Common Security and Defence Policy

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European Defence Union
Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg Coat of arms of Europe.svg Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Arms of the Military Committee (left) and its chairman (middle), as well as the Military Staff (right)

Structure
Founded 1999 (as the European Security and Defence Policy of the European Union)
Current form 2009 (Treaty of Lisbon)
Headquarters Kortenberg building, Brussels, Belgium (Military Planning and Conduct Capability)
Website eeas.europa.eu
Leadership
High Repr. Federica Mogherini
Director General of the Mil. Staff Lt. Gen Esa Pulkkinen
Chairman of the Mil. Committee General Michail Kostarakos
Manpower
Active personnel 1,823,000 (2014)[2]
Expenditures
Budget $226.73 billion (2016)[2]
Percent of GDP 1.42% (2014)[2]

The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP, whose structures are sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union, EDU[3][4][5][d]) is the European Union's (EU) course of action in the fields of defence and crisis management.

The implementation of the CSDP involves the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states[e] as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration.

The Union's High Representative (HR/VP), currently Federica Mogherini, is responsible for proposing and implementing CSDP decisions. Such decisions are adopted by the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC), generally requiring unanimity. The CSDP structures, headed by the HR/VP, comprise relevant sections of the External Action Service (EEAS)—including the Military Staff (EUMS) with its operational headquarters (MPCC)—a number of FAC preparatory bodies—such as the Military Committee (EUMC)—as well as four agencies, including the Defence Agency (EDA).

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History

The post-war period saw several short-lived or ill-fated initiatives for European defence integration intended to protect against potential Soviet or German aggression: The Western Union and the proposed European Defence Community were respectively cannibalised by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and rejected by the French Parliament. The largely dormant Western European Union (WEU) succeeded the Western Union's remainder in 1954.

In 1970 the European Political Cooperation (EPC) brought about the European Communities' (EC) initial foreign policy coordination. Opposition to the addition of security and defence matters to the EPC led to the reactivation of the WEU in 1984 by its member states, which were also EC member states.

After the end of the Cold War, European defence integration gained momentum. In 1992, the WEU was given new tasks, and the following year the Treaty of Maastricht founded the EU and replaced the EPC with the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) pillar. In 1996 NATO agreed to let the WEU develop a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI).[6] The 1998 St. Malo declaration signalled that the traditionally hesitant United Kingdom was prepared to provide the EU with autonomous defence structures.[7] This facilitated the transformation of the ESDI into the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999, when it was transferred to the EU. In 2003 the EU deployed its first CSDP missions, and adopted the European Security Strategy identifying common threats and objectives. In 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon introduced the present name, CSDP, while establishing the EEAS, the mutual defence clause and enabling a subset of member states to pursue defence integration within PESCO. In 2011 the WEU, whose tasks had been transferred to the EU, was dissolved. In 2016 a new security strategy was introduced, which along with the Russian annexation of Crimea, the scheduled British withdrawal from the EU and the election of Trump as US President have given the CSDP a new impetus.

Structure

The CSDP is a part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), based on articles 42–46 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU)[8][9]. Article 42.2 of TEU states that the CSDP includes the 'progressive framing' of a common Union defence policy, and will lead to a common defence, when the European Council of national heads of state or government, acting unanimously, so decides.

Location of decentralised CSDP agencies in addition to the Brussels-based External Action Service (EEAS), Defence Agency (EDA) and Council

Denmark has an opt-out from the CSDP.[2]


The CSDP command structure involving the High Representative, the Military Staff and Military Committee as of 1 November 2017:[10] Colour key:
     High Representative (a Vice-President of the Commission)
     Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg Military Committee (a Council body)
     Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg Military Staff (a Directorate-General of the External Action Service)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
High Representative
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military Committee
Chairman
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working Group
Golden star.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working Group/Headline Goal Task Force
 
 
 
 
Military Staff
Director General
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Legal advisor
 
Deputy Director General
Golden star.svgGolden star.svg
Horizontal Coordination
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assistant Chief of Staff for Synchronisation EU cell at SHAPE
 
 
EU Liaison at the UN in NY Assistant Chief of Staff for External Relations
 
NATO Permanent Liaison Team
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Directorate A:
Concepts & Capabilities
Golden star.svg
 
Directorate B:
Intelligence
Golden star.svg
 
Directorate C:
Operations
Golden star.svg
 
Directorate D:
Logistics
Golden star.svg
 
Directorate E:
Communications & Information Systems
Golden star.svg
Military Planning and
Conduct Capability

Chief of Staff
Golden star.svg
Working Group
Current Operations


High Representative

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, commonly referred to as the High Representative (HR/VP), is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the CSDP. The position is currently held by Federica Mogherini.

Where foreign matters is agreed between EU member states, the High Representative can speak for the EU in that area, such as negotiating on behalf of the member states.

Beside representing the EU at international fora and co-ordinating the CFSP and the CSDP, the HR/VP is:

External Action Service

The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the EU. The EEAS is led by the HR/VP and seated in Brussels.

The EEAS does not propose or implement policy in its own name, but prepares acts to be adopted by the HR/VP, the European Commission or the Council.[11] The EEAS is also in charge of EU diplomatic missions (delegations)[12] and intelligence and crisis management structures.[13][14][15]

The following EEAS bodies take part in managing the CSDP:

Council preparatory bodies

General Kostarakos has served as Chairman of the Military Committee since 2015

The Council of the European Union has the following, Brussels-based preparatory bodies in the field of CSDP:

Mission/operational headquarters

List of national 'parent headquarters' that may serve as OHQ
National 'parent headquarters' Location Member state
Centre de Planification et de Conduite des Opérations Paris  France
Armed Forces Operational Command Potsdam  Germany
Hellenic EU Operational HQ (former First Army) Larissa  Greece
Italian Joint Force Headquarters (ITA-JFHQ)[26] Centocelle, Rome  Italy
Permanent Joint Headquarters, Northwood Headquarters London  United Kingdom
Naval Station Rota[27] Rota  Spain

The Council nominates headquarters for each mission, referred to as mission headquarters. Military CSDP missions with elements of combat are also referred to as operations, in which case the headquarters are referred to as operational headquarters (OHQs).

The selected OHQ runs the operation at the strategic level and directs the force headquarters (FHQ), which carries out the operation on the ground.

Since the first EU operation was deployed in 2003, four types of OHQs have been employed:

  • National 'parent headquarters': Headquarters made available by EU member states. Example: Northwood Headquarters manages Operation Atalanta.
  • Allied Command Operations (ACO) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO): Headquarters, located in Mons, Belgium, made available by NATO under the 'Berlin Plus agreement'. Example: ACO manages EUFOR Althea.[28]
  • Local Mission Headquarters: Headquarters situated in the country in which a training mission (EUTM) takes place. Examples: EUTMs in Somalia and Mali have local Mission Headquarters situated in Mogadishu, Somalia and Bamako, Mali, respectively.
  • European Union Operations Centre (EU OPCEN): A body that may be established to plan and conduct military operations. This non-standing, ad-hoc headquarters is operational five days following a decision by the Council, and would reach its full capability to command the operation after twenty days, at the latest. The EU OPCEN has no command responsibility, and respects existing chains of command.[29]

Agencies

The following agencies relate to the CSDP:

  • The Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, facilitates the improvement of national military capabilities and integration. In that capacity, it makes proposals, coordinates, stimulates collaboration, and runs projects.
  • The Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex), based in Warsaw, Poland, leads the European coast guard that controls the borders of the Schengen Area.
  • The Institute for Security Studies (ISS), based in Paris, is an autonomous think tank that researches EU-relevant security issues. The research results are published in papers, books, reports, policy briefs, analyses and newsletters. In addition, the institute convenes seminars and conferences on relevant issues that bring together EU officials, national experts, decision-makers and NGO representatives from all Member States.
  • The Satellite Centre (SatCen), located in Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain, supports the decision-making by providing products and services resulting from the exploitation of relevant space assets and collateral data, including satellite and aerial imagery, and related services.

Permanent structured cooperation

  PESCO States
  Non-PESCO EU States

The Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) is the framework in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. Based on Article 42.6 and Protocol 10 of the Treaty on European Union, introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, PESCO was first initiated in 2017.[30] The initial integration within the PESCO format is a number of projects planned to launch in 2018.[31]

PESCO is similar to enhanced co-operation in other policy areas, in the sense that integration does not require that all EU member states participate.

Relationship with NATO

The Berlin Plus agreement is the short title of a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU on 16 December 2002.[32] These agreements were based on conclusions of NATO's 1999 Washington summit, sometimes referred to as the CJTF mechanism,[33] and allowed the EU to draw on some of NATO's military assets in its own peacekeeping operations.

Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO
  EU member only
  NATO member only
  Member of both

Out of the 28 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another three NATO members are EU applicants—Albania, Montenegro and Turkey. Two others—Iceland and Norway—have opted to remain outside of the EU, however participate in the EU's single market. The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are traditionally neutral on defence issues. Several of the new EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact.

In 2012 then Director General of the Military Staff Lt. gen. Ton van Osch presented the following chart, illustrating a perceived utility of the European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy (civilian and military components) compared to that of NATO, depending on level of conflict:

CSDP utility.svg

According to this graph, CSDP action could be considered more effective or relevant given a level of conflict that is not too high - in which case NATO capabilities become more effective.

Strategy

The European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) is the updated doctrine of the EU to improve the effectiveness of the CSDP, including the defence and security of the members states, the protection of civilians, cooperation between the member states' armed forces, management of immigration, crises etc. Adopted on 28 June 2016[34], it replaces the European Security Strategy of 2003. The EUGS is complemented by a document titled "Implementation Plan on Security and Defense" (IPSD)[35].

Missions

Since 2002, the European Union has intervened abroad[36] thirty times in three different continents.

In the EU terminology, civilian CSDP interventions are called ‘missions’, regardless of whether they have an executive mandate such as EULEX Kosovo or a non-executive mandate (all others). Military interventions, however, can either have an executive mandate such as for example Operation Atalanta in which case they are referred to as ‘operations’ and are commanded at two-star level; or non-executive mandate (e.g. EUTM Somalia) in which case they are called ‘missions’ and are commanded at one-star level.

The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP, following the 1999 declaration of intent, was in March 2003 in the Republic of Macedonia. Operation Concordia used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission, EUPOL Proxima, later that year. Since then, there have been other small police, justice and monitoring missions. As well as the Republic of Macedonia, the EU has maintained its deployment of peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as part of Operation Althea.[37]

Between May and September 2003 EU troops were deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during "Operation Artemis" under a mandate given by UN Security Council Resolution 1484 which aimed to prevent further atrocities and violence in the Ituri Conflict and put the DRC's peace process back on track. This laid out the "framework nation" system to be used in future deployments. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with EUFOR RD Congo, which supported the UN mission there during the country's elections.

Geographically, EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in Georgia, Indonesia, Sudan, Palestine, and UkraineMoldova. There is also a judicial mission in Iraq (EUJUST Lex). On 28 January 2008, the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa, EUFOR Tchad/RCA.[38] The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008, and handed over security duties to the UN (MINURCAT mission) in mid-March 2009.[39]

The EU launched its first maritime CSDP operation on 12 December 2008 (Operation Atalanta). The concept of the European Union Naval Force (EU NAVFOR) was created on the back of this operation, which is still successfully combatting piracy off the coast of Somalia almost a decade later. A second such intervention was launched in 2015 to tackle migration problems in the southern Mediterranean (EUNAVFOR Med), working under the name Operation SOPHIA.

Most of the CSDP missions deployed so far are mandated to support Security Sector Reforms (SSR) in host-states. One of the core principles of CSDP support to SSR is local ownership. The EU Council defines ownership as "the appropriation by the local authorities of the commonly agreed objectives and principles".[40] Despite EU's strong rhetorical attachment to the local ownership principle, research shows that CSDP missions continue to be an externally driven, top-down and supply-driven endeavour, resulting often in the low degree of local participation.[41]

Forces

National

National armed forces' personnel combined (2016)[42]

The CSDP is implemented using civilian and military contributions from member states' armed forces, which also are obliged to collective self-defence based on Treaty on European Union (TEU).

Six EU states host nuclear weapons: France and the United Kingdom each have their own nuclear programmes, while Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands host US nuclear weapons as part of NATO's nuclear sharing policy. Combined, the EU possesses 525 warheads, and hosts between 90 and 130 US warheads. Italy hosts 70-90 B61 nuclear bombs, while Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands 10-20 each one. [43] The EU has the third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons, after the United States and Russia.

Multinational

Established at Union level

Irish Army personnel from the Nordic Battle Group at an exercise in 2010

The Helsinki Headline Goal Catalogue is a listing of rapid reaction forces composed of 60,000 troops managed by the European Union, but under control of the countries who deliver troops for it.

Forces introduced at Union level include:

  • The battle groups (BG) adhere to the CSDP, and are based on contributions from a coalition of member states. Each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force (1,500 troops) reinforced with combat support elements.[44][45] The groups rotate actively, so that two are ready for deployment at all times. The forces are under the direct control of the Council of the European Union. The Battlegroups reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, although, as of January 2013 they are yet to see any military action.[46] They are based on existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) has undertaken and has been described by some as a new "standing army" for Europe.[45] The troops and equipment are drawn from the EU member states under a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[47]
  • The Medical Command (EMC) is a planned medical command centre in support of EU missions, formed as part of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO).[48] The EMC will provide the EU with a permanent medical capability to support operations abroad, including medical resources and a rapidly deployable medical task force. The EMC will also provide medical evacuation facilities, triage and resuscitation, treatment and holding of patients until they can be returned to duty, and emergency dental treatment. It will also contribute to harmonising medical standards, certification and legal (civil) framework conditions.[49]
  • The Force Crisis Response Operation Core (EUFOR CROC) is a flagship defence project under development as part of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO). EURFOR CROC will contribute to the creation of a "full spectrum force package" to speed up provision of military forces and the EU's crisis management capabilities.[50] Rather than creating a standing force, the project involves creating a concrete catalogue of military force elements that would speed up the establishment of a force when the EU decides to launch an operation. It is land-focused and aims to generate a force of 60,000 troops from the contributing states alone. While it does not establish any form of "European army", it foresees an deployable, interoperable force under a single command.[51] Germany is the lead country for the project, but the French are heavily involved and it is tied to President Emmanuel Macron's proposal to create a standing intervention force. The French see it as an example of what PESCO is about.[52]

Provided through Article 42.3 TEU

Personnel of the European Corps in Strasbourg, France, during a change of command ceremony in 2013

This section presents an incomplete list of forces and bodies established intergovernmentally amongst a subset of member states. These organisations will deploy forces based on the collective agreement of their member states. They are typically technically listed as being able to be deployed under the auspices of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union (EU) through Article 42.3 of TEU, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or any other international entity.

However, with the exception of the Eurocorps, very few have actually been deployed for any real military operation, and none under the CSDP at any point in its history.

Land Forces:

Aerial:

  • The European Air Transport Command exercises operational control of the majority of the aerial refueling capabilities and military transport fleets of its participating nations. Located at Eindhoven Airbase in the Netherlands, the command also bears a limited responsibility for exercises, aircrew training and the harmonisation of relevant national air transport regulations.[54][55] The command was established in 2010 to provide a more efficient management of the participating nations' assets and resources in this field.

Naval:

Equipment

EU-developed infrastructure for military use includes:

Defence fund

The European Defence Fund is an EU-managed fund for coordinating and increasing national investment in defence research and improve interoperability between national forces. It was proposed in 2016 by President Jean-Claude Juncker and established in 2017 to a value of €5.5 billion per year. The fund has two stands; research (€90 million until the end of 2019 and €500 million per year after 2020) and development & acquisition (€500 million in total for 2019–20 then €1 billion per year after 2020).[59]

Together with the Coordinated Annual Review on Defence and Permanent Structured Cooperation it forms a new comprehensive defence package for the EU.[60]

See also

Other defence-related EU initiatives:

Other Pan-European defence organisations (intergovernmental):

Regional, integorvernmental defence organisations in Europe:

Atlanticist intergovernmental defence organisations:

Notes

  1. ^ The United Kingdom does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation.
  2. ^ The Edinburgh Agreement of 1992 included a guarantee to Denmark that they would not be obliged to join the Western European Union, which was responsible for defence. Additionally, the agreement stipulated that Denmark would not take part in discussions or be bound by decisions of the EU with defence implications. The Treaty of Amsterdam of 1997 included a protocol which formalised this opt-out from the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). As a consequence, Denmark is excluded from foreign policy discussions with defence implications and does not participate in foreign missions with a defence component.[1] Denmark does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation. See Opt-outs_in_the_European_Union#Defence_–_Denmark.
  3. ^ Malta does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation.
  4. ^ Akin to the EU’s banking union, economic and monetary union and customs union.
  5. ^ The responsibility of collective selv-defence within the CSDP is based on Article 42.7 of TEU, which states that this responsibility does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, referring to policies of nautrality. See Neutral country§European Union for discussion on this subject.According to the Article 42.7 "If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States." Article 42.2 furthermore specifies that NATO shall be the main forum for the implementation of collective self-defence for EU member states that are also NATO members.

