Corn Belt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2010 production of corn in the United States

The Corn Belt is a region of the Midwestern United States where corn has, since the 1850s, been the predominant crop. More generally, the concept of the "Corn Belt" connotes the area of the Midwest dominated by farming. Many towns in this area are connected to powerful farm organizations with lobbying power.[1][2]

Geography

There is lack of consensus regarding the constituents of the Corn Belt although it often includes: Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, southern Michigan, western Ohio, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, southern Minnesota and parts of Missouri.[3] It also sometimes includes: South Dakota, North Dakota, all of Ohio, Wisconsin, all of Michigan, and Kentucky.[4]

The region is characterized by level land, deep fertile soils and a high organic soil concentration.[5]

As of 2008, the top four corn-producing states were Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska and Minnesota accounting for more than half of the corn growth in the United States.[6]

History

On account of new agricultural technology developments between 1860 and 1970, the Corn Belt went from producing mixed crops and livestock into becoming an area focused strictly on wheat-cash planting. After 1970, increased crop and meat production required an export outlet, but global recession and a strong dollar reduced exports and created serious problems even for the best farm managers.[3]

In 1956, former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, a pioneer of hybrid seed declared that the Corn Belt has developed the "most productive agricultural civilization the world has ever seen".[7]

Most corn grown today is fed to livestock, especially hogs and poultry. In recent decades soybeans have grown in importance. The U.S. produces 40% of the world crop.[8]

By 1950, 99% of corn has been grown from hybrids.

EPA Ecoregion

In 1997, the USEPA published its report on United States' ecoregions, in part based on "land use." Its "Level III" region classification contains three contiguous "Corn Belt" regions, Western (47), Central (54), and Eastern (55), stretching from Indiana to eastern Nebraska.[9][10]

Panoramic views

Corn fields near Cayuga, Indiana
Corn fields near Royal, Illinois

See also

References

  1. ^ John Mark Hansen, Gaining access: Congress and the farm lobby, 1919-1981 (1991) p, 138
  2. ^ Thomas F. McIlwraith and Edward K. Muller, North America: the historical geography of a changing continent (2001) p, 186
  3. ^ a b Hart (1986)
  4. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture
  5. ^ Corn Belt, Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  6. ^ USDA State Fact sheets
  7. ^ Edward L. Schapsmeier and Frederick H. Schapsmeier, Prophet in Politics: Henry A. Wallace and the War Years, 1940-1965 (1970) p, 234
  8. ^ Smith, C. Wayne., Javier Betrán, and E. C. A. Runge. Corn: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2004. page 4. Print
  9. ^ "Ecological Regions of North America: Toward a Common Perspective" (PDF). Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 1997. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  10. ^ "Ecoregion Maps and GIS Resources". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 

Further reading

  • Anderson, J. L. Industrializing the Corn Belt: Agriculture, Technology, and Environment, 1945-1972 (2009) 238 pp. ISBN 978-0-87580-392-0
  • Bogue, Allan. From Prairie to Corn Belt: Farming on the Illinois and Iowa Prairies in the Nineteenth Century (1963) excerpt and text search
  • Cayton, Andrew, et al. eds. The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Hart, John Fraser. "Change in the Corn Belt," Geographical Review, Jan 1986, Vol. 76#1 pp 51–72
  • Hudson, John C. Making the Corn Belt: A Geographical History of Middle-Western Agriculture (1994)
  • Power, Richard Lyle. Planting Corn Belt Culture: The Impress of the Upland Southerner and Yankee in the old Northwest (1953)
  • Snapp, Roscoe R. Beef Cattle Their Feeding and Management in the Corn Belt States (1950)
  • Smith, C. Wayne, et al. Corn: Origin, History, Technology, and Production (2004) online edition
  • Wallace, Henry Agard. Henry A. Wallace's Irrigation Frontier: On the Trail of the Corn Belt Farmer 1909 15 articles written by Wallace in 1909; 1991 edition edited by Richard Lowitt, and Judith Fabry

External links

Coordinates: 41°N 90°W / 41°N 90°W / 41; -90

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Corn_Belt&oldid=798039413"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corn_Belt
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Corn Belt"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA