Culture of Kuwait

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, also known as Kuwait Opera House

Kuwaiti popular culture, in the form of dialect poetry, film, theatre, radio and television soap opera, flourishes and is even exported to neighboring states.[1][2] Within the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, the culture of Kuwait is the closest to the culture of Bahrain.[3]


Kuwait has the oldest modern arts movement in the Arabian Peninsula.[4][5][6] Beginning in 1936, Kuwait was the first Gulf country to grant scholarships in the arts.[4] The Kuwaiti artist Mojeb al-Dousari was the earliest recognized visual artist in the Gulf region.[7] He is regarded as the founder of portrait art in the region.[8] The Sultan Gallery was the first professional Arab art gallery in the Gulf.[9][10]

Kuwait is home to more than 30 art galleries.[11][12] In recent years, Kuwait's contemporary art scene has boomed.[13][14][15] Khalifa Al-Qattan was the first artist to hold a solo exhibition in Kuwait. He founded a new art theory in the early 1960s known as "circulism".[16][17] Other notable Kuwaiti artists include Sami Mohammad, Thuraya Al-Baqsami and Suzan Bushnaq.

The government organizes various arts festivals, including the Al Qurain Cultural Festival and Formative Arts Festival.[18][19][20] The Kuwait International Biennial was inaugurated in 1967,[21] more than 20 Arab and foreign countries have participated in the biennial.[21] Prominent participants include Layla Al-Attar. In 2004, the Al Kharafi Biennial for Contemporary Arab Art was inaugurated.

In 1958, Al Arabi magazine was first published, the magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world.[22] Ismail Fahd Ismail was one of the first Kuwaiti writers to achieve success in the Arab world. Taleb al-Refai, Laila al-Othman, A. H. Almaas, Taibah Al-Ibrahim, Najma Idrees, and Fatimah Yousif al-Ali are also among the pioneer writers.


Tabla player Ustad Munawar Khan at the 8th International Music Festival in Kuwait

Kuwait is the birthplace of various popular musical genres, such as sawt.[23] Kuwaiti music has considerably influenced the music culture in other GCC countries.[24][23] Traditional Kuwaiti music is a reflection of the country's seafaring heritage,[25] which is known for genres such as fijiri.[26][27][28] Kuwait pioneered contemporary Khaliji music,[29][30][31] Kuwaitis were the first commercial recording artists in the Gulf region.[29][30][31] The first known Kuwaiti recordings were made between 1912 and 1915.[32]

The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre is the largest opera house in the Middle East.[33] Kuwait is home to various music festivals, including the International Music Festival hosted by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL).[34][35] Kuwait has several academic institutions specializing in university-level music education.[36][37][38] The Higher Institute of Musical Arts was established by the government to provide bachelor's degrees in music.[36][37][38] In addition, the College of Basic Education offers bachelor's degrees in music education.[36][37][38] The Institute of Musical Studies offers degrees equivalent to secondary school.[36][38][37]

Kuwait has a reputation for being the central music influence of the GCC countries.[39][24] Over the last decade of satellite television stations, many Kuwaiti musicians have become household names in other Arab countries. For example, Bashar Al Shatty became famous due to Star Academy. Contemporary Kuwaiti music is popular throughout the Arab world. Nawal El Kuwaiti, Nabeel Shoail and Abdallah Al Rowaished are the most popular contemporary performers.


Kuwait has, in recent years, produced several prominent contemporary writers such as Ismail Fahd Ismail, author of over twenty novels and numerous short story collections.[40] There is also evidence that Kuwaiti literature has long been interactive with English and French literature.[41]

Performing arts

Kuwait is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre.[42][43][44] It is the only country in the Gulf with a theatrical tradition.[42] The theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the country's cultural life.[45] Theatrical activities in Kuwait began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released.[46] Theatre activities are still popular today.[45] Abdulhussain Abdulredha is the most prominent actor.

Kuwait is the main centre of scenographic and theatrical training in the Gulf region.[47][48] In 1973, the Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts was founded by the government to provide higher education in theatrical arts.[48] The institute has several divisions. Many actors have graduated from the Institute, such as Souad Abdullah, Mohammed Khalifa, Mansour Al-Mansour, along with a number of prominent critics such as Ismail Fahd Ismail.

Kuwait's television drama industry tops other Gulf drama industries and produces a minimum of fifteen serials annually.[49][50][51] Kuwait is the production center of the Gulf television drama and comedy scene.[50] Most Gulf television drama and comedy productions are filmed in Kuwait.[50][52][53] Kuwaiti soap operas are the most-watched soap operas in the Gulf region.[49][54][55] Soap operas are most popular during the time of Ramadan, when families gather to break their fast.[56] Although usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.[57]

Kuwait is frequently dubbed the "Hollywood of the Gulf" due to the popularity of its television soap operas and theatre.[58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77] Theatre in Kuwait is subsidized by the government, previously by the Ministry of Social Affairs and now by the National Council for Culture, Arts, and Letters (NCCAL).[78] Every urban district has a public theatre.[79] The public theatre in Salmiya is named after Abdulhussain Abdulredha.[citation needed]


Sadu House is among Kuwait's most important cultural institutions. Bait Al-Othman is the largest museum specializing in Kuwait's history. The Scientific Center is one of the largest science museums in the Middle East. The Museum of Modern Art showcases the history of modern art in Kuwait and the region.[80] The National Museum, established in 1983, has been described as "underused and overlooked".[81]

Several Kuwaiti museums are devoted to Islamic art, most notably the Tareq Rajab Museums and Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres.[82][83] The Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres include education wings, conservation labs, and research libraries.[84][85][86] There are several art libraries in Kuwait.[87][86][88] Many museums in Kuwait are private enterprises.[89][82] In contrast to the top-down approach in other Gulf states, museum development in Kuwait reflects a greater sense of civic identity and demonstrates the strength of civil society in Kuwait, which has produced many independent cultural enterprises.[90][82][89]

The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait National Cultural District (KNCD), which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace.[91][92] With a capital cost of more than US$1 billion, the project is one of the largest cultural investments in the world.[91] The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.[93]


Qarqe'an is an annual celebration, observed in Kuwait, that takes place between the 13th and 15th nights of Ramadan. Gergee'an is marked with children dressing in traditional attire and going door-to-door to receive sweets from neighbours, whilst also singing traditional songs. The tradition has existed for hundreds of years and deeply rooted in Kuwaiti culture.[94]

Although the celebration of Qarqe'an shares superficial similarities with the Halloween custom of trick-or-treating, practiced in some western countries, Qarqe'an has no connection with horror and no associated origin with Halloween.


Seafood has been the mainstay of Kuwaiti cuisine for centuries.


The Dewaniya has existed in Kuwait since time immemorial. In the old city of Kuwait it was the reception area where a man received his business colleagues and male guests. Today the term refers both to a reception hall and the gathering held in it, and visiting or hosting a dewaniya is an indispensable feature of a Kuwaiti man’s social life. Dewaniya became a fundamental part of Kuwaiti life. Hence, it has become a mark in their traditional daily life.


Jaber Stadium is the largest stadium in Kuwait.

Football is the most popular sport in Kuwait. The Kuwait Football Association (KFA) is the governing body of football in Kuwait. The KFA organises the men's, women's, and futsal national teams. The Kuwaiti Premier League is the top league of Kuwaiti football, featuring fifteen teams. They have been the champions of the 1980 AFC Asian Cup, runners-up of the 1976 AFC Asian Cup, and have taken third place of the 1984 AFC Asian Cup. Kuwait has also been to one FIFA World Cup, in 1982, but tied 1-1 with Czechoslovakia on the first round. Kuwait is home to many football clubs including Al-Arabi, Al-Fahaheel, Al-Jahra, Al-Kuwait, Al-Naser, Al-Salmiya, Al-Shabab, Al Qadsia, Al-Yarmouk, Kazma, Khaitan, Sulaibikhat, Sahel, and Tadamon. The biggest football rivalry in Kuwait is between Al-Arabi and Al Qadsia.

Basketball is one of the country's most popular sports.[95] The Kuwait national basketball team is governed by the Kuwait Basketball Association (KBA). Kuwait made its international debut in 1959. The national team has been to the FIBA Asian Championship in basketball eleven times. The Kuwaiti Division I Basketball League is the highest professional basketball league in Kuwait. Cricket in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Cricket Association. Other growing sports include rugby union.

The Kuwait national handball team is controlled by the Kuwait Handball Association. Kuwait has achieved handball success at both the national and club level. The sport is widely considered to be the national icon of Kuwait, although football is more popular among the overall population. Kuwait is also the founding member of the Asian Handball Federation, the Asian Championship and Club Champions League.

Hockey in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Ice Hockey Association. Kuwait first joined the International Ice Hockey Federation in 1985, but was expelled in 1992 due to a lack of ice hockey activity.[96] Kuwait was re-admitted into the IIHF in May 2009.[97] In 2015, Kuwait won the IIHF Challenge Cup of Asia.[98][99]

See also


  1. ^ Clive Holes (2004). Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Georgetown University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-58901-022-2.
  2. ^ Ali Alawi. "Ali's roadtrip from Bahrain to Kuwait (PHOTOS)". The trip to Kuwait – a country that has built a deep connection with people in the Arabian Gulf thanks to its significant drama productions in theater, television, and even music – started with 25 kilometers of spectacular sea view
  3. ^ Zubir, S.S.; Brebbia, C.A., eds. (2014). The Sustainable City VIII (2 Volume Set): Urban Regeneration and Sustainability. Volume 179 of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. Ashurst, Southampton, UK: WIT Press. p. 599. ISBN 978-1-84564-746-9.
  4. ^ a b Bloom, Jonathan; Sheila, Blair, eds. (2009). Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set (2009 ed.). London: Oxford University Press. p. 405. ISBN 9780195309911.
  5. ^ Zuhur, Sherifa, ed. (2001). Colors of Enchantment: Theater, Dance, Music, and the Visual Arts of the Middle East (2001 ed.). New York: American University in Cairo Press. p. 383. ISBN 9781617974809.
  6. ^ Bjørn T. Asheim. "An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait" (PDF). Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences. pp. 49–50.
  7. ^ Al Qassemi, Sultan Sooud (22 November 2013). "Correcting misconceptions of the Gulf's modern art movement". Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East.
  8. ^ "Kuwait". Atelier Voyage.
  9. ^ Kristine Khouri. "Mapping Arab Art through the Sultan Gallery". ArteEast.
  10. ^ "The Sultan Gallery – Kristine Khouri".
  11. ^ "Culture of Kuwait". Kuwait Embassy in Austria.
  12. ^ "Art Galleries and Art Museums in Kuwait". Art Kuwait.
  13. ^ "Egyptian Artist Fatma, talks about the gateway to human faces and equality for all". Reconnecting Arts.
  14. ^ "Kuwaiti Artist Rua AlShaheen tells us about recycling existing elements to tell a new narrative". Reconnecting Arts.
  15. ^ "Farah Behbehani & the Story of the letter Haa '". Al Ostoura Magazine.
  16. ^ Muayad H., Hussain (2012). Modern Art from Kuwait: Khalifa Qattan and Circulism (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Birmingham.
  17. ^ "Khalifa Qattan, Founder of Circulism".
  18. ^ "Interview with Ali Al-Youha - Secretary General of Kuwait National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL)" (PDF).
  19. ^ "Kuwait celebrates formative arts festival". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA).
  20. ^ "KAA honors winners of His Highness Amir formative arts award". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA).
  21. ^ a b "12th Kuwait International Biennial". AsiaArt archive. Archived from the original on 2017-03-31. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
  22. ^ Sajjad, Valiya S. "Kuwait Literary Scene A Little Complex". Arab Times. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. A magazine, Al Arabi, was published in 1958 in Kuwait. It was the most popular magazine in the Arab world. It came out it in all the Arabic countries, and about a quarter million copies were published every month.
  23. ^ a b Rolf Killius. "The Cradle of Arabic Sawt Music: The Early Musician Generations in Kuwait". Qatar Digital Library.
  24. ^ a b "Opportunity report for Dutch businesses in Gulf region – Creative Industries" (PDF). Government of Netherlands. p. 10.
  25. ^ "Kuwait's musical heritage: The heartbeat of a nation".
  26. ^ Sophie Chamas. "Ya Bahr". Brownbook.
  27. ^ "The Innerworkings of Kuwaiti Pearl Diving: Ghazi AlMulaifi".
  28. ^ Rolf Killius. "Hidden Treasures: Reflections on Traditional Music in Kuwait". Qatar Digital Library.
  29. ^ a b Mustafa Said. "History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 1". Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  30. ^ a b Ulaby, Laith. Performing the Past: Sea Music in the Arab Gulf States (PDF) (PhD). University of California, Los Angeles. p. 99.
  31. ^ a b Mustafa Said. "History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 2". Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  32. ^ "A Gulfie record collector writes".
