College of Cardinals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cardinals in red vestments during the funeral of Pope John Paul II.

The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.[1] Its membership was 220 as of 9 September 2017. Most cardinals exit the College only by death, although a few leave it by election to the papacy, and still fewer leave by resignation or dismissal. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College.[2]

Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. From 1099 to 1986, the total number of cardinals was approximately 2,900 (excluding possible undocumented 12th century cardinals, cardinals appointed during the Western Schism by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of which were created after 1655.[3]

History

See also: External cardinal § History

The word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge". The office of cardinal as it is known today slowly evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope Stephen III(IV) when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests."[4]

In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts."[5] At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, synods, councils, etc., as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere (Cardinal Legate) and Missus Specialis (Special Missions).[6]

During the pontificate of Stephen V (816-17), the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday. The first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, and finally, the cardinal-bishops.[6]

The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX (1050). In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed. In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections; up to this point, only cardinal-bishops had this role.[6]

From the 13th to 15th centuries, the size of the College of Cardinals never exceeded thirty, although there were more than thirty parishes and diaconal districts which could potentially have a titular holder; Pope John XXII (1316–1334) formalized this norm by limiting the College to twenty members.[7] In the ensuing century, increasing the size of the College became a method for the pope to raise funds for construction or war, cultivate European alliances, and dilute the strength of the College as a spiritual and political counterweight to papal supremacy.[7]

The conclave capitulation of the papal conclave, 1352 limited the size of the College to twenty, and decreed that no new cardinals could be created until the size of the College had dropped to 16; however, Pope Innocent VI declared the capitulation invalid the following year.[8][9]

By the end of the 14th century, the practice of solely Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes. The most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him. Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence.

The Council of Basel (1431–1437, later transferred to Ferrara and then Florence) limited the size of the College to twenty-four,[10] as did the capitulation of the papal conclave, 1464.[11][12][13] The capitulations of the 1484 (Pope Innocent VIII)[14] and 1513 (Pope Leo X) conclaves contained the same restriction.[15] The capitulation of the papal conclave, 1492 also is known to have contained some restriction on the creation of new cardinals.[16]

The Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517), despite its lengthy regulation of the lives of cardinals, did not speak to the size of the College.[10]

In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority in the College of Cardinals. Paul IV brought the total to seventy. His immediate successor, Pope Pius IV (1559–1565), raised the limit to seventy-six.[7] Although Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor sought a limit of 26 and complained about the size and quality of the College to his legates to the Council of Trent, and some French attendees advocated a limit of 24, that Council did not prescribe a limit to the size of the College.[10] By the papacy of Sixtus V (1585–1590), the number was set at seventy on 3 December 1587, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, and six cardinal-bishops.[6]

His successors respected that limit until Pope John XXIII (1958–1963) increased the number of cardinals to 75 (1958), 88 (1960), and 90 (1962).[17] Pope Paul VI (1963–1978) increased the size of the college to 105 (1965), 120 (1967), and 136 (1969). He then altered the significance of the size of the College by restricting the right to vote in conclaves to those under the age of eighty. The number of those cardinals, the cardinal-electors, he limited to a maximum of 120. He removed any limitation on the overall size of the College.[a][18] The immediate impact was to eliminate the voting rights of 25 cardinals, 14 of them Italians. Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, then 80, said the Pope's action was "an act committed in contempt of tradition that is centuries old" and was "throwing over board the bulk of his expert and gifted counselors".[19] Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, 86, objected that each cardinal's health should determine his fitness and suggested that 73-year-old Paul VI seemed frail.[20]

When Paul VI increased the College to 145 members in 1973, the number of cardinal electors was 116.[21] Pope John Paul II's appointments to the College resulted in more than 120 under the age of 80 on several occasions, reaching a high of 135 in February 2001.[22] When exceeding the 120 limit, he approved "temporary derogations" of the rule so that all of those under 80 could participate in a consistory as electors.[23] He also made titular churches of parish churches constructed on the outskirts of Rome after World War II to accommodate the increased size of the College.[18] For several years Pope Francis respected the limitation on cardinal electors. In 2016 he told reporters "we have 13 slots" shortly before naming 13 new cardinals under the age of 80 to bring the number of cardinal electors to 120.[24] When he named cardinals in 2017, however, he increased the number of cardinals under 80 to 121.[25]

Historical data

For the Middle Ages, sources speaking to the size of the College of Cardinals are most frequently those relating to papal elections and conclaves.[2]

Organisation

Coat of arms style for cardinals.

As of 9 September 2017, the College had 220 members, 120 of whom were eligible to participate in a conclave. The group's size has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. From 1099 to 1986, the total number of cardinals appointed was approximately 2,900 (excluding possibly undocumented 12th-century cardinals, cardinals appointed during the Western Schism by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of whom were created after 1655.[26]

Functions

A function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory,[27] a term derived from the Roman Emperor's crown council. It also attends various functions as a matter of protocol, for example, during the canonization process.

It also convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor,[28] but is then restricted to eligible Cardinals under the age limit, which was set for the first time in 1970 by Pope Paul VI at 80.[29]

The college has no ruling power except during the sede vacante (papal vacancy) period, and even then its powers are extremely limited by the terms of the current law, which is laid down in the Apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis (1996) and the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State.

Historically, cardinals were the clergy serving parishes of the city of Rome under its bishop, the pope. The College acquired particular importance following the crowning of Henry IV as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor at the age of six, after the unexpected death of Henry III in 1056. Until then, the Holy See was often bitterly fought for among Rome's aristocratic families and external secular authorities had significant influence over who was to be appointed pope, and the Holy Roman Emperor in particular had the special power to appoint him. This was significant as the aims and views of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Church did not always coincide. Churchmen involved in what has become known as the Gregorian Reform took advantage of the new king's lack of power and in 1059 reserved the election of the pope to the clergy of the Church in Rome. This was part of a larger power struggle, which became known as the Investiture Controversy, as the Church and the Emperor each attempted to gain more control over the appointment of bishops, and in doing so wield more influence in the lands and governments they were appointed to. Reserving to the cardinals the election of the pope represented a significant shift in the balance of power in the Early Medieval world. From the beginning of the 12th century, the College of Cardinals started to meet as such, when the cardinal bishops, cardinal priests and cardinal deacons ceased acting as separate groups.[30]

Officials

In the Catholic church, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and the Cardinal Vice-Dean are the president and vice-president of the college. Both are elected by and from the six Cardinal-bishops (cardinals of the highest order, holding suburbicarian dioceses), but the election requires Papal confirmation. Except for presiding and delegating administrative tasks, they have no authority over the cardinals, acting as primus inter pares (first among equals).

The Secretary of State, the prefects of the Congregations of the Roman Curia, the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the Vicar General of Rome, and the Patriarchs of Venice and Lisbon, are usually Cardinals, with few, usually temporary, exceptions. The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State requires that appointees to the state's legislative body, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, be cardinals.[31]

Choosing the pope

Coat of arms Holy See.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Holy See
Flag of the Vatican City.svg Vatican City portal
046CupolaSPietro.jpg Catholicism portal

Under the terms of Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Ingravescentem Aetatem, cardinals who reached the age of 80 before a conclave opened had no vote in papal elections. Pope John Paul II's Universi Dominici gregis of 22 February 1996 modified that slightly, so that cardinals who have reached the age of 80 before the day the see becomes vacant do not have a vote.[28]

Canon law sets the general qualifications required of someone to be appointed bishop quite broadly, requiring someone of faith and good reputation, thirty-five years old, with a certain level of education.[32] The cardinals have nevertheless elected the Bishop of Rome from among their own membership since the election of Pope Urban VI in 1378. The conclave rules specify the procedures to be followed should they elect someone residing outside Vatican City or not yet a bishop.[33]

Of the 117 cardinals under the age of 80 at the time of Pope Benedict XVI's resignation, 115 participated in the conclave of March 2013 that elected his successor. The two who did not participate were Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja (for health reasons) and Keith O'Brien (following allegations of sexual misconduct).[34] Of the 115 cardinals who participated in the conclave that elected Pope Francis, 48 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, and 67 by Pope Benedict XVI.

As of 9 September 2017, there are a total of 220 cardinals, of whom 121 are under 80. The Holy See announced on 20 March 2015 that Pope Francis had accepted the resignation by Cardinal Keith O'Brien of the rights and privileges of a Cardinal, although he retains the title.[35] As a result, 120 cardinals are eligible to participate in a future papal election. Of those 120, 19 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, 52 by Pope Benedict XVI, and 49 by Pope Francis.

Antonio Maria Vegliò is the next cardinal expected to turn 80 (on 3 February 2018) and thus lose his right to participate in a conclave.

Current members of the College of Cardinals

The following is the list of all cardinals living as of 9 September 2017. Cardinals appear in order of precedence, which is based on rank and then seniority by date of appointment within rank. Angelo Sodano has the highest precedence as a cardinal bishop and Dean of the College of Cardinals. Giovanni Battista Re has second highest precedence as a fellow cardinal bishop and Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals.

Within the College of Cardinals, there are three categories: the highest-ranked cardinal bishops, then cardinal priests and finally cardinal deacons. Within each category, cardinals are ranked by seniority of appointment to that category. Despite these titles, almost every cardinal is, since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII (1958–1963), a bishop. Anyone not a bishop when his appointment is announced has generally been consecrated bishop before his formal installation, although a few priests appointed cardinals when near or over 80 have obtained permission not to become bishops.

Most of the cardinals are from the Latin Church; those who are from the Eastern Catholic Churches have their church indicated. Cardinals who are not electors are highlighted in red.

Red background: cardinals ineligible to participate in a papal conclave
Order Consistory
Pope
Name Country Birth
Age
Office
CB 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Angelo Sodano  Italy 23 November 1927
89
Secretary of State emeritus, Dean of the College of Cardinals
CB 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Giovanni Battista Re  Italy 30 January 1934
83
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops, Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals
CB 30 June 1979
John Paul II
Roger Etchegaray  France 25 September 1922
94
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
CB 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Francis Arinze  Nigeria 1 November 1932
84
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
CB 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Tarcisio Bertone SDB  Italy 2 December 1934
82
Secretary of State emeritus and Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
CB 21 February 2001
John Paul II
José Saraiva Martins CMF  Portugal 6 January 1932
85
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
CB 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir  Lebanon 15 May 1920
97
Patriarch emeritus of Antioch
(Syriac Maronite Church)
CB 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Antonios Naguib  Egypt 18 March 1935
82
Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria
(Coptic Catholic Church)
CB 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Bechara Boutros al-Rahi OMM  Lebanon 25 February 1940
77
Patriarch of Antioch
(Syriac Maronite Church)
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Michael Michai Kitbunchu  Thailand 25 January 1929
88
Archbishop emeritus of Bangkok, Protopriest of the College of Cardinals
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Alexandre do Nascimento  Angola 1 March 1925
92
Archbishop emeritus of Luanda
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Godfried Danneels  Belgium 4 June 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Thomas Stafford Williams  New Zealand 20 March 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Wellington
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Miguel Obando Bravo SDB  Nicaragua 2 February 1926
91
Archbishop emeritus of Managua
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Ricardo Jamin Vidal  Philippines 6 February 1931
86
Archbishop emeritus of Cebu
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz  Poland 17 October 1923
93
Archbishop emeritus of Wrocław
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Jozef Tomko  Slovakia 11 March 1924
93
President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Paul Poupard  France 30 August 1930
87
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Friedrich Wetter  Germany 20 February 1928
89
Archbishop emeritus of Munich and Freising
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Adrianus Johannes Simonis  Netherlands 26 November 1931
85
Archbishop emeritus of Utrecht
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Bernard Francis Law  United States 4 November 1931
85
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Eduardo Martínez Somalo  Spain 31 March 1927
90
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life and Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Achille Silvestrini  Italy 25 October 1923
93
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
José Freire Falcão  Brazil 23 October 1925
91
Archbishop emeritus of Brasília
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Alexandre José Maria dos Santos OFM  Mozambique 18 March 1924
93
Archbishop emeritus of Maputo
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Christian Wiyghan Tumi  Cameroon 15 October 1930
86
Archbishop emeritus of Douala
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Edward Idris Cassidy  Australia 5 July 1924
93
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez  Dominican Republic 31 October 1936
80
Archbishop emeritus of Santo Domingo and Military ordinary emeritus of the Dominican Republic
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Roger Michael Mahony  United States 27 February 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Camillo Ruini  Italy 19 February 1931
86
Archpriest emeritus of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran and Vicar General emeritus for Rome
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Henri Schwery   Switzerland 14 June 1932
85
Bishop emeritus of Sion
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino  Cuba 18 October 1936
80
Archbishop emeritus of San Cristóbal de la Habana
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja SJ  Indonesia 20 December 1934
82
Archbishop emeritus of Jakarta
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Emmanuel Wamala  Uganda 15 December 1926
90
Archbishop emeritus of Kampala
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Adam Joseph Maida  United States 18 March 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Detroit
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Vinko Puljić  Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 September 1945
72
Archbishop of Vrhbosna
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Juan Sandoval Íñiguez  Mexico 28 March 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Guadalajara
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Jorge Medina Estévez  Chile 23 December 1926
90
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Darío Castrillón Hoyos  Colombia 4 July 1929
88
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
James Francis Stafford  United States 26 July 1932
85
Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Salvatore De Giorgi  Italy 6 September 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Serafim Fernandes de Araújo  Brazil 13 August 1924
93
Archbishop emeritus of Belo Horizonte
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Antonio María Rouco Varela  Spain 20 August 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Madrid
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Polycarp Pengo  Tanzania 5 August 1944
73
Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Christoph Schönborn OP  Austria 22 January 1945
72
Archbishop of Vienna
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Norberto Rivera Carrera  Mexico 6 June 1942
75
Archbishop of Mexico
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Marian Jaworski  Poland 21 August 1926
91
Archbishop emeritus of Lviv
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Jānis Pujats  Latvia 14 November 1930
86
Archbishop emeritus of Riga
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Agostino Cacciavillan  Italy 14 August 1926
91
President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Sergio Sebastiani  Italy 11 April 1931
86
President emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Zenon Grocholewski  Poland 11 October 1939
77
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Crescenzio Sepe  Italy 2 June 1943
74
Archbishop of Naples
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Walter Kasper  Germany 5 March 1933
84
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Geraldo Majella Agnelo  Brazil 19 October 1933
83
Archbishop emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Pedro Rubiano Sáenz  Colombia 13 September 1932
85
Archbishop emeritus of Bogotá
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Theodore Edgar McCarrick  United States 7 July 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Washington
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Audrys Juozas Bačkis  Lithuania 1 February 1937
80
Archbishop emeritus of Vilnius
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa ISch  Chile 5 September 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Wilfrid Fox Napier OFM  South Africa 8 March 1941
76
Archbishop of Durban
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga SDB  Honduras 29 December 1942
74
Archbishop of Tegucigalpa
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne  Peru 28 December 1943
73
Archbishop of Lima
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Francisco Álvarez Martínez  Spain 14 July 1925
92
Archbishop emeritus of Toledo
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Cláudio Hummes OFM  Brazil 8 August 1934
83
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Severino Poletto  Italy 18 March 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Turin
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Karl Lehmann  Germany 16 May 1936
81
Bishop emeritus of Mainz
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Jean-Louis Tauran  France 3 April 1943
74
President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Julián Herranz Casado  Spain 31 March 1930
87
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Javier Lozano Barragán  Mexico 26 January 1933
84
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Angelo Scola  Italy 7 November 1941
75
Archbishop emeritus of Milan
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Anthony Olubunmi Okogie  Nigeria 16 June 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Lagos
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Bernard Panafieu  France 26 January 1931
86
Archbishop emeritus of Marseille
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Gabriel Zubeir Wako  Sudan 27 February 1941
76
Archbishop emeritus of Khartoum
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Carlos Amigo Vallejo OFM  Spain 23 August 1934
83
Archbishop emeritus of Seville
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Justin Francis Rigali  United States 19 April 1935
82
Archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien  Great Britain 17 March 1938
79
Archbishop emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Eusébio Oscar Scheid SCI  Brazil 8 December 1932
84
Archbishop emeritus of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Ennio Antonelli  Italy 18 November 1936
80
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson  Ghana 11 October 1948
68
Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Telesphore Placidus Toppo  India 15 October 1939
77
Archbishop of Ranchi
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
George Pell  Australia 8 June 1941
76
Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Josip Bozanić  Croatia 20 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Zagreb
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn  Vietnam 5 March 1934
83
Archbishop emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Philippe Barbarin  France 17 October 1950
66
Archbishop of Lyon
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Péter Erdő  Hungary 25 June 1952
65
Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Marc Ouellet PSS  Canada 8 June 1944
73
Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
William Joseph Levada  United States 15 June 1936
81
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Franc Rodé CM  Slovenia 23 September 1934
82
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Agostino Vallini  Italy 17 April 1940
77
Archpriest emeritus of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran and Vicar General emeritus for Rome
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Jorge Liberato Urosa Savino  Venezuela 28 August 1942
75
Archbishop of Caracas
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales  Philippines 10 August 1932
85
Archbishop emeritus of Manila
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Jean-Pierre Ricard  France 25 September 1944
72
Archbishop of Bordeaux
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Antonio Cañizares Llovera  Spain 15 October 1945
71
Archbishop of Valencia
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Nicholas Cheong Jin-suk  South Korea 7 December 1931
85
Archbishop emeritus of Seoul
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Seán Patrick O'Malley  United States 29 June 1944
73
Archbishop of Boston
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Stanisław Dziwisz  Poland 27 April 1939
78
Archbishop emeritus of Kraków
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Joseph Zen Ze-kiun SDB  China 13 January 1932
85
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo  Italy 27 August 1925
92
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Albert Vanhoye SJ  France 24 July 1923
94
Priest of the Society of Jesus
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Seán Brady  Ireland 16 August 1939
78
Archbishop emeritus of Armagh
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Lluís Martínez Sistach  Spain 29 April 1937
80
Archbishop emeritus of Barcelona
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
André Vingt-Trois  France 7 November 1942
74
Archbishop of Paris
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Angelo Bagnasco  Italy 14 January 1943
74
Archbishop of Genoa
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Théodore-Adrien Sarr  Senegal 28 November 1936
80
Archbishop emeritus of Dakar
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Oswald Gracias  India 24 December 1944
72
Archbishop of Bombay
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Francisco Robles Ortega  Mexico 2 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Guadalajara
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Daniel Nicholas DiNardo  United States 23 May 1949
68
Archbishop of Galveston-Houston
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Odilo Pedro Scherer  Brazil 21 September 1949
68
Archbishop of São Paulo
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
John Njue  Kenya 31 December 1944
72
Archbishop of Nairobi
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