References

  1. ^ "EU - The Danish Defence Opt-Out". Danish Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Defence Data Portal, Official 2012 defence statistics from the European Defence Agency
  3. ^ http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P8-TA-2016-0435&language=EN
  4. ^ http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-5205_en.htm
  5. ^ http://eppgroup.eu/document/119334
  6. ^ https://eur-lex.europa.eu/summary/glossary/european_security_defence_identity.html
  7. ^ https://euobserver.com/foreign/138147
  8. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon". EU. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. 
  9. ^ Article 42, Treaty on European Union
  10. ^ https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/impetus_24_dp_final_1.pdf
  11. ^ Gatti, Mauro (2016). European External Action Service : Promoting Coherence through Autonomy and Coordination. Leiden: Brill. p. 148. ISBN 9789004323612. OCLC 951833456. 
  12. ^ Art. 5 of COUNCIL DECISION establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service PDF, Council of the European Union, 20 July 2010
  13. ^ "The Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD)". 
  14. ^ "The Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)". 
  15. ^ "The European Union Military Staff (EUMS)". 
  16. ^ https://euobserver.com/foreign/137127
  17. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/06/08/military-mpcc-planning-conduct-capability/
  18. ^ https://isnblog.ethz.ch/defense/permanent-structured-cooperation-an-institutional-pathway-for-european-defence
  19. ^ SCADPlus: European Security and Defence College (ESDC) Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on 4 March 2008
  20. ^ (en) Sylvain Paile, Europe for the Future Officers, Officers for the Future Europe – Compendium of the European Military Officers Basic Education, Department of Science and Military Education – Ministry of Defence of Poland, 2011, 226 p., DWS SG WP. Zam. 1168. 2011
  21. ^ France-Diplomatie: The main bodies specific to the CFSP: The Political and Security Committee, accessed on 21 April 2008
  22. ^ http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-593_en.htm?locale=en
  23. ^ The Council of the European Union: ESDP Structures, accessed on 21 April 2008
  24. ^ Preparatory document related to CESDP: Establishment of a European Union committee for civilian crisis management (Press Release: Brussels 10/3/2000)
  25. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/council-eu/preparatory-bodies/politico-military-group/
  26. ^ https://www.difesa.it/SMD_/COI/ITAJFHQ/Documents/brochureENG.pdf
  27. ^ https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/20180423_ceumc_opening_remarks_at_dvd_milex_18.pdf
  28. ^ EU Operations Centre
  29. ^ http://www.eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/csdp/structures-instruments-agencies/eu-operations-centre/docs/factsheet_eu_opcen_23_06_2015.pdf
  30. ^ Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) - Factsheet, European External Action Service
  31. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/32079/pesco-overview-of-first-collaborative-of-projects-for-press.pdf
  32. ^ NATO, Berlin Plus agreement, 21 June 2006."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-17. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  33. ^ Heritage Foundation report, 4 October 2004 : "Through the CJTF mechanism, NATO member states do not have to actively participate actively in a specific mission if they do not feel their vital interests are involved, but their opting out [...] would not stop other NATO members from participating in an intervention if they so desired." [1]
  34. ^ (Stratégie globale de l'Union européenne, p. 1)
  35. ^ (Conclusions du Conseil du 14 novembre 2016)
  36. ^ You want know more about the mission and receive news ? Bruxelles2.eu and Le Club
  37. ^ Christopher S. Chivvis, "Birthing Athena. The Uncertain Future of ESDP" Archived 2008-06-27 at the Wayback Machine., Focus stratégique, Paris, Ifri, March 2008.
  38. ^ "EUFOR Tchad/RCA" consilium.europa.eu
  39. ^ Benjamin Pohl (2013) The logic underpinning EU crisis management operations Archived 2014-12-14 at the Wayback Machine., European Security, 22(3): 307–325, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.726220, p. 311.
  40. ^ http://www.ifp-ew.eu/resources/EU_Concept_for_ESDP_support_to_Security_Sector_Reform.pdf
  41. ^ Filip Ejdus, ‘Here is your mission, now own it!’ the rhetoric and practice of local ownership in EU interventions’, European Security, published online 6 June 2017 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09662839.2017.1333495
  42. ^ https://www.eda.europa.eu/docs/default-source/documents/eda-defence-data-2006-2016
  43. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130310160809/http://www.fas.org/blog/ssp/2008/06/usaf-report-%E2%80%9Cmost%E2%80%9D-nuclear-weapon-sites-in-europe-do-not-meet-us-security-requirements.php
  44. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/Battlegroups.pdf
  45. ^ a b New force behind EU foreign policy BBC News – 15 March 2007
  46. ^ Charlemagne: Europe in a foreign field
  47. ^ Value of EU 'Battlegroup' plan stressed by Annan forumoneurope.ie 15 October 2004
  48. ^ https://ec.europa.eu/epsc/publications/strategic-notes/defence-europe_en
  49. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/32079/pesco-overview-of-first-collaborative-of-projects-for-press.pdf
  50. ^ Project outlines
  51. ^ European Defence: What’s in the CARDs for PESCO?
  52. ^ Barigazzi, Jacopo (10 December 2017). "EU unveils military pact projects". Politico. Retrieved 29 December 2017. 
  53. ^ "Eurocorps' official website / History". Retrieved 23 February 2008. 
  54. ^ Eindhoven regelt internationale militaire luchtvaart (in Dutch)
  55. ^ "Claude-France Arnould Visits EATC Headquarters". Eda.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  56. ^ EUROMARFOR – At Sea for Peace pamphlet[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  57. ^ Biscop, Sven (2003). Euro-Mediterranean security: a search for partnership. Ashgate Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7546-3487-4. 
  58. ^ EUROMARFOR Retrospective – Portuguese Command[permanent dead link], page 12. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  59. ^ http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1508_en.htm
  60. ^ Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) – Factsheet, European External Action Service
  61. ^ Finabel information folder: "Finabel: Contributing to European Army Interoperability since 1953" Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading

  • Book – What ambitions for European defence in 2020?, European Union Institute for Security Studies
  • Book – European Security and Defence Policy: The first 10 years (1999–2009), European Union Institute for Security Studies
  • "Guide to the ESDP" nov.2008 edition Exhaustive guide on ESDP's missions, institutions and operations, written and edited by the Permanent representation of France to the European Union.
  • Dijkstra, Hylke (2013). Policy-Making in EU Security and Defense: An Institutional Perspective. European Administrative Governance Series (Hardback 240pp ed.). Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. ISBN 978-1-137-35786-1. 
  • Nugent, Neill (2006). The Government and Politics of the European Union. The European Union Series (Paperback 630pp ed.). Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ISBN 9780230000025. 
  • Howorth, Joylon (2007). Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. The European Union Series (Paperback 315pp ed.). Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ISBN 978-0-333-63912-2. 
  • PhD Thesis on Civilian ESDP - EU Civilian crisis management (University of Geneva, 2008, 441 p. in French)
  • Hayes, Ben (2009). NeoConOpticon: The EU Security-Industrial Complex (Paperback, 84 pp ed.). Transnational Institute/Statewatch. ISSN 1756-851X. 
  • Giovanni Arcudi & Michael E. Smith (2013). The European Gendarmerie Force: a solution in search of problems?, European Security, 22(1): 1–20, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.747511
  • Teresa Eder (2014). Welche Befugnisse hat die Europäische Gendarmerietruppe?, Der Standard, 5 Februar 2014.
  • Alexander Mattelaer (2008). The Strategic Planning of EU Military Operations – The Case of EUFOR Tchad/RCA, IES Working Paper 5/2008.
  • Benjamin Pohl (2013). The logic underpinning EU crisis management operations, European Security, 22(3): 307–325, DOI:10.1080/09662839.2012.726220
  • "The Russo-Georgian War and Beyond: towards a European Great Power Concert", Danish Institute of International Studies.
  • U.S Army Strategic Studies Institute (SSI), Operation EUFOR TCHAD/RCA and the EU's Common Security and Defense Policy., U.S. Army War College, October 2010
  • Mai'a K. Davis Cross "Security Integration in Europe: How Knowledge-based Networks are Transforming the European Union." University of Michigan Press, 2011.

External links

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