Combined injectable birth control

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Combined injectable contraceptive)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Combined injectable birth control
Type Hormonal
First use About 1980
Failure rates (first year)
Perfect use 0-0.2%[1]
Typical use ?
Duration effect 1 month
User reminders ?
Advantages and disadvantages
STI protection No
Benefits Especially good if poor pill compliance.

Combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are a form of hormonal birth control for women. They consist of monthly injections of combined formulations containing an estrogen and a progestin to prevent pregnancy.

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a different injectable contraceptive, containing just a progestin, given every three months. It is a progestogen-only injectable contraceptive.

Hormonal contraception works primarily by preventing ovulation, but it may also thicken the cervical mucus inhibiting sperm penetration.[2][3][4] Hormonal contraceptives also have effects on the endometrium,[5][6] that theoretically could affect implantation,[7][8][9][10]

Medical uses

CIC is administered by intramuscular injection into the deltoid, gluteus maximus, or anterior thigh.[1] It is ideally administered every 28 to 30 days, though it has been demonstrated to be effective up to 33 days.[1]

Available forms

CICs that have been marketed include the following:[11][12][13]

Side effects

The most prominent side effects are menstrual irregularities during the first 3 to 6 months of use.[1]


Idealized curves of estradiol levels over a period of 30 days after injection of different estradiol esters in women.[13] Four data points were used to generate the curves (day 0, peak day, a third day, and day 30).[13] The measurements from which the points were drawn were taken at 24-hour intervals.[13] The estradiol esters were given mostly as combined injectable contraceptives together with a progestin.[13]

CICs contain an estrogen and a progestin. The estrogen is generally an estradiol ester, which acts as a prodrug of estradiol. The progestin is a progestogen ester, which may or may not act as a prodrug. Steroid esters form a depot and have an extended duration of action when administered by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection.


United States

  • October 5, 2000, Pharmacia received FDA approval for Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection.[1]
  • April 2003, Pharmacia acquired by Pfizer (makers of Depo-Provera (DMPA)).
  • October 2003, Lunelle was discontinued in the U.S.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "FDA Approves Combined Monthly Injectable Contraceptive". Contraception Report. 12 (3). 2001. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. 
  2. ^ Tamara Callahan MD , Aaron Caughey MD , Blueprints Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2013
  3. ^ KD Tripathi , Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, 2013
  4. ^ Dc Dutta's Textbook of Obstetrics, 2014
  5. ^ K. A. Petrie, A. H. Torgal, C. L. Westhoff, Matched-pairs analysis of ovarian suppressionduring oral vs. vaginal hormonal contraceptive use, „Contraception” 2011, t. 84, p. e2-3
  6. ^ R. L. Birtch, O. A. Olatunbosum, R. A. Pierson, Ovarian follicular dynamics during conventional vs continuous oral contraceptive use, „Contraception” 2006, t. 73, p. 235. p. 239.
  7. ^ K. Bugge, K. S. Richter, J. Bromer, et al., Pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization are reduced with a thin endometrium, but are unrelated to endometrial thickness above 10 millimeters,„Fertility and Sterility” 2004, t. 82, p. S199.
  8. ^ T. Fiumino, A. Kuwata, A. Teranischi et al., Significance of endometrium thickness to evaluate endometrial receptivity for embryos in natural cycle, „Fertility and Sterility” 2008, t. 90,p. S159.
  9. ^ K. S. Richter, K. R. Bugge, J. G. Bromer, Relationship between endometrial thickness and embryo implantation, based on 1. 294 cycles of in vitro fertilization with transfer of two blastocyst-stage embryos, „Fertility and Sterility” 2007, t. 87, p. 53.
  10. ^ Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D (1999). "The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 181 (5 Pt 1): 1263–9. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(99)70120-1. PMID 10561657. 
  11. ^ Newton JR, D'arcangues C, Hall PE (1994). "A review of "once-a-month" combined injectable contraceptives". J Obstet Gynaecol (Lahore). 4 Suppl 1: S1–34. doi:10.3109/01443619409027641. PMID 12290848. 
  12. ^ Bagade O, Pawar V, Patel R, Patel B, Awasarkar V, Diwate S (2014). "Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception: safe, reliable, and cost-effective birth control" (PDF). World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 3 (10): 364–392. ISSN 2278-4357. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Garza-Flores J (April 1994). "Pharmacokinetics of once-a-month injectable contraceptives". Contraception. 49 (4): 347–59. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(94)90032-9. PMID 8013219. 

Further reading

Retrieved from ""
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia :
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Combined injectable birth control"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA