha
MEP Leader Pavel Poc
Founder Josef Boleslav Pecka
Founded 7 April 1878; 140 years ago (1878-04-07)
Headquarters Hybernská 7, Prague
Think tank Masaryk Democratic Academy[1]
Youth wing Young Social Democrats
Women's wing Social Democratic Women
Religious wing Christian Social Platform
Membership (2018) 17,863[2]
Ideology Social democracy[3][4][5]
Political position Centre-left
European affiliation Party of European Socialists
International affiliation Socialist International
Progressive Alliance
European Parliament group Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Colours      Orange      Red
Slogan Freedom, Justice, Solidarity
Chamber of Deputies
15 / 200
Senate
23 / 81
European Parliament
4 / 21
Regional councils
125 / 675
Governors of the regions
5 / 13
Local councils
3,806 / 62,300
Party flag
Flag of the Czech Social Democratic Party
Website
www.cssd.cz

The Czech Social Democratic Party (Czech: Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD) is a social-democratic[3][4][5] political party in the Czech Republic. It holds 15 seats in the Chamber of Deputies following the 2017 legislative election, losing 35 seats. The party has been led by Jan Hamáček since 2018. It has been a junior coalition party within a minority cabinet since June 2018, and was a senior coalition party from 1998 to 2006 and from 2013 to 2017.

The ČSSD is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance. Its members are divided into two prominent groups:[13] a liberal wing, consists predominantly of progressive[13] and pro-European members, and a conservative wing, which is often described as a social-conservative,[14] left-wing nationalist[15] and Eurosceptic.

History

The Social Democratic Czechoslavonic party in Austria (Czech: Sociálně Demokratická strana Českoslovanská v Rakousku) was a political group founded on 7 April 1878 in Austria-Hungary as a regional wing of the Social Democratic Party of Austria. It represented much of the Kingdom of Bohemia in the Austrian parliament, and its significant role in the political life of the empire was one of the factors that led to the creation of an independent Czechoslovakia. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of the First World War, the party became one of the leading parties of the first Czechoslovak Republic. Its members were split over whether to join the Comintern, which in 1921 resulted in the fracturing of the party, with a large part of its membership then forming the new Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

CSSD Membership card, 1945

During the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany, the party was officially abolished, but its members organized resistance movements contrary to the laws of the German-controlled Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, both at home and abroad. After the re-establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1945, the party returned to its pre-war structure and became a member of the National Front which formed a new governing coalition. In 1948, after the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia gained a parliamentary majority, the Czech Social Democratic Party was incorporated into the Communist Party. At the time of the Prague Spring, a reformist movement in 1968, there were talks about allowing the recreation of a Social Democratic party, but Soviet intervention put an end to such ideas. It was only after the Velvet Revolution of 1989 that the party was recreated. Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, which came into effect on 1 January 1993, the ČSSD has been one of the major political parties of the Czech Republic, and until October 2017 was always one of the two parties with the largest number of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.

At the 1998 parliamentary election, the party won the largest number of seats but failed to form a coalition government, so formed a minority government under its leader Miloš Zeman. With only 74 seats out of 200, the government had confidence and supply from the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), under the so-called Opposition Agreement.

At the elections of 2002, the party gained 70 of the 200 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Its leader Vladimír Špidla became prime minister, heading a coalition with two small centre-right parties, the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party (KDU–ČSL) and the Freedom Union – Democratic Union (US-DEU) until he was forced to resign in 2004 after the ČSSD lost in the European Parliament elections of 2004

The next leader was Stanislav Gross, serving as leader from 26 June 2004 to 26 April 2005 and as prime minister from 4 August 2004 to 25 April 2005. He resigned after a scandal when he was unable to explain the source of money used to buy his house.

The successor of Gross as prime minister was Jiří Paroubek, while Bohuslav Sobotka became acting party leader from 26 April 2005 to 13 May 2006. Paroubek was then elected as the new party leader in the run-up to the June 2006 elections, at which the party won 32.3% of the vote and 74 out of 200 seats. The election at first caused a stalemate, since the centre-right parties plus the Green Party and the centre-left parties each had exactly 100 seats. The stalemate was broken when two ČSSD deputies, Miloš Melčák and Michal Pohanka, abstained during a vote of confidence, allowing a coalition of the Civic Democrats (ODS), the KDU-ČSL, and the Green Party to form a government. Hence the ČSSD went into opposition.

At the 2010 legislative elections on 28 and 29 May, the ČSSD gained 22.08% of the vote but remained the largest party, with 56 seats. Failing to form a governing coalition, it remained in opposition to a government coalition of the ODS, conservative TOP 09 and conservative-liberal Public Affairs parties. Paroubek resigned as leader on 7 June and was succeeded by Sobotka.

The Party remained the largest Party even after 2013 legislative election of 25 and 26 October 2013 and in December formed a governing coalition with the populist ANO 2011 and the centrist Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party.[16] The leader of ČSSD, Bohuslav Sobotka, became the new Prime Minister of the Czech Republic.

The party suffered heavy losses in 2017 legislative election and was reduced to only 15 seats, the worst result in its history.

Policy positions

In economic matters, the ČSSD party platform is typical of Western European social democratic parties. It supports a mixed economy, a strong welfare state, and progressive taxation.

In foreign policy it supports European integration, including joining the eurozone, and is critical of US foreign policy, especially when in opposition—though it does not oppose membership of the Czech Republic in NATO.

Name of the party over time

Czech lands as part of Austria-Hungary:

  • 1878–1893 The Czechoslavonic Social Democratic Party in Austria (Sociálně-demokratická strana českoslovanská v Rakousku) – part of Social Democratic Party of Austria
  • 1893–1918 The Czechoslavonic Social Democratic Workers' Party (Českoslovanská sociálně demokratická stranu dělnická) – independent party

Czechoslovakia:

Czech Republic:

  • since 1993 Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická)

Election results

Chamber of Deputies (Czechoslovakia)

Date Leader Votes Seats Position
# % # ± Size
1920 Antonín Němec 1,590,520 25.7
74 / 300
Increase 74 1st Coalition
1925 Antonín Hampl 632,403 8.9
25 / 300
Decrease 45 4th Coalition
1929 Antonín Hampl 963,462 13
39 / 300
Increase 10 2nd Opposition
1935 Antonín Hampl 1,032,773 12.6
38 / 300
Decrease 1 3rd Coalition
1946 Zdeněk Fierlinger 855,771 12.1
37 / 300
Decrease 1 5th Coalition

Chamber of Deputies (Czech Republic)

Date Leader Votes Seats Position
# % # ± Size
1990 Jiří Horák 296,165 4.1
0 / 200
Steady 6th extra-parliamentary
1992 Jiří Horák 422,736 6.5
16 / 200
Increase 16 3rd Opposition
1996 Miloš Zeman 1,602,250 26.4
61 / 200
Increase 45 2nd gov′t support
1998 Miloš Zeman 1,928,660 32.3
74 / 200
Increase 13 1st Minority
2002 Vladimír Špidla 1,440,279 30.2
70 / 200
Decrease 4 1st Coalition
2006 Jiří Paroubek 1,728,827 32.3
74 / 200
Increase 4 2nd Opposition (2006–2009)
Coalition (2009–2010)
2010 Jiří Paroubek 1,155,267 22.1
56 / 200
Decrease 18 1st Opposition
2013 Bohuslav Sobotka 1,016,829 20.5
50 / 200
Decrease 6 1st Coalition
2017 Lubomír Zaorálek 368,347 7.3
15 / 200
Decrease 35 6th Opposition (2017–2018)
Coalition (since 2018)

Results by regions

Region 1990 1992 1996 1998 2002 2006 2010 2013
Prague 4,65 5,14 18,68 23,44 25,85 23,29 15,17 14,09
Central Bohemian 4,83 6,82 25,40 32,70 31,58 30,74 20,52 18,44
South Bohemian 3,94 8,03 24,95 31,11 30,33 30,47 20,55 20,73
West Bohemian 5,89 8,78 25,71 32,73
Plzeň 30,34 31,69 22,01 21,65
Karlovy Vary 29,31 32,73 23,29 21,34
North Bohemian 6,92 7,97 28,74 34,71
Ústí nad Labem 29,18 35,46 24,93 20,77
Liberec 27,05 29,31 19,40 16,89
East Bohemian 5,26 7,20 24,78 29,94 16,89
Hradec Králové 27,48 30,14 19,87 18,57
Pardubice 29,45 32,95 21,95 20,53
Vysočina 31,97 35,35 23,43 23,01
South Moravian 1,51 4,56 24,96 31,81 29,90 32,95 23,35 22,94
North Moravian 2,87 4,56 34,21 38,98
Olomouc 31,92 35,44 24,47 22,22
Zlín 29,06 33,28 21,93 19,39
Moravian-Silesian 36,13 40,54 29,13 26,38
Czech republic 4,11 6,53 26,44 32,31 30,20 32,32 22,08 20,45

