Comilla

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Comilla

কুমিল্লা

Cumilla
Comilla City (4)-01.jpg
Comilla Education Board 2018-10-01.jpg
Front view of Chondimura temple, Comilla district, Bangladesh.jpg
Mainamati War Cemetery 2018-01-09 (2).jpg
Dharmasagar (2).jpg
Roop Sagar Park, Comilla 2018-01-09 (6).jpg
Forest Cottage at BARD, Comilla.jpg
ময়নামতি রাণীর কুঠির (Maynamati Ranir Kuthir).jpg
From top: Comilla Skyline, Comilla Education Board, Chondimura temple, Mainamati War Cemetery, Dharmasagar Lake, Roopsagar Park, Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development and Mainamati
Comilla is located in Bangladesh
Comilla
Comilla
Coordinates: 23°27′N 91°12′E / 23.450°N 91.200°E / 23.450; 91.200Coordinates: 23°27′N 91°12′E / 23.450°N 91.200°E / 23.450; 91.200
Country Bangladesh
Division Chittagong Division
District Comilla District
Municipality established 1890
City corporation 10 July 2011
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Comilla City Corporation
 • City Mayor Monirul Haque Sakku
Area
 • Total 3,087.33 km2 (1,192.02 sq mi)
Elevation
72 m (236 ft)
Population
(2018)
 • Total 1,703,000
 • Density 16,000/km2 (40,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Comillian, Kumilli
Time zone UTC+6 (BST)
Postal code
3500–3583
Calling code 081
Literacy percentage total 57%
Website cocc.gov.bd

Comilla, officially known as Cumilla,[1] is a city in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh, located along the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway. It is the administrative centre of the Comilla District, part of the Chittagong Division. Comilla is the second-largest city of eastern Bangladesh after Chittagong and is one of the three oldest cities in Bangladesh.

History

Ancient era

Shalaban Bihar is evidence of the age of Comilla.

The Comilla region was once under ancient Samatata and was joined with Tripura State. This district came under the reign of the kings of the Harikela in the ninth century AD. Lalmai Mainamati was ruled by the Deva dynasty (eighth century AD), and (during 10th and mid-11th century AD). In 1732, it became the centre of the Bengal-backed domain of Jagat Manikya.[2]

The Peasants’ Movement against the king of Tripura in 1764, which originally formed under the leadership of Shamsher Gazi is a notable historical event in Comilla.[3] It came under the rule of East India Company in 1765. This district was established as Tripura district in 1790. It was renamed Comilla in 1960. Chandpur and Brahmanbaria subdivisions of this district were transformed into districts in 1984.

British era

World War II cemetery in Mainamati.

Communal tension spread over Comilla when a Muslim was shot in the town during the partition of Bengal in 1905. On 21 November 1921, Kazi Nazrul Islam composed patriotic songs and tried to awaken the town people by protesting the Prince of Wales's visit to India.[4] During this time, Avay Ashram, as a revolutionary institution, played a significant role. Poet Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi visited Comilla at that time. In 1931, approximately 4000 peasants in Mohini village in Chauddagram Upazila revolted against a land revenue tax. The British Gurkha soldiers fired indiscriminately on the crowd, killing four people.[5] In a major peasant gathering, the police fired at Hasnabad of Laksam Upazila in 1932. Two people were killed and many were wounded. Comilla Victoria Government College in the city was named in memory of Queen Victoria .

World War II

Comilla Cantonment is an important military base and the oldest in East Bengal. It was widely used by the British Indian Army during World War II. It was the headquarter of the British 14th Army. There is a war cemetery, Maynamati War Cemetery,[6] in Comilla that was established after the World War II to remember the Allied soldiers who died during World War I and II, mostly from Commonwealth states and the United States. There are a number of Japanese soldiers buried there as well, from the Second World War.

After Partition of Bengal

People of Comilla served as language fighters in 1952. Students of Comilla Victoria College protested against Pakistan Government. Shaheed Dhirendranath Datta was one of important leaders of the language movement who was from Comilla. Shib Narayan Das was one of the designers of the first flag of Bangladesh. He was part of BLF. Comilla was part of sector 2 during the Liberation war of Bangladesh.

Geography

Gomti river, Comilla

Comilla covers a total area of 51 square kilometres. It is bounded by Burchiganj and Tripura on the north, Laksham and Chauddagram on the south, and Barura on the west. The major rivers that pass through Comilla include Gumti[7] and Little Feni. The Tropic of Cancer crosses Comilla town on the south side just over the Tomsom Bridge.

Climate

Comilla has a tropical savanna climate. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Aw. The climate of Comilla is generally marked with monsoons, high temperature, considerable humidity and heavy rainfall. The hot season commences early in April and continues till July. The average annual temperature in Comilla is 25.5 °C (77.9 °F). About 2,295 mm (90.35 in) of precipitation falls annually.

Climate data for Comilla
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.7
(78.3)
28.1
(82.6)
31.6
(88.9)
32.8
(91.0)
32.5
(90.5)
31.2
(88.2)
30.7
(87.3)
31.0
(87.8)
31.4
(88.5)
31.0
(87.8)
29.2
(84.6)
26.5
(79.7)
30.1
(86.3)
Average low °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
14.8
(58.6)
19.6
(67.3)
23.1
(73.6)
24.4
(75.9)
25.2
(77.4)
25.3
(77.5)
25.4
(77.7)
25.3
(77.5)
23.6
(74.5)
18.8
(65.8)
13.8
(56.8)
21.0
(69.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 9
(0.4)
20
(0.8)
49
(1.9)
142
(5.6)
259
(10.2)
469
(18.5)
457
(18.0)
396
(15.6)
265
(10.4)
181
(7.1)
45
(1.8)
3
(0.1)
2,295
(90.4)
Source: Climate-Data.org, Climate data

Points of interest

Comilla has a number of tourist attractions. Various archaeological relics discovered in the district, especially from the 7th–8th century, are now preserved in the Mainamati Museum.[8] There is a World War II war cemetery in Comilla, which is protected and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Sports

Comilla Victorians is a professional cricket team based in Comilla and is the second most successful club in the Bangladesh Premier League.[9] Comilla Victorians also has the most wins in the league.[10]

Administration

Comilla is controlled by the Comilla City Corporation. It has 27 wards.[11]

Metro neighbourhoods

These are the neighbourhoods of Comilla city.[12]

  • Baghmara
  • Bara Para
  • Belghar
  • Bholain (North)
  • Bholain (South)
  • Bijoypur
  • Chapapur
  • Chouara
  • Galiara
  • Purba Jorekaran
  • Pachim Jorekaran
  • Perul (North)
  • Perul (South)

Transportation

Sunset at Dhaka-Comilla Highway.

Highway

Comilla is a hub of road communication for the eastern part of Bangladesh. One of the oldest highways of the Indian Subcontinent, 'The Grand Trunk Road', passes through the city. The most important Dhaka–Chittagong Highway bypasses the city from the cantonment to Poduar Bazar.[13] Comilla is located 97 kilometres from the capital city, Dhaka, which can be reached by road or railway. Electric trikes in recent years have begun to overwhelm Comilla's streets, mostly because of their convenience in short distance commutation throughout the main town.

Railway

Comilla is a nearby city of Laksham Junction and Akhaura Railway Junction. Rail connection is available to Dhaka, Chittagong, Brahmanbaria and Sylhet.

Education

The Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education is responsible for holding public examinations (JSC, S.S.C and H.S.C) in Comilla and five nearby districts.

Sonar Bangla College

Notable residents

Shib Narayan Das was a member of BLF. He was one of the designers of the first flag of Bangladesh. Shaheed Dhirendranath Datta was ex-Minister of Law, Language movement activist and Shaheed of 1971. Many people like him fought for the country. Lt-Col. Akbar Hussain veteran freedom fighter. He was Minister of Mineral Sources in 1978. He was also Minister of Forest Preservation in 1991. Later he was Minister of Inland Water. Major Abdul Gani was born in Nagais village under Brahmmanpara upazila of Comilla district on 1 December 1915. He, an officer of the armed forces division was the organiser of the First East Bengal Regiment. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad was a President of Bangladesh; he also served as Minister and member of Exile Cabinet of Meherpur Government. Kazi Zafar Ahmed, was Prime Minister in 1988. He was also Minister of Education in 1986. Khandaker Mosharraf Hossain was Minister of Energy & Mineral Resources in 1991 and Minister of Health & Family Welfare in 2001.

Mustafa Kamal served as president of the International Cricket Council. Shaukat Mahmood was senior journalist and editor of Weekly Economic Times. He was elected president of National Press Club. Buddhadeb Bosu was a Bangla poet, novelist, translator, editor and essayist. Kazi Nazrul Islam was born in West Bengal, but resided at Comilla for long. He loved this place. Another poet was Abdul Kadir. Was also a researcher and editor. Lots of re-known high officials such secretary. Among them A K M Abdul Awal Mazumder is very honest, devoted to his works.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Bangladesh changes English spellings of five districts". Bdnews24.com. Dhaka. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  2. ^ Kilikhar, Bidhas Kanti (1995). Tripura of the 18th Century with Samsher Gazi Against Feudalism: A Historical Study. Agartula: Chhapa Kathi, Tripura State Tribal Cultural Research Institute and Museum. p. 55. OCLC 39290375.
  3. ^ Nawaz, Ali (2012). "Shamsher Gazi". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  4. ^ Islam, Rafiqul (2012). "Islam, Kazi Nazrul". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  5. ^ Siddiqi, Mamun (2003). "Comilla District". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (First ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. During this time Avay Ashram, as a revolutionary institution, played significant role. Poet Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi visited Comilla at that time. In 1931, the British Gurkha soldiers fired indiscriminately and killed four persons of village Mohini of Chauddagram upazila when about four thousand peasants of this village revolted against paying land revenue.
  6. ^ Whitaker's Cumulative Book List. J. Whitaker. 1961. p. 146.
  7. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Comilla" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 763.
  8. ^ Huntington, Susan L. (1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. p. xxvi. ISBN 978-90-04-06856-8.
  9. ^ "Cricket Records | Bangladesh Premier League | Records | Series results". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  10. ^ "Cricket Records | Bangladesh Premier League | Records | Result summary". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  11. ^ "History". Comilla City Corporation. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  12. ^ মানচিত্রে সদর দক্ষিণ উপজেলা [Map of Sadar South Upazila]. Bangladesh National Information Portal (in Bengali). Government of Bangladesh. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  13. ^ Leung, Mikey; Meggitt, Belinda (2012). Bangladesh. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-84162-409-9.

External links

  • Media related to Cumilla at Wikimedia Commons
  • City Corporation

  1. ^ Population and Housing Census 2011 - Volume 3: Urban Area Report (PDF), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Aug 2014
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