Cypriot Turkish

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Cypriot Turkish
Kıbrıs Türkçesi
Native to Northern Cyprus, Cyprus
Native speakers

177,000 all varieties of Turkish in Cyprus (1995)[1]
Turkic
no formal writing (Cypriot people write in Istanbul Turkish)
Official status
Regulated by unregulated (Istanbul Turkish is used in education, broadcast and legal matters)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog cypr1251[2]
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Cypriot Turkish (Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkçesi) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by Turkish Cypriots both in Cyprus and among its diaspora.

History

Emanating from Anatolia and evolved for four centuries, Cypriot Turkish is the vernacular spoken by Cypriots with Ottoman ancestry, as well as by Cypriots who converted to Islam during Ottoman rule.[3] It is understood by expatriate Cypriots living in the UK, United States, Australia and other parts of the world.

Cypriot Turkish consists of a blend of Ottoman Turkish and the Yörük dialect that is spoken in the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. In addition it has absorbed influences from Greek, Italian and English.

Cypriot Turkish is mutually intelligible with Standard Turkish.

Sounds

Differences between standard Turkish and Cypriot Turkish

Cypriot Turkish is distinguished by a number of sound alternations not found in standard Turkish, but some of which are also quite common in other Turkish vernaculars:

  • Voicing of some unvoiced stops
    • t↔d, k↔g
Standard Turkish taş ↔ Cypriot Turkish daş "stone"
Standard Turkish kurt ↔ Cypriot Turkish gurt "wolf"
Standard Turkish Kıbrıs ↔ Cypriot Turkish Gıprıs "Cyprus"
  • Preservation of earlier Turkic
Standard Turkish son ↔ Cypriot Turkish soŋ "end, last"
Standard Turkish bin ↔ Cypriot Turkish biŋ "thousand"
  • Changing 1st person plural suffix
    • z↔k
Standard Turkish isteriz ↔ Cypriot Turkish isterik "we want"
  • Unvoicing of some voiced stops
    • b↔p
Template:For example: Standart Turkish: Arabaya binmek , Cypriot Turkish: Arabaya pinmek English:Get on the car
Standard Turkish hiç ↔ Cypriot Turkish hiş "no, none"

The last two alternations are more specific to Cypriot Turkish.

Consonants

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p b c ɟ k ɡ    
Affricate                
Fricative f v ʃ ʒ   ɣ h  
Nasal m n     ŋ    
Flap/Tap     ɾ            
Lateral     l ɫ            
Semivowel       j        

Vowels

front back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
high i (i) y (ü) ɯ (ı) u (u)
mid/low ɛ (e) ø (ö) ɑ (a) o (o)

Grammar

Cypriot Turkish is structured as a VO language as opposed to standard Turkish which is an OV language. It is very typical in forming a question.

  • Standard Turkish "Okula gidecek misin?" is, in Cypriot Turkish, "Gideceŋ okula?" (Will you go to school?)

Cypriot Turkish uses the aorist tense instead of the present continuous tense, and very often in place of the future tense as well.

  • Standard Turkish "Okula gidiyorum" (I am going to school) or a "Okula gideceğim" are, in Cypriot Turkish, "Giderim okula" (I go to school / I am going to school / I will go to school)

Cypriot Turkish does not use the narrative/indefinite past, and only uses the simple past instead.

  • Standard Turkish "Eve gitmiş" (He is reported to have gone home) is, in Cypriot Turkish, not used. Instead "Eve gitti / Gitti eve" (He went home) suffices.

Cypriot Turkish also lacks the question suffix of "mi".[4] This is similar to colloquial Azerbaijani.

  • Standard Turkish "Annen evde midir?" (Is your mother at home?) is, in Cypriot Turkish, "Anneŋ evdedir?"

In Cypriot Turkish, the reflexive pronoun in third person is different, namely geŋni (him, himself, them, themself). In Standard Turkish, kendisini.

Semantics

Typical question usually do not qualify as standard Turkish questions (see the example above) because question suffixes are usually dropped by native Turkish Cypriots. Another subtle difference is the emphasis on verbs.

See also

References

  1. ^ Turkish (Cyprus) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cypriot Turkish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Jennings, Ronald (1993), Christians and Muslims in Ottoman Cyprus and the Mediterranean World, 1571-1640, New York University Press ISBN 0-814-74181-9.
  4. ^ Demir, Nurettin. "Kıbrıs Ağızları Üzerine Notlar" (PDF). Journal of Turcology (in Turkish). Çukurova University. Retrieved 14 June 2011. 

Bibliography

  • Erdoğan Saracoğlu (1992). Kıbrıs Ağzı: Sesbilgisi Özellikleri, Metin Derlemeleri, Sözlük. K.K.T.C. Millî Eğitim ve Kültür Bakanlığı. ISBN 975-17-1015-4. 
  • Yıltan Taşçı (1986). Kıbrıs Ağzı Dil Özellikleri. Lefkoşa: Akar Yayıncılık. 

External links

  • List of Cypriot Turkish Vocabulary (in Turkish)
  • Turkish Cypriot Idioms Search Engine
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