Senate

1996 whole Senate elected (81 seats), in next elections only one third of seats to be contested

Election First round Second round Seats Total Seats Notes
Votes % Runners-up Place* Votes % Place*
1996 559,304 20.3
48 / 81
2nd 733,713 31.8 2nd
25 / 81
25 / 81
The whole Senate was elected. Only one third of Senate was elected in all subsequent elections.
1998 208,845 21.7
5 / 27
3rd 121,700 22.7 3rd
3 / 27
23 / 81
1999 327 1.0
0 / 1
5th  
0 / 1
23 / 81
By-election in Prague 1 district.
2000 151,943 17.7
5 / 27
3rd 53,503 9.5 5th
1 / 27
15 / 81
2002 122,397 18.4
14 / 27
2nd 224,386 27.3 2nd
7 / 27
11 / 81
2003 2,424 6.8
0 / 2
6th  
0 / 2
11 / 81
By-elections in Strakonice and Brno-city district.
2004 5,203 14.7
1 / 2
3rd 5,358 20.51 3rd
0 / 2
11 / 81
By-elections in Prague 4 and Znojmo districts.
2004 90,446 12.5
3 / 27
4th 24,923 5.2 4th
0 / 27
7 / 81
2006 204,573 19.2
11 / 27
2nd 120,127 20.9 2nd
6 / 27
13 / 81
2007 6,456 21.66
1 / 2
1st 4,338 21.54 2nd
1 / 2
13 / 81
By-elections for Chomutov and Přerov
2008 347,759 33.2
26 / 27
1st 459,829 55.9 1st
23 / 27
29 / 81
2010 290,090 25.3
22 / 27
1st 299,526 44.0 1st
12 / 27
41 / 81
2011 12,088 44.3
1 / 1
1st 13,505 65.1 1st
1 / 1
41 / 81
By-election in Kladno district
2012 199,957 22.7
23 / 27
1st 207,064 40.3 1st
13 / 27
46 / 81
2014 3,695 16.1
0 / 1
3rd  
0 / 1
46 / 81
By-election in Zlín district
2014 226,239 22.0
19 / 27
1st 165,629 35.0 1st
10 / 27
33 / 81
2014 2,092 16.8
1 / 1
1st 3,664 50.9 1st
1 / 1
33 / 81
By-election in Prague 10 district, Ivana cabrnochová was a Green Party candidate supported by ČSSD
2016 128,875 14.6
9 / 27
2nd 55,622 13.1 3rd
2 / 27
25 / 81
2018 1,294 5.7
0 / 1
6th  
0 / 1
25 / 81
By-election in Trutnov district.
2018 1,270 7.5
0 / 1
6th  
0 / 1
25 / 81
By-election in Zlín district.

Presidential

Indirect Election Candidate First round result Second round result Third round result
Votes %Votes Result Votes %Votes Result Votes %Votes Result
1998 Václav Havel 130 70.65 Runner-up 146 52.3 Won
2003
Jaroslav Bureš 46 17.04 Eliminated
Miloš Zeman 83 30.18 Eliminated
Jan Sokol 128 46.55 Runner-up 129 48.13 Runner-up 124 46.6 Lost
2008 Jan Švejnar 138 49.82 Runner-up 135 48.74 Runner-up 113 44.84 2nd place
128 49.10 Runner-up 141 47.19 Runner-up 111 44.05 Lost
Direct Election Candidate First round result Second round result
Votes %Votes Result Votes %Votes Result
2013 Jiří Dienstbier Jr. 829,297 16.12 4th supported Miloš Zeman

European Parliament

Election Votes Share of votes in % Seats obtained Place
2004
204,903
8.78
2 / 25
5th
2009
528,132Increase
22.39Increase
7 / 22
2ndIncrease
2014
214,800Decrease
14.17Decrease
4 / 21
3rdDecrease

Regional election

Election
Votes Share of votes in % Councillors
2000 344,441 14.67
112 / 675
2004 297,083 14.03
105 / 675
2008 1,044,719 35.86
280 / 675
2012 621,961 23.58
205 / 675
2016 386,150 15.25
125 / 675

Local election

Election
Share of votes in % Councillors
1994 8.7 1,628
1998 17.54 4,259
2002 15.57 4,664
2006 16.61 4,331
2010 19.68 4,584
2014 12.65 3,773

Prague municipal elections

Year Leader Vote Vote % Seats +/− Place Position
1990 484,484 5.6
5 / 76
4th Opposition
1994 Jiří Paroubek 2,435,279 8.6
5 / 55
Steady 4th Opposition
1998 Jiří Paroubek 363,917 17.5
10 / 55
Increase5 3rd Coalition
2002 Jiří Paroubek 656,936 14.7
12 / 70
Increase2 3rd Coalition
2006 Petra Buzková 4,197,631 15.9
12 / 70
Steady 2nd Opposition
2010 Jiří Dienstbier Jr. 615,209 17.9
19 / 65
Increase7 2nd Coalition
2014 Miloslav Ludvík 2,160,963 10.4
8 / 65
Decrease11 5th Coalition

Chairmen of the Czech Social Democratic Party

Czechoslavonic Social Democratic Workers' Party

Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers' Party

Czechoslovak Social Democracy

Czechoslovak Social Democracy in exile

Czechoslovak Social Democracy

Czech Social Democratic Party

Current Representatives

ČSSD has following members of the government (2013–2017):

  • Bohuslav Sobotka (Prime Minister)
  • Milan Chovanec (Minister of Interior)
  • Lubomír Zaorálek (Minister of Foreign Affairs)
  • Michaela Marksová-Tominová (Minister of Labour and Social Affairs)
  • Jan Mládek (Minister of Industry and Trade)
  • Svatopluk Němeček (Minister of Health)
  • Kateřina Valachová (Minister of Education, Youth and Sport)
  • Jiří Dienstbier Jr. (Minister for Human Rights and Equal Opportunities)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Masarykova demokratická akademie". CSSD.cz. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  2. ^ "ČSSD čeká měsíc půtek. A pak za plentu". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 3 May 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "Czechia". Parties and Elections in Europe. 
  4. ^ a b Paul G. Lewis (2000). Political Parties in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. Routledge. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-415-20182-7. Retrieved 6 February 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Dimitri Almeida (27 April 2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. CRC Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  6. ^ "Jiří Vojáček: Je čas na troskách ČSSD založit nové politické hnutí?". denikreferendum.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 21 July 2018. 
  7. ^ https://www.parlamentnilisty.cz/arena/politologove/Jsem-popularni-protoze-mluvim-naplno-vyznava-pry-Dienstbier-Muzeme-se-od-nej-nadat-jeste-mnoheho-312489
  8. ^ https://archiv.ihned.cz/c1-66177820-poslance-stepi-spor-o-rodinu
  9. ^ "Exministr Mertlík skončil v ČSSD, vadí mu Zimola i Foldyna. Nejsem nacionální socialista, říká". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 12 June 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018. 
  10. ^ Uhl, Petr. "Když ČSSD ovládl Chovanec". A2larm (in Czech). Retrieved 21 July 2018. 
  11. ^ https://www.cssd.cz/data/files/evropa-a-my.pdf
  12. ^ "Proč ve volbách prohrála levice". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 2018-07-24. 
  13. ^ a b Sortof. "Jiří Vojáček: Je čas na troskách ČSSD založit nové politické hnutí? - Deník Referendum". denikreferendum.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2018-07-24. 
  14. ^ Wirnitzer, Jan (2018-06-25). "Poslance štěpí spor o rodinu. Ve sněmovně jsou dva protichůdné návrhy řešící manželství homosexuálních párů". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 2018-07-24. 
  15. ^ "Exministr Mertlík skončil v ČSSD, vadí mu Zimola i Foldyna. Nejsem nacionální socialista, říká | Aktuálně.cz". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-07-24. 
  16. ^ Leos Rousek, Czechs Clear Way for Three-Party Coalition Government in the Wall Street Journal dated Dec 11, 2013, accessed 23 December 2017
  17. ^ Kowalski, Werner. Geschichte der sozialistischen Arbeiter-Internationale: 1923 – 1938, Berlin: Dt. Verl. d. Wissenschaften, 1985. p. 327.

External links

  • Official website (in Czech)
  • Party basic data in English
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