  33. ^ "Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre".
  34. ^ "International Music Festival opens in Kuwait" (PDF).
  35. ^ "Int'l Music Festival opens in Kuwait". Kuwait News Agency.
  36. ^ a b c d Al-Faraj, Hamed. Kuwait music educators' perspectives regarding the general goals for music education in Kuwait (PhD). Case Western Reserve University. p. 23-26.
  37. ^ a b c d Alderaiwaish, Ahmad. Teaching the Clarinet in Kuwait: Creating A Curriculum for the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PDF) (PhD). University of Southampton. p. 51-55.
  38. ^ a b c d Alyoser, Abdulaziz Z. Self-Reported Attitudes and Practices of Music Instructors in Kuwait regarding Adult Music Learners (PhD). Case Western Reserve University. p. 12.
  39. ^ "Culture of Kuwait". Kuwait Embassy in Austria.
  40. ^ "Kuwait Literature". Fanack Chronicle. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  41. ^ "Kuwaiti literature interacts with foreign literatures -- study". KUNA.
  42. ^ a b Hammond, Andrew (2007). Popular Culture in the Arab World: Arts, Politics, and the Media. Cario, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press. p. 277. ISBN 9789774160547.
  43. ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples, Volume 1. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. p. 244. ISBN 9780761475712.
  44. ^ Watson, Katie (18 December 2010). "Reviving Kuwait's theatre industry". BBC News.
  45. ^ a b Herbert, Ian; Leclercq, Nicole, eds. (2000). "An Account of the Theatre Seasons 1996–97, 1997–98 and 1998–99". The World of Theatre (2000 ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-415-23866-3.
  46. ^ Rubin, Don, ed. (1999). "Kuwait". The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre. Volume 4: The Arab world. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-415-05932-9.
  47. ^ Alhajri, Khalifah Rashed. A Scenographer's Perspective on Arabic Theatre and Arab-Muslim Identity (PDF) (PhD). Leeds, UK: University of Leeds. p. 207.
  48. ^ a b "Shooting the Past". 11 July 2013. Most Omanis who get to study drama abroad tend to go to Kuwait or Egypt. In the Gulf, Kuwait has long been a pioneer in theatre, film and television since the establishment of its Higher Institute of Dramatic Arts (HIDA) in 1973. By contrast, there is no drama college or film school in Oman, although there is a drama course at Sultan Qaboos University.
  49. ^ a b Al Mukrashi, Fahad (22 August 2015). "Omanis turn their backs on local dramas". Gulf News. Kuwait's drama industry tops other Gulf drama as it has very prominent actors and actresses, enough scripts and budgets, produces fifteen serials annually at least.
  50. ^ a b c Hammond, Andrew, ed. (2017). Pop Culture in North Africa and the Middle East: Entertainment and Society Around the World. California: ABC-CLIO. p. 143-144. ISBN 9781440833847.
  51. ^ "Closer cultural relations between the two countries". Oman Daily Observer. 20 February 2017. The Kuwaiti television is considered the most active in the Gulf region, as it has contributed to the development of television drama in Kuwait and the Gulf region. Therefore, all the classics of the Gulf television drama are today Kuwaiti dramas by Kuwaiti actors
  52. ^ "Big plans for small screens". BroadcastPro Me. Around 90% of Khaleeji productions take place in Kuwait.
  53. ^ Papavassilopoulos, Constantinos (10 April 2014). "OSN targets new markets by enriching its Arabic content offering". IHS Inc.
  54. ^ Fattahova, Nawara (26 March 2015). "First Kuwaiti horror movie to be set in 'haunted' palace". Kuwait Times. Kuwait's TV soaps and theatrical plays are among the best in the region and second most popular after Egypt in the Middle East.
  55. ^ Bjørn T. Asheim. "An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait" (PDF). Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences. p. 9.
  56. ^ "Kuwaiti Drama Museum: formulating thoughts of the Gulf". 23 May 2014.
  57. ^ Mansfield, Peter (1990). Kuwait: vanguard of the Gulf. Hutchinson. p. 113.
  58. ^ "مريم حسين ترحل إلى "هوليوود الخليج".. وتتبرأ من العقوق في "بنات سكر نبات"". MBC (in Arabic). 29 August 2015.
  59. ^ "هيفاء حسين : الكويت هي هوليود الخليج" (in Arabic). 8 July 2015.
  60. ^ "منى البلوشي: الكويت هي هوليود الخليج ويقصدونها للشهرة" (in Arabic). 25 August 2013.
  61. ^ "ارحمة لـ الشرق: أبحث دائماً عن التميّز والكويت هوليود الخليج" (in Arabic). 21 December 2014.
  62. ^ ""السليم لـ «الراي": الدراما منتعشة ... والكويت «هوليوود الخليج". Al Rai (in Arabic). 3 February 2016.
  63. ^ "زينب العسكري: الكويت هوليوود الخليج". Al-Anba (in Arabic). 28 February 2007.
  64. ^ "النجم الكوميدي داوود حسين الكويت هوليود الخليج غصب عن خشم أكبر رأس". Scope. 26 May 2016.
  65. ^ ""أحمد الجسمي: عاتب على «دبي" و«أم بي سي". Al Khaleej (in Arabic). 3 July 2016.
  66. ^ "!طلال السدر في الديوانية: انجذابي لـ"هوليوود الخليج"..أقدار". Al Watan (in Arabic). 4 April 2012.
  67. ^ "ريم أرحمة: حريصة على اختيار نصوص جيدة أكثر من الظهور في رمضان". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 7 June 2016.
  68. ^ "وفاء مكي: موزة تعيش في ذاكرتي". Al-Qabas (in Arabic). 13 March 2009. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016.
  69. ^ "مي أحمد: المواهب الشابة لا تقلّّ رقياً عن الفنانين الكبار". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 19 February 2010.
  70. ^ "الإماراتي أحمد الخميس: لن أنسى ما فعله طارق العلي معي!" (in Arabic). 6 March 2016.
  71. ^ "سناء: الكويت هوليوود الخليج". Al-Qabas (in Arabic). 17 December 2015. Archived from the original on 11 September 2016.
  72. ^ "فيديو – رئيس مجلس إدارة نقابة الفنانين الكويتية د. نبيل الفيلكاوي: الكويت "هوليوود الخليج" لكنها لاتملك أكاديمية للفنون". Al Watan (in Arabic). 22 April 2015.
  73. ^ "فايز بن دمخ: نفخر باسم الأمير سعود بن محمد". Annahar (in Arabic). 1 June 2016.
  74. ^ "Kuwait an urban spectacle". Muscat Daily. 26 March 2015.
  75. ^ "الله… الله عليك يا الكويت". Al-Jarida (in Arabic). 28 July 2011.
  76. ^ "الأردنية عبير عيسى لـ "الانباء": أتمنى استمرار مشاركاتي في الدراما الكويتية". Al Anba (in Arabic). 12 August 2013.
  77. ^ "Kuwait Cultural Days kick off in Seoul". Kuwait News Agency (in Arabic). 18 December 2015.
  78. ^ Herbert, Ian; Leclercq, Nicole, eds. (2003). "World of Theatre 2003 Edition: An Account of the World's Theatre Seasons". The World of Theatre (2003 ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. p. 214. ISBN 9781134402120.
  79. ^ Fiona MacLeod. "The London musician who found harmony in Kuwait". Financial Times.
  80. ^ "Kuwait Museum of Modern Art".
  81. ^ Gonzales, Desi (November–December 2014). "Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition". Art Papers. Art Papers. Archived from the original on 2017-04-26. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
  82. ^ a b c Exell, Karen (2016). Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula. Taylor & Francis. pp. 147–179. ISBN 9781317279006.
  83. ^ "About Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah".
  84. ^ "Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah at Amricani Cultural Centre".
  85. ^ "Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah at Yarmouk Cultural Centre".
  86. ^ a b "Libraries - Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah".
  87. ^ "Abous Us - CAPKuwait".
  88. ^ "First Art Library in Kuwait".
  89. ^ a b Excell, Karen; Wakefield, Sarina, eds. (2016). Museums in Arabia: Transnational Practices and Regional Processes. Taylor & Francis. pp. 137–158. ISBN 9781317092766.
  90. ^ Exell, Karen (2016). Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula. Taylor & Francis. p. 176. ISBN 9781317279006.
  91. ^ a b "Kuwait National Cultural District Museums Director" (PDF). 28 August 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  92. ^ "Kuwait National Cultural District".
  93. ^ "Current Members - Global Cultural Districts Network". Global Cultural Districts Network.
  94. ^ "القرقاعون من أهم الاحتفالات الرمضانية الشعبية في مملكة البحرين". Bahrain News Agency. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  95. ^ Kuwait Sports at Amazing Kuwait Facts. Retrieved 5 March 2016
  96. ^ Szemberg, Szymon; Podnieks, Andrew (2008). "Story #42;Breakup of old Europe creates a new hockey world". International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  97. ^ "Welcome, Georgia & Kuwait". International Ice Hockey Federation. 13 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  98. ^ "Kuwait wins IIHF Ice Hockey Challenge Cup of Asia". 12 June 2015.
  99. ^ "Kuwait top ice hockey Challenge Cup". 12 June 2015.
Retrieved from ""
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia :
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Culture of Kuwait"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA