Cornelius the Centurion

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Cornelius the Centurion
Baptism of cornelius.jpg
Peter Baptizing the Centurion Cornelius, by Francesco Trevisani, 1709.
Born unknown
Died unknown
Venerated in Roman Catholicism
Eastern Orthodox Church
Anglican Communion
Feast 2 February,[1] 7 February, 13 September
Attributes Roman military garb

Cornelius (Greek: Κορνήλιος) was a Roman centurion who is considered by Christians to be one of the first Gentiles to convert to the faith, as related in Acts of the Apostles.

Biblical account

Cornelius was a centurion in the Cohors II Italica Civium Romanorum, mentioned as Cohors Italica in the Vulgate.[2][3] He was stationed in Caesarea, the capital of Roman Iudaea province.[4] He is depicted in the New Testament as a God-fearing man who always prayed and was full of good works and deeds of alms. Cornelius receives a vision in which an angel of God tells him that his prayers have been heard, he understands that he's chosen for a higher alternative. The angel then instructs Cornelius to send the men of his household to Joppa, where they will find Simon Peter, who is residing with a tanner by the name of Simon (Acts 10:5ff).

The conversion of Cornelius comes after a separate vision given to Simon Peter (Acts 10:10–16) himself. In the vision, Simon Peter sees all manner of beasts and fowl being lowered from Heaven in a sheet. A voice commands Simon Peter to eat. When he objects to eating those animals that are unclean according to Mosaic Law, the voice tells him not to call unclean that which God has cleansed.[5]

When Cornelius' men arrive, Simon Peter understands that through this vision the Lord commanded the Apostle to preach the Word of God to the Gentiles. Peter accompanies Cornelius' men back to Caesarea.[5] When Cornelius meets Simon Peter, he falls at Peter's feet. Simon Peter raises the centurion and the two men share their visions. Simon Peter tells of Jesus' ministry and the Resurrection; the Holy Spirit descends on everyone at the gathering. The Jews among the group (presumably they were all Jews if Cornelius was the first gentile convert, see Jewish Christians) are amazed that Cornelius and other uncircumcised should begin speaking in tongues, praising God. Thereupon Simon Peter commands that Cornelius and his followers be baptized.[6] The controversial aspect of Gentile conversion is taken up later at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15), but has its roots in the concept of "proselytes" in the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible) and Jewish Noahide Law.[citation needed]

Peter later chose not to eat with Gentiles in Antioch after some Jews criticized him. The apostle Paul publicly confronted Peter for being hypocritical as related in Galatians 2.[citation needed]

Significance

In this painting by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout an angel appears to the Roman centurion Cornelius. The angel tells him to seek out St. Peter.[7] The Walters Art Museum.

Cornelius was one of the first Gentiles converted to Christianity.[8]

The baptism of Cornelius is an important event in the history of the early Christian church, along with the conversion and baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch. The Christian church was first formed around the original disciples and followers of Jesus, all of whom were Jewish. All males in that community were circumcised and observed the Law of Moses. The reception of Cornelius sparked a conversation among the Jewish leaders of the new Christian church, culminating in the decision to allow Gentiles to become Christians without conforming to Jewish requirements for circumcision, as recounted in Acts 15(Acts 15).

Certain traditions hold Cornelius as becoming either the first bishop of Caesarea or the bishop of Scepsis in Mysia.[4][6]

Commemoration

His feast day on the General Roman Calendar is 2 February. He is commemorated in the Orthodox tradition on 13 September.[5]

Cornelius is honored with a commemoration in the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America on February 7.[9] When Governor's Island, New York, was a military installation the Episcopal Church maintained a stone chapel there dedicated to him.[citation needed]

The Greek-French philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis is named after him.[10]

Gallery

Images of St. Cornelius Chapel, Governor's Island, New York

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Jones, Terry. "Cornelius the Centurion". Patron Saints Index. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  2. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W., International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1979, p. 297
  3. ^ Stagnaro, Angelo (February 2, 2017). "What Do We Know About St. Cornelius the Centurion?". National Catholic Register. EWTN News, Inc. Retrieved 2017-02-02. 
  4. ^ a b Bechtel, Florentine. "Cornelius." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 24 Apr. 2013
  5. ^ a b c "Hieromartyr Cornelius the Centurion", Orthodox Church in America
  6. ^ a b "The Departure of St. Cornelius the Centurion", Coptic Orthodox Church Network
  7. ^ "Vision of Cornelius the Centurion". The Walters Art Museum. 
  8. ^ Kiefer, James E., "Cornelius the Centurion", Biographical sketches of memorable Christians of the past, Society of Archbishop Justus
  9. ^ "Cornelius the Centurion", the Episcopal Church
  10. ^ François Dosse. Castoriadis. Une vie. Paris: La Découverte, 2014, p. 13.

External links

  • Saint Cornelius the Centurion at the Christian Iconography web site
  • The Story of the Chapel of St. Cornelius the Centurion at Governor's Island, New York Harbor, Written for the Day of the Consecration, October 19, A.D. 1906. by Morgan Dix
Preceded by
Position created
Bishop of Caesarea
before 189
Succeeded by
Theophilus
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