Constitution of Pakistan

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Constitution of Pakistan
State emblem of Pakistan.svg
Created 19 April 1973
Ratified 14 August 1973
Location Islamabad
Author(s) 12th Parliament
Signatories 12th Parliament
(unanimous)
Purpose To replace the Articles of the 1962 Confederation and LFO Order No. 1970

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان‎), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.[1] Drafted by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with additional assistance from the country's opposition parties, it was approved by the Parliament on 10 April and ratified on 14 August 1973.[2]

The Constitution is intended to guide Pakistan's law and its political culture, and system. It identifies the state (its physical existence and its borders), people and their fundamental rights, state's constitutional law and orders, and also the constitutional structure and establishment of the institutions and the country's armed forces.[3] The first three chapters establish the rules, mandate, and separate powers of the three branches of the government: a bicameral legislature; an executive branch governed by the Prime Minister as chief executive; and an apex federal judiciary headed by Supreme Court.[3] The Constitution designates the President of Pakistan as a ceremonial Head of State who is to represent the unity of the state.[4] The first six articles of the constitution outline the political system as federal parliamentary republic system; as well as Islam as its state religion.[5] The Constitution also encapsulates provisions stipulating the legal system's compliance with Islamic injunctions contained in the Quran and Sunnah.[6]

The Parliament cannot make any laws which may be repugnant or contrary to the Constitution, however the Constitution itself may be amended by a two-thirds majority in both the houses of the bicameral Parliament, unlike the previous legal documents of 1956 and 1962.[7] It has been amended over time, and most recent impulses for political upgrades and reforms has been amended. Although enforced in 1973, Pakistan, however, celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 23 March—when the first set was promulgated in 1956—each and every year as Republic Day.[8]Constitution of Pakistan 1956- Clearly states that if one acquires friendship with foreign countries,the person will no longer remain the citizen of Islamic Republic of Pakistan,the law was strictly disliked by Mujib-Ur-Rehman but despite the efforts of Mujib-ur-Rehman the law remained unchanged.

Origins and historical background

Pakistan was founded in 1947. Before writing a constitution, a Constituent Assembly passed the Objectives Resolution, on the insistence of the ulama and Jamaat-e-Islami, in March 1949 to define the basic directive principles of the new state and to declare state recognition of the sovereignty of Allah over the universe. The Objectives Resolution affirmed the role of democracy and contained religious provisions to enable society to adhere to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. The Objectives Resolution has henceforth been inserted as a preamble into each of Pakistan's subsequent constitutions.[9]

The country's first constitution was approved in 1956 but abrogated in 1958 after a military Coup d'état.[10] Pakistan's second constitution was approved in 1962. It granted executive power to the president and abolished the office of the prime minister. It also institutionalised the intervention of military in politics by providing that for twenty years, the president or the defence minister must be a person who had held a rank not lower than that of lieutenant-general in the army.[11] The 1962 constitution was suspended in 1969 and abrogated in 1972.[10]

The 1973 constitution was the first in Pakistan to be framed by elected representatives. Unlike the 1962 constitution it gave Pakistan a parliamentary democracy with executive power concentrated in the office of the prime minister, and the formal head of state—the president—limited to acting on the advice of the prime minister.[11]

The Constitution states that all laws are to conform with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.[6] The 1973 Constitution also created certain institutions such as the Shariat Court and the Council of Islamic Ideology to channel the interpretation and application of Islam.[12]

After another coup in 1977, the constitution was held in abeyance until it was "restored" in 1985 but with an amendment (the Eighth) shifting power from the parliament and Prime Minister to the president. Another Amendment (Seventeenth) in 2004 continued this shift, but in 2010, the Eighteenth amendment reduced presidential powers, returning the government to a parliamentary republic.

Previous legislation as Source

The successful movement led the establishment of Pakistan, independent from British India in 1947. The British Empire divided British India into two, India and Pakistan.

The provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935, had greatly influenced the state and served its legal document until 1956. In 1950, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan author the first annexe that would paved a path in drafting of the Constitution. Elected in 1947, the first Constituent Assembly drafted and adopted its first constitution in 1956.

1956 Constitution

Following the adoption of a constitution in India in 1950, Pakistan's lawmakers were incentified to work on their constitution. Prime Minister Muhammad Ali and his government officials worked with the opposition parties in the country to formulate a constitution for Pakistan.[13]

Finally, the joint work led to the promulgation of the first set of the constitution on 23 March 1956—a day when Pakistan celebrates its Republic Day over the adoption of the constitution. The constitution provided for parliamentary form of government with a unicameral legislature.[13] It officially adopted Pakistan as "Islamic Republic" and the principle of parity was introduced. Its features were:

By the constitution, Iskander Mirza assumed the presidency but his constant involvement in national affairs, as opposed to Constitution, dismissed four elected prime ministers in two years. Under public pressure, Mirza upheld the coup d'état in 1958, thus virtually suspending the constitution. Shortly afterwards General Ayub Khan deposed Mirza and declared himself president.[14]

1962 Constitution

General Ayub Khan appointed a Constitution Commission to draft another part of the constitution under Chief Justice Muhammad Shahabuddin.[15] Submitted its considerations on 6 May 1961, Ayub Khan altered the entire version of the constitution which was entirely different from the one recommended by Chief Justice Muhammad Shahabuddin.[15] It was promulgated on 8 June 1962. Main feature of this set was the introduction of the Presidential system and more consolidated powers to the President. No further changes were carried out to oppose the 1956 document.[15] Its features includes:

The military government and President Yahya himself made no efforts to frame a constitution, aside from issuing the extrajudicial order in 1970.[17] Across the country, the expectations were that a National Assembly would be set up by holding a free and fair election. To hold the proposed elections, President Yahya promulgated a Legal Framework Order on 30 March 1970 that also spelled out the fundamental principles of the proposed constitution and the structure and composition of the national and provincial assemblies.[17]

In December 1970, nationwide general elections were held simultaneously for both the national and five provincial assemblies.[17] The polling results turned were simply disastrous from the standpoint of national unity and demonstrated the failure of national integration.[17] No party enjoyed the full confidence of the people of Pakistan.[17] The nationalist Awami League (AL) secured the mandate of East Pakistan but failed to perform in any four provinces of Pakistan.[17] The socialist Pakistan People's Party (PPP) under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gained mandate in Punjab and Sind but failed in East Pakistan, NWFP and Balochistan.[17] The general elections truly reflected the ugly political reality: the PPP's mandate in Pakistan and AL mandate in East Pakistan.[17]

1970 constitutional crises

Constitutional crises grew further when AL refused to make concessions over its six points to draft the constitution and instead maintaining that AL had was quiet competent to frame a constitution and to form a central government on its own.[17]

The PPP was not willing to dilute the authority of the federal government in spite of assuring full provincial autonomy for all the provinces of Pakistan.[17] Negotiations on framing the work on constitution were held between January and March 1971 between leaders of PPP, AL, and the military government of Yahya Khan, which turned out to be a failure.[17] Under the LFO, the President Yahya was to decide when the National Assembly was to meet.[17] By 13 February 1971, the President Yahya announced that the National Assembly was to meet at Dhaka on 3 March 1971. By this time the differences between the main parties to the conflict had already crystallized.[17] Over the six-point issue, the PPP was convinced that a federation based on six-point would lead to a feeble confederation in name only and was part of larger Indian plan to break up the Pakistan.[17] These fears were evidently shared by the military leaders in the west, including President Yahya Khan who had publicly described Sheikh Mujibur Rehman as the 'future Prime Minister of Pakistan' on January 14, 1971. Bhutto announced on February 15 that his party would not attend the National Assembly unless there was 'some amount of reciprocity' from the Awami League. Sheikh Mujib replied at a press conference on February 21, asserting that "Our stand is absolutely clear. The constitution will be framed on the basis of the six-points"'.[17]

Such announcement led the PPP to demand the removal of the National Assembly session or opening session to be postponed.[17] The PPP threatened to stage a large scale general strike in all over the country. Under pressured by PPP, President Yahya postponed the National Assembly session on 25 March which came as a shattering disillusionment to the AL and their supporters throughout East Pakistan.[17] It was seen as a betrayal and as proof of the authorities of the Pakistan to deny them the fruits of their electoral victory.[17] This resulted in the outbreak of violence in East Pakistan. The Awami League launched a non-co-operation movement as they virtually controlled the entire province.[17] Due to disturbances in East Pakistan, no National Assembly session was called and the military moved in East Pakistan to control the situation.[17] The civil disobedience movement turned into armed liberation movement backed by the India.

With India successfully intervening in the conflict, the Pakistan military surrender to the Indian military and almost over ~93,000 military personnel were taken as prisoners of war on 16 December 1971.[17] Demoralized, gaining notoriety in the country, and finding himself unable to control the situation, President Yahya ultimately handed over the national power to PPP, of which, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was sworn in on 20 December 1971 as President and as the (first civilian) Chief Martial Law Administrator.[17]

Constitutional convention

After Pakistan surrendered to India and Bangladesh was formed in 1971, the PPP formed the government and partially enacted the 1962 constitution.[18] President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called for a constitutional convention and invited the leaders of the all political parties to meet him on 17 April 1972.[18] Leaders and constitutional experts of the Islamic political parties, conservative parties, socialists and communist parties were delegated to attend the constitutional convention in 1972.[19]

Drafting and ratification

Enlightenment and Rule of law

The law experts, constitutional analysts, and country's reputed clergymen worked on formulating the constitution that represents the will and desire of people.[20] Unlike earlier attempts, the convention was not meant for new laws or piecemeal alterations, but for the "sole and express purpose of revising the 1956 articles."[20] Also, the convention was not limited to the religion, exigencies of government and the preservation of the State; rather it was intended to maintain delicacy in commerce, finances, issue of loans to federation, and Separation of powers.[20] Several key ideas of the philosophy of John Locke and Islamic provisions on civil rights were interchanged in the Constitution.[21][22]

The Constitution ultimately established the "Bicameral Parliament"National Assembly as Lower house and Senate as Upper house.[20] It also established the parliamentary form of government with Prime Minister as its head of government; the elected National Assembly genuinely representing the will of the people.[20] The Constitution truly maintained a delicate balance between traditionalists and modernists and reflected heavy compromises on fundamental religious rights in the country.[20] The fundamental rights, freedoms of speech, religion, press, movement, association, thought, and intellectual, life, liberty and property and right to bear arms were introduced in the new Constitution.[19] Islam was declared as the State religion of Pakistan.[19] Geography and border statue of the country was redefined and "Pakistan was to be a Federation of Four Provinces."[19] The Constitution was written in the point of representing the conservative Islam as well as reflecting a heavy compromise over the religious rights and humanism ideas, advocated by the extremist leftists of the PPP.[20]

On 20 October 1972, the draft was revived by all leaders of the political parties and signed the declaration of adopting the Constitution in the National Assembly on 2 February 1973.[23] Ratified unanimously on 19 April 1973, the Constitution came into full effect on 14 August 1973.[23] On the same day, the successful vote of confidence movement in the Parliament endorsed Zulfikar Bhutto as the elected Prime Minister after latter relinquishing the presidency after appointing Fazal-i-Ilahi to that stint.[23]

Structure

Fundamental rights

Contrary to 1956 and 1962 articles, several ideas in the Constitution were new, and guaranteed security to each citizen of Pakistan. First part of the Constitution introduced the definition of State, the idea of life, liberty and property, individual equality, prohibition of slavery, preservation of languages, right to fair trial, and provided safeguard as to arrest and detention as well as providing safeguards against discrimination in services.[24][25]

The due process clause of the Constitution was partly based on the British Common law, as many founding fathers of the country and the legal experts had follow the British legal tradition.[26] The fundamental rights are supreme in the Constitution and any law that is ultra vires the fundamental rights can be struck down by the apex courts in their constitutional jurisdiction vested on them under Article 199 of the Constitution.[27]

Provisions

In contrast to the constitutions of India and Bangladesh, the Constitution reflected a heavy compromise over several issues to maintain a delicate balance of power among the country's institutions. The Constitution defined the role of Islam;[28] Pakistan was to be a Federation of Four Provinces and shall be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan;[29] introduction of check and balances, separation of powers, and provided the federal system under which the government should governed.

The Constitution established a "Bicameral Parliament" as a legislative authority that consists of the Senate as Upper house (providing equal provincial representation), and National Assembly as Lower house (providing the will and representation of people).[30][31] The Constitution put stipulation on the eligibility of becoming President and Prime Minister that only "Muslim" of not less than forty-five years of age[32] and is qualified for becoming the Prime Minister.[33] No law repugnant to Islam shall be enacted and the present laws shall also be Islamised.[34] The Constitution also introduced a new institution known as the "Council of Common Interests" consisting of Chief Minister of each four provinces and an equal number of Cabinet ministers of the Government nominated by the Prime Minister.[35] The Council could formulate and regulate the policy in the Part II of the Legislative List. In case of complaint of interference in water supply by any province the Council would look into the complaint.

Another major innovative introduction in the Constitution is the establishment of the National Finance Commission (NFC) consisting of the Provincial and Finance Ministers and other members to advice on distribution of revenues between the federation and the provinces.[36] The Constitution's first parts introduce the Islamic way of life, promotion of local government, full participation of women in national life, protection of minorities, promotion of social and economic well being of the people, and strengthening the bonds with the Muslim world and to work for international peace.

The Islamic laws and Sharia

Under the Constitution, the Fundamental Rights include security of person, safeguards as to arrest and detention, prohibition of slavery and forced labour, freedom of movement, freedom of association, freedom of speech, freedom to profess religion and safeguards to religious institutions, non-discrimination in respect of access to public places and in service, preservation of languages, script and culture. The judiciary enjoys full supremacy over the other organs of the state. About national languages, Urdu was declared as national languages, and English as official language; all other languages were preserved by the Constitution.[37]

Islamic introduction

Many key ideas on regarding the role of Islam in the State that were mentioned in 1956 Articles were made part of the Constitution:

  • The official name "Islamic Republic of Pakistan" as selected for the state of Pakistan.
  • Islam is declared as the state religion of Pakistan.
  • Enabling of living life, culture, and customs of Muslims, individually or collectively, in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.
  • Teachings on Arabic, Qur'an, and Islamiyat to be compulsory in country's institutions and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Qur'an.
  • Proper organisations of Zakat, Waqf, and mosques is ensured.
  • Prevent prostitution, gambling and consumption of alcohol, printing, publication, circulation, pornography, and display of obscene literature and advertisements.
  • Required to be a Muslim to run for bid of becoming the President (male or female) and/or Prime Minister (male or female). No restriction as to religion or gender on any other post, up to and including provincial governor and Chief Minister.
  • All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Qur'an and Sunnah and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such injunctions.[38]
  • A Council of Islamic Ideology shall be constituted referred to as the Islamic advisory council.[39]
  • The Constitution of Pakistan defined a Muslim as a person who believes in the unity and oneness of Allah, in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and does not believe in, or recognise as a prophet or religious reformer, any person who claimed or claims to be a prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after Muhammad.
  • In keeping with this definition, the Second Amendment to the Constitution (1974) declared for the first time the Ahmadiyya Community and/or the Lahori Group as non-Muslims, since their leader, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, claimed to be prophet of God.
  • However, the Fourth Amendment (1975) set aside six seats in the National Assembly for non-Muslim representatives to protect minority rights.
  • The state shall endeavour to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries.
  • Islamic revisions were introduced into the Pakistan Penal Code.

Parts

The individual Articles of the Constitution are grouped together into the following Parts:

  • Preamble
  • Part I[40] – Introductory [Articles 1–6]
  • Part II[41] – Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy [Articles 7–40]
  • Part III[42] – The Federation of Pakistan [Articles 41–100]
  • Part IV[43] – Provinces [Articles 101-140A]
  • Part V[44] – Relations between Federation and Provinces [Articles 141–159]
  • Part VI[45] – Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits [Articles 160–174]
  • Part VII[46] – The Judicature [Articles 175–212]
  • Part VIII[47] – Elections [Articles 213–226]
  • Part IX[48] – Islamic Provisions [Articles 227–231]
  • Part X[49] – Emergency Provisions [Articles 232–237]
  • Part XI[50] – Amendment of Constitution [Articles 238–239]
  • Part XII[51] – Miscellaneous [Articles 240–280]

Annex

  • Annex to the Constitution of Pakistan

Schedule

Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.

  • First Schedule[52]Laws exempted from the operation of Article 8(1), 8(2), 8(3b), and 8(4)
  • Second Schedule[53]Election of President" Article 41(3)
  • Third Schedule:[54]Oaths of Office: Article 42, Article 91(5)–92(2), Article 53(2)–61,
  • Fourth Schedule:[55]Legislative Lists
  • Fifth Schedule:[56]Remuneration and Terms and Conditions of Service of Judges: [Article 205]

Amendments

Unlike the previous documents, the Constitution cannot be changed, instead constitutional amendments are passed; altering its effect.[7] Amendments to the Constitution are made through the Parliament, where a Two-thirds majority and voting is required in both houses for a constitutional amendment to take its effect, in accordance to the Constitution.[57] In addition to this, certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution must be ratified by a majority of state legislatures.[58]

As of 2015, 21 amendments have been introduced to the Constitution. Among the most important of these are the Eighth (1985) and Seventeenth Amendments (2004), which changed the government from a parliamentary system to a semi-presidential system. However, in 2010 the Eighteenth Amendment reversed these expansions of presidential powers, returning the government to a parliamentary republic, and also defined any attempt to subvert, abrogate, or suspend the constitution as an act of high treason.

Original text

Preamble

Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;

And whereas it is the will of the people of Pakistan to establish an order :-

Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people;

Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed;

Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah;

Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise their religions and develop their cultures;

Wherein the territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed;

Therein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality;

Wherein adequate provision shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes;

Wherein the independence of the judiciary shall be fully secured;

Wherein the integrity of the territories of the Federation, its independence and all its rights, including its sovereign rights on land, sea and air, shall be safeguarded;

So that the people of Pakistan may prosper and attain their rightful and honoured place amongst the nations of the World and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity :

Now, therefore, we, the people of Pakistan,

Cognisant of our responsibility before Almighty Allah and men;

Cognisant of the sacrifices made by the people in the cause of Pakistan;

Faithful to the declaration made by the Founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, that Pakistan would be a democratic State based on Islamic principles of social justice;

Dedicated to the preservation of democracy achieved by the unremitting struggle of the people against oppression and tyranny;

Inspired by the resolve to protect our national and political unity and solidarity by creating an egalitarian society through a new order;

Do hereby, through our representatives in the National Assembly, adopt, enact and give to ourselves, this Constitution.

Comparison with previous sources

With regard to provincial rights the 1973 constitution was in fact the most centralised of Pakistan's various constitutions. The Government of India Act of 1935, which Pakistan adopted as its first working constitution, granted the federal government 96 items of power. The 1956 constitution reduced that number to 49, and this was retained in the 1962 constitution. In 1973, however, it was then enlarged to 114.

See also

References

  1. ^ Abiad, Nisrine (2008). Sharia, Muslim states and international human rights treaty obligations : a comparative study. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law. pp. 96–200. ISBN 978-1-905221-41-7. 
  2. ^ Enterprise Team (1 June 2003). "The Constitution of 1973'". The Story of Pakistan. The Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Constitution of Pakistan. "Constitution of Pakistan". Constitution of Pakistan. Constitution of Pakistan. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  4. ^ "Part III. The Federation of Pakistan: Chapter 1; The President". Const. of Pakistan. Const. of Pakistan. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "First Six Articles.". 
  6. ^ a b Iqbal, Khurshid (2009). The Right to Development in International Law: The Case of Pakistan. Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-134-01999-1. The constitution proclaims ... that all existing laws shall be brought in accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such injunctions. 
  7. ^ a b Iftikhar A. Khan (24 June 2012). "Parliament can't make laws repugnant to Constitution: CJ". Dawn News. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  8. ^ et. al., Govt of Pakistan. "Constitutional history of Pakistan". National Assembly of Pakistan pr of Pakistan press. 
  9. ^ Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. The first important result of the combined efforts of the Jamāʿat-i Islāmī and the ʿulamāʿ was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949, whose formulation reflected compromise between traditionalists and modernists. The resolution embodied "the main principles on which the constitution of Pakistan is to be based." It declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust," that "the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam shall be fully observed," and that "the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accord with the teaching and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Qurʿan and Sunna." The Objectives Resolution has been reproduced as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973. 
  10. ^ a b Islamization of Laws and Economy, Case Studies on Pakistan by Charles Kennedy (Institute of Policy Studies, The Islamic Foundation, 1996, p.85)
  11. ^ a b Backgrounder. Pakistan's Constitution Author: Jayshree Bajoria | Council on Foreign Relations | Updated: 21 April 2010
  12. ^ Diamantides, Marinos; Gearey, Adam (2011). Islam, Law and Identity. Routledge. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-136-67565-2. The 1973 constitution also created certain institutions to channel the application and interpretation of Islam: the Council of Islamic Ideology and the Shariat Court. 
  13. ^ a b c others contribution, et. al. "The Constitution of 1956". Story of Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan, part I. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  14. ^ The First Martial Law
  15. ^ a b c d et. al. "The Constitution of 1962". Story of Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan, Part II. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  16. ^ This was the system that had merged all the provinces of West Pakistan into one unit. General Yahya restored autonomy of the old provinces of Sindh, the Punjab, and the North West Frontier Province and created the new province of Baluchistan.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Ghazali, Abdus Sattar (14 August 1999). "Chapter V:The Second Martial Law". Islamic Pakistan: Illusions and Reality. Lahore, Punjab: University of Punjab Press. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  18. ^ a b Ghazali, Abdus Sattar. "Chapter VII : The Third Islamic Republic". Islamic Pakistan. Punjab University Press, Chapter 7. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c d et. al. "Constitution of Pakistan". Story of Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan, Part IV. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Korson, ed. by J. Henry (1974). "Islam and the New Constitution of Pakistan". Contemporary problems of Pakistan (google books). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004039422. 
  21. ^ Kugelman, Michael. "More Alike Than You'd Think: Six Things the U.S. and Pakistan Have in Common". Hufftington Post. Hufftington Post. Hufftington Post. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  22. ^ Ali, Sarmad (12 December 2013). "Pakistan and Social Contract". Daily Times. Daily Times. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  23. ^ a b c Siddiqui, Tariq Moin (21 July 2013). "Constitution of Pakistan". GEO Documentary (GEO News area studies). GEO Television Network. GEO Television Network. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  24. ^ Gerges, James Wynbrandt ; foreword by Fawaz A. (2008). A brief history of Pakistan. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 081606184X. 
  25. ^ Articles 8–28 in the Part II: Chapter 1: Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy of the Constitution of Pakistan
  26. ^ Hamdani, Yasir Latif. "Challenges to Fundamental Right of Freedom of Speech in Pakistan". Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  27. ^ Article 199(1)–199(5b) in the Part VII: Chapter 3: Chapter 3: The High Courts of the Constitution of Pakistan
  28. ^ Article 2 in Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan: "Islam shall be the State religion of Pakistan."
  29. ^ Article 1(1)–1(2) in Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan
  30. ^ Article 1(3) in Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan
  31. ^ Article 50(1)–89(3b) in Part III: Chapter 2: Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of the Constitution of Pakistan
  32. ^ Article 41(1)–41(2) of Part III:Chapter 1: The President of the Constitution of Pakistan
  33. ^ Article 91(3) in Part III: Chapter 3: The Federal Government of the Constitution of Pakistan
  34. ^ Article 227(1) in the Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  35. ^ Articles 153–159(5) of Part V:Chapter 3: Special Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  36. ^ Article 160–160(5) in Part VI:Chapter 1: Finance of the Constitution of Pakistan
  37. ^ Article 251–251(3) in Part XII: Chapter 4: General in the Constitution of Pakistan
  38. ^ Article 227(1)–227(3) in Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  39. ^ Article 228(1)–228(6) in Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  40. ^ Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan
  41. ^ Part II Part II: Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy of the Constitution of Pakistan
  42. ^ Part III: The Federation of Pakistan of the Constitution of Pakistan
  43. ^ Part IV: Provinces of the Constitution of Pakistan
  44. ^ Part V: Relations between Federation and Provinces of the Constitution of Pakistan
  45. ^ Part VI: Finance, Property, Contracts and Suit of the Constitution of Pakistan
  46. ^ Part VII: The Judicature of the Constitution of Pakistan
  47. ^ Part VIII: The Elections of the Constitution of Pakistan
  48. ^ Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  49. ^ Part X: Emergency Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  50. ^ Part XI: Amendment of Constitution of the Constitution of Pakistan
  51. ^ Part XII: Miscellaneous of the Constitution of Pakistan
  52. ^ First Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  53. ^ Second Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  54. ^ Third Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  55. ^ Fourth Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  56. ^ Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  57. ^ Article 239(1)–Article 239(6) in Part XI: Amendment of Constitution of the Constitution of Pakistan
  58. ^ Article 239(4) in Part XI: Amendment of Constitution of the Constitution of Pakistan

External links

  •  This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. – Pakistan
  • Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, including Fundamental Rights
  • Full Text of the Constitution via Law and Justice Commission
  • Full Text and Case Law via Zain Sheikh & Associates
  • Urdu text via National Assembly
  • Laws & Order, 2002 (Updated Version)
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