Culture of Kuwait

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Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, also known as Kuwait Opera House

Kuwaiti popular culture, in the form of dialect poetry, film, theatre, radio and television soap opera, flourishes and is even exported to neighboring states.[1][2] Within the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, the culture of Kuwait is the closest to the culture of Bahrain.[3]

Arts

Kuwait has the oldest modern arts movement in the Arabian Peninsula.[4][5][6] Beginning in 1936, Kuwait was the first Gulf country to grant scholarships in the arts.[4] The Kuwaiti artist Mojeb al-Dousari was the earliest recognized visual artist in the Gulf region.[7] He is regarded as the founder of portrait art in the region.[8] The Sultan Gallery was the first professional Arab art gallery in the Gulf.[9][10]

Kuwait is home to more than 30 art galleries.[11][12] In recent years, Kuwait's contemporary art scene has boomed.[13][14][15] Khalifa Al-Qattan was the first artist to hold a solo exhibition in Kuwait. He founded a new art theory in the early 1960s known as "circulism".[16][17] Other notable Kuwaiti artists include Sami Mohammad, Thuraya Al-Baqsami and Suzan Bushnaq.

The government organizes various arts festivals, including the Al Qurain Cultural Festival and Formative Arts Festival.[18][19][20] The Kuwait International Biennial was inaugurated in 1967,[21] more than 20 Arab and foreign countries have participated in the biennial.[21] Prominent participants include Layla Al-Attar. In 2004, the Al Kharafi Biennial for Contemporary Arab Art was inaugurated.

In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world.[22] Ismail Fahd Ismail was one of the first Kuwaiti writers to achieve success in the Arab world. Taleb al-Refai, Laila al-Othman, A. H. Almaas, Taibah Al-Ibrahim, Najma Idrees, and Fatimah Yousif al-Ali are also among the pioneer writers.

Music

Tabla player Ustad Munawar Khan at the 8th International Music Festival in Kuwait

Kuwait is the birthplace of various popular musical genres, such as sawt.[23] Kuwaiti music has considerably influenced the music culture in other GCC countries.[24][23] Traditional Kuwaiti music is a reflection of the country's seafaring heritage,[25] which is known for genres such as fijiri.[26][27][28] Kuwait pioneered contemporary Khaliji music,[29][30][31] Kuwaitis were the first commercial recording artists in the Gulf region.[29][30][31] The first known Kuwaiti recordings were made between 1912 and 1915.[32]

The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre is the largest opera house in the Middle East.[33] Kuwait is home to various music festivals, including the International Music Festival hosted by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL).[34][35] Kuwait has several academic institutions specializing in university-level music education.[36][37][38] The Higher Institute of Musical Arts was established by the government to provide bachelor's degrees in music.[36][37][38] In addition, the College of Basic Education offers bachelor's degrees in music education.[36][37][38] The Institute of Musical Studies offers degrees equivalent to secondary school.[36][38][37]

Kuwait has a reputation for being the central music influence of the GCC countries.[39][24] Over the last decade of satellite television stations, many Kuwaiti musicians have become household names in other Arab countries. For example, Bashar Al Shatty became famous due to Star Academy. Contemporary Kuwaiti music is popular throughout the Arab world. Nawal El Kuwaiti, Nabeel Shoail and Abdallah Al Rowaished are the most popular contemporary performers.

Literature

Kuwait has, in recent years, produced several prominent contemporary writers such as Ismail Fahd Ismail, author of over twenty novels and numerous short story collections.[40] There is also evidence that Kuwaiti literature has long been interactive with English and French literature.[41]

Performing arts

Kuwait is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre.[42][43][44] It is the only country in the Gulf with a theatrical tradition.[42] The theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the country's cultural life.[45] Theatrical activities in Kuwait began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released.[46] Theatre activities are still popular today.[45] Abdulhussain Abdulredha is the most prominent actor.

Kuwait is the main centre of scenographic and theatrical training in the Gulf region.[47][48] In 1973, the Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts was founded by the government to provide higher education in theatrical arts.[48] The institute has several divisions. Many actors have graduated from the Institute, such as Souad Abdullah, Mohammed Khalifa, Mansour Al-Mansour, along with a number of prominent critics such as Ismail Fahd Ismail.

Kuwait's television drama industry tops other Gulf drama industries and produces a minimum of fifteen serials annually.[49][50][51] Kuwait is the production center of the Gulf television drama and comedy scene.[50] Most Gulf television drama and comedy productions are filmed in Kuwait.[50][52][53] Kuwaiti soap operas are the most-watched soap operas in the Gulf region.[49][54][55] Soap operas are most popular during the time of Ramadan, when families gather to break their fast.[56] Although usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.[57]

Kuwait is frequently dubbed the "Hollywood of the Gulf" due to the popularity of its television soap operas and theatre.[58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77] Theatre in Kuwait is subsidized by the government, previously by the Ministry of Social Affairs and now by the National Council for Culture, Arts, and Letters (NCCAL).[78] Every urban district has a public theatre.[79] The public theatre in Salmiya is named after Abdulhussain Abdulredha.[citation needed]

Museums

Sadu House is among Kuwait's most important cultural institutions. Bait Al-Othman is the largest museum specializing in Kuwait's history. The Scientific Center is one of the largest science museums in the Middle East. The Museum of Modern Art showcases the history of modern art in Kuwait and the region.[80] The National Museum, established in 1983, has been described as "underused and overlooked".[81]

Several Kuwaiti museums are devoted to Islamic art, most notably the Tareq Rajab Museums and Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres.[82][83] The Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres include education wings, conservation labs, and research libraries.[84][85][86] There are several art libraries in Kuwait.[87][86][88] Many museums in Kuwait are private enterprises.[89][82] In contrast to the top-down approach in other Gulf states, museum development in Kuwait reflects a greater sense of civic identity and demonstrates the strength of civil society in Kuwait, which has produced many independent cultural enterprises.[90][82][89]

The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait National Cultural District (KNCD), which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace.[91][92] With a capital cost of more than US$1 billion, the project is one of the largest cultural investments in the world.[91] The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.[93]

Gargee'an

Qarqe'an is an annual celebration, observed in Kuwait, that takes place between the 13th and 15th nights of Ramadan. Gergee'an is marked with children dressing in traditional attire and going door-to-door to receive sweets from neighbours, whilst also singing traditional songs. The tradition has existed for hundreds of years and deeply rooted in Kuwaiti culture.[94]

Although the celebration of Qarqe'an shares superficial similarities with the Halloween custom of trick-or-treating, practiced in some western countries, Qarqe'an has no connection with horror and no associated origin with Halloween.

Cuisine

Seafood has been the mainstay of Kuwaiti cuisine for centuries.

Dewaniya

The Dewaniya has existed in Kuwait since time immemorial. In the old city of Kuwait it was the reception area where a man received his business colleagues and male guests. Today the term refers both to a reception hall and the gathering held in it, and visiting or hosting a dewaniya is an indispensable feature of a Kuwaiti man’s social life. Dewaniya became a fundamental part of Kuwaiti life. Hence, it has become a mark in their traditional daily life.

Sport

Jaber Stadium is the largest stadium in Kuwait.

Football is the most popular sport in Kuwait. The Kuwait Football Association (KFA) is the governing body of football in Kuwait. The KFA organises the men's, women's, and futsal national teams. The Kuwaiti Premier League is the top league of Kuwaiti football, featuring fifteen teams. They have been the champions of the 1980 AFC Asian Cup, runners-up of the 1976 AFC Asian Cup, and have taken third place of the 1984 AFC Asian Cup. Kuwait has also been to one FIFA World Cup, in 1982, but tied 1-1 with Czechoslovakia on the first round. Kuwait is home to many football clubs including Al-Arabi, Al-Fahaheel, Al-Jahra, Al-Kuwait, Al-Naser, Al-Salmiya, Al-Shabab, Al Qadsia, Al-Yarmouk, Kazma, Khaitan, Sulaibikhat, Sahel, and Tadamon. The biggest football rivalry in Kuwait is between Al-Arabi and Al Qadsia.

Basketball is one of the country's most popular sports.[95] The Kuwait national basketball team is governed by the Kuwait Basketball Association (KBA). Kuwait made its international debut in 1959. The national team has been to the FIBA Asian Championship in basketball eleven times. The Kuwaiti Division I Basketball League is the highest professional basketball league in Kuwait. Cricket in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Cricket Association. Other growing sports include rugby union.

The Kuwait national handball team is controlled by the Kuwait Handball Association. Kuwait has achieved handball success at both the national and club level. The sport is widely considered to be the national icon of Kuwait, although football is more popular among the overall population. Kuwait is also the founding member of the Asian Handball Federation, the Asian Championship and Club Champions League.

Hockey in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Ice Hockey Association. Kuwait first joined the International Ice Hockey Federation in 1985, but was expelled in 1992 due to a lack of ice hockey activity.[96] Kuwait was re-admitted into the IIHF in May 2009.[97] In 2015, Kuwait won the IIHF Challenge Cup of Asia.[98][99]

See also

References

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