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Constantius III

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Constantius III
Co-emperor of the Western Roman Empire with Honorius
Solidus Constantius III-RIC 1325.jpg
Constantius on a solidus. The reverse shows Constantius as a general, holding Victory in one hand and a captive enemy in the other.
Co-emperor of the
Western Roman Empire
Reign 8 February 421 – 2 September 421 (with Honorius)
Predecessor Honorius (alone)
Successor Honorius (alone)
Born Unknown date
Naissus, Moesia
Died (421-09-02)2 September 421
Ravenna, Italy
Wife
Issue Justa Grata Honoria,
Valentinian III
Full name
Flavius Constantius
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Flavius Constantius Augustus

Constantius III (Latin: Flavius Constantius Augustus), was Western Roman Emperor in 421, from 8 February 421 to 2 September 421. He earned his position as Emperor due to his capability as a general under Honorius, achieving the rank of Magister militum by 411. That same year, he was sent to suppress the revolt of Constantine III, a Roman general who declared himself emperor. Constantius led his army to Arles in Gaul, the capital of Constantine III, and defeated Gerontius, a general rebelling against Constantine, before himself besieging Arles. After defeating a relief force led by Edobichus, Constantius convinced Constantine to surrender, promising safe retirement, but betrayed and beheaded him as soon as he surrendered. Constantius then went on to lead campaigns against various barbarian groups in Hispania and Gaul, recovering much of both for the Western Roman Empire. Constantius was proclaimed Western Roman Emperor by Honorius on 8 February 421. He reigned for seven months before dying on 2 September 421.

Life

Early life

Constantius was born in Naissus, Moesia at an unknown date.[1][2] Constantius served as a general under Honorius, rising to the rank of Magister militum (Master of the Soldiers) by 411.[2]

Revolt of Constantine III

In 411 Constantius was sent by Honorius to put down the revolt of Constantine III, who had declared himself emperor in Britain in 407.[3][4] Constantius thereafter led his soldiers to Arles, the capital and residence of Constantine. Upon arriving, he defeated the army of Gerontius, a general who was rebelling against Constantine, before besieging the city.[4]

Constantine refused to surrender, hoping to last until the return of his general Edobichus, who was raising troops in northern Gaul.[5] Edobichus did return to Arles, however he was swiftly defeated by Constantius.[6] Constantine soon after lost much of the remainder of his forces, as his army which had been guarding the Rhine chose to support the usurper Jovinus instead, forcing Constantine to surrender. Despite Constantius' assurances that Constantine would be able to safely retire to a clerical office, Constantius had him imprisoned, and further had him beheaded during his return to Ravenna,[7] in either August or September 411.[3] Honorius' remaining rivals were soon defeated, with Gerontius committing suicide in Hispania,[8] and Jovinus being defeated by Athaulf, king of the Visigoths.[6][9] Despite this, Honorius was unable to regain control of Britain, nor was any Roman after him.[10]

Campaigns

Constantius initiated a campaign against the Visigoths in northern Hispania in 416, blockading them in order to starve them and force their submission. Soon after, the Visigoth king, Wallia, surrendered to Rome, agreeing to: return Galla Placidia, the sister of Honorius, who had been captured by Alaric c. 412, and been forced into marriage with Athaulf, who was by this time dead; to wage war against the Vandals and other barbarians who the Romans were still in conflict with, in exchange for food supplies.[11] Constantius then continued to campaign against various tribal groups, regaining control of much of Hispania and Gaul by 420.[12]

Reign

During this time period, generals played a critical role in ensuring the continued reign of Roman Emperors, especially Western Roman Emperors.[13] Constantius' position of Magister militum and his skill as a commander allowed him to gain huge influence over the Western Roman Empire, comparable to the earlier Stilicho.[2] For this reason, Honorius bestowed many honors upon Constantius,[13] such as appointing him consul three times: in 414, alongside Constans; in 417, alongside Honorius;[1][14] and in 420, alongside Theodosius II.[1][15] In order to further ensure Constantius' loyalty, Honorius arranged the betrothal of his sister, Galla Placidia, to Constantius in 417.[1] Later, on 8 February 421, Honorius made Constantius co-Western Emperor under himself. Constantius reigned as co-emperor only seven months before dying on 2 September 421, in Ravenna.[1][16] Constantius was succeeded by Honorius, who ruled alone until his death in 423, whereupon Valentinian III, Constantius' son, assumed the throne, with Galla Placidia serving as regent.[17]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Grant 2015, p. 60.
  2. ^ a b c Adkins & Adkins 2014, p. 36.
  3. ^ a b Jones 1992, p. 316.
  4. ^ a b Canduci 2010, p. 152.
  5. ^ Bury 1889, p. 143.
  6. ^ a b Bury 1889, p. 144.
  7. ^ Canduci 2010, p. 153.
  8. ^ Jones 1992, p. 508.
  9. ^ Canduci 2010, p. 155.
  10. ^ Birley 1980, p. 160.
  11. ^ Lee 2013, p. 115.
  12. ^ Sivan 2011, p. 171.
  13. ^ a b Lee 2013, p. 82.
  14. ^ Cooley 2012, p. 482.
  15. ^ Cooley 2012, p. 483.
  16. ^ Cooley 2012, p. 506.
  17. ^ Ring, Watson & Schellinger 2013, p. 554.

Bibliography

  • Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy A. (2014). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Facts On File. ISBN 9780816074822. 
  • Birley, Anthony (1980). The People of Roman Britain. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520041196. 
  • Bury, J. B. (1889). A History of the Later Roman Empire, from Arcadius to Irene (395 A. D. to 800 A. D.). Macmillan and co. OCLC 933179049. 
  • Canduci, Alexander (2010). Triumph and Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors. Murdoch Books. ISBN 9781741965988. 
  • Cooley, Alison E. (2012). The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139576604. 
  • Grant, Michael (2015). From Rome to Byzantium: The Fifth Century AD. Routledge. ISBN 9781135166724. 
  • Jones, A. H. M. (1992). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Volume 2, AD 395-527. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521201599. 
  • Lee, A. D. (2013). From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748668359. 
  • Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (2013). Southern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9781134259656. 
  • Sivan, Hagith (2011). Galla Placidia: The Last Roman Empress. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195379129. 

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Honorius
Western Roman Emperor
421
Served alongside: Honorius
Succeeded by
Honorius
Preceded by
Heraclianus,
Lucius
Consul of the Roman Empire
414
Served alongside: Constans
Succeeded by
Honorius,
Theodosius II
Preceded by
Theodosius II,
Junius Quartus Palladius
Consul of the Roman Empire
417
Served alongside: Honorius
Succeeded by
Honorius,
Theodosius II
Preceded by
Monaxius,
Plinta
Consul of the Roman Empire
420
Served alongside: Theodosius II
Succeeded by
Agricola,
Eustathius
Military offices
Preceded by
Stilicho
In 408
Magister militum of the Western Roman Army
411-421
Succeeded by
Felix
In 425
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