Communes of Luxembourg

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The 116 communes of Luxembourg between 2006 and 2012. 11 of these communes no longer exist.

Luxembourg's 102 Communes (French: communes, Luxembourgish: Gemengen, German: Gemeinden) conform to LAU Level 2[1] and are the country's lowest administrative divisions.

Communes rank below cantons in Luxembourg's hierarchy of administrative subdivisions. Communes are often re-arranged, being merged or divided as demanded by demographic change over time. Unlike the cantons, which have remained unchanged since their creation, the identity of the communes has not become ingrained within the geographical sensations of the average Luxembourger.[citation needed] The cantons are responsible for the ceremonial, administrative, and statistical aspects of government, while the communes provide local government services.[2]

The municipal system was adopted when Luxembourg was annexed into the French département of Forêts in 1795. Despite ownership passing to the Netherlands, this system was maintained until it was introduced upon independence in 1843. The province of Luxembourg, which now constitutes part of Belgium, was part of Luxembourg prior to 1839 when it possessed a low degree of sovereignty. Due to Luxembourg's incorporation into the main country by its occupying powers, the modern municipal system in Luxembourg is less than two centuries old.

Terminology

Luxembourg has three official languages: French, German, and the national language Luxembourgish. Some government websites also offer English versions[3][4]

Language Type name (sg./pl.)
Luxembourgish Gemeng/Gemengen [5][6]
French commune/communes [7][8][9]
German Gemeinde/Gemeinden [10][11][12]

Authority

The communes have no legislative control over matters relating to the national interest, which reside solely with the Chamber of Deputies. Below this level, however, they have wide-ranging powers. The communes provide public education, maintain the local road network and other infrastructure, ensure basic public health, and provide most social security.[2] Communes also have discretionary powers for comprehensive health care (including maintenance of hospitals and clinics) within their borders, land-use planning, funds for cultural activities, provision of care to the elderly, and providing a sufficient supply of water, gas, and electricity.[2]

Communes and cities

The cities of Luxembourg, colored in orange.

There are currently 105 communes in the 12 cantons. The 12 communes with city status are Diekirch, Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Ettelbruck, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Remich, Rumelange, Vianden, and Wiltz.[13]

Former communes

Since the country's creation in 1839, eight communes have changed their name and thirty-nine communes have been merged, resulting in the 102 communes that exist today. These defunct communes are listed in the table below.

Name Year dissolved Reason
Arsdorf 1979 merged to form Rambrouch
Asselborn 1978 merged to form Wincrange
Bascharage 2011 merged to form Käerjeng
Bastendorf 2006 merged to form Tandel
Bigonville 1979 merged to form Rambrouch
Boevange 1978 merged to form Wincrange
Boevange-sur-Attert 2018 merged to form Helperknapp
Burmerange 2011 merged into Schengen
Clemency 2011 merged to form Käerjeng
Consthum 2011 merged to form Parc Hosingen
Eich 1920 merged into Luxembourg City
Ermsdorf 2011 merged to form Vallée de l'Ernz
Eschweiler 2015 merged into Wiltz
Folschette 1979 merged to form Rambrouch
Fouhren 2006 merged to form Tandel
Hachiville 1978 merged to form Wincrange
Hamm 1920 merged into Luxembourg City
Harlange 1979 merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre
Heiderscheid 2011 merged into Esch-sur-Sûre
Heinerscheid 2011 merged into Clervaux
Hobscheid 2018 merged to form Habscht
Hollerich 1920 merged into Luxembourg City
Hoscheid 2011 merged to form Parc Hosingen
Hosingen 2011 merged to form Parc Hosingen
Kautenbach 2006 merged to form Kiischpelt
Mompach 2018 merged to form Rosport-Mompach
Mecher 1979 merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre
Medernach 2011 merged to form Vallée de l'Ernz
Munshausen 2011 merged into Clervaux
Neunhausen 2011 merged into Esch-sur-Sûre
Oberpallen 1846 merged into Beckerich
Oberwampach 1978 merged to form Wincrange
Perlé 1979 merged to form Rambrouch
Rodenbourg 1979 merged into Junglinster
Rollingergrund 1920 merged into Luxembourg City
Rosport 2018 merged to form Rosport-Mompach
Septfontaines 2018 merged to form Habscht
Tuntange 2018 merged to form Helperknapp
Wellenstein 2011 merged into Schengen
Wilwerwiltz 2006 merged to form Kiischpelt[14]

Evolution of communes

This chart shows the gradual expansion and contraction among the communes over time.

The municipal system was created during the French occupation to mirror the systems employed in the rest of the French Republic. These were overhauled in 1823, but the system itself was retained until independence, which was granted under the 1839 Treaty of London.[1] The law regulating their creation and organisation dates to 24 February 1843,[15] which was later enshrined in the Luxembourgian constitution promulgated on 17 October 1868.[2]

Upon independence, there were 120 communes. A series of mergers and partitions between 1849 and 1891 increased this number to 130. Most of these were brought about by asymmetrical population growth, as population growth in the south caused the balance of population in the country to shift. For instance, some of the communes born in that era include Rumelange, Schifflange, and Walferdange. In the pattern of Nordstad, Erpeldange and Schieren were also separated from Ettelbruck.

Since the end of the First World War, during which Luxembourg was occupied by Germany, the number of communes has dropped steadily. In 1920, Luxembourg City was expanded, annexing four surrounding communes. Another wave of mergers took place in the 1970s when sparsely-populated areas in the north and west of the country were merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Rambrouch, and Wincrange.[14] 2006 saw the creation of Kiischpelt and Tandel from four smaller communes, further reducing them to just 116.[14] 2012 saw the creation of Käerjeng, Vallée de l'Ernz and Parc Hosingen from smaller communes, and the merger of Clervaux, Esch-sur-Sûre and Schengen into adjacent ones. With the 2015 expansion of Wiltz, there are now only 105 communes.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Statec (2003), p. 9&10
  2. ^ a b c d "Devolution in Luxembourg" (PDF). Committee of the Regions. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
  3. ^ http://www.luxembourg.public.lu/en/index.html
  4. ^ http://www.statistiques.public.lu/en/index.html
  5. ^ http://www.schifflange.lu/
  6. ^ http://map.geoportail.lu/communes/?lang=lb
  7. ^ http://www.statistiques.public.lu/fr/support/recherche/index.php?q=commune&go=OK
  8. ^ http://www.statistiques.public.lu/stat/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=12704&IF_Language=eng&MainTheme=1&FldrName=1
  9. ^ http://map.geoportail.lu/communes/?lang=fr
  10. ^ http://www.luxembourg.public.lu/de/le-grand-duche-se-presente/systeme-politique/territoire/communes/index.html
  11. ^ http://www.wiltz.lu/de
  12. ^ http://map.geoportail.lu/communes/?lang=de
  13. ^ Carte des communes. luxembourg.public.lu
  14. ^ a b c d "Evolution of the number of municipalities 1839 - 2015". STATEC. Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  15. ^ (in French)/(in German) "Mémorial A, 1843, No. 17" (PDF). Service central de législation. Retrieved 2006-07-21.
  • Statec (2003). Recueil de statistiques par commune 2003 (PDF) (in French). Luxembourg City: Statec. ISBN 2-87988-053-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
  • (in French)/(in German) "Archives of Mémorial A". Service central de législation. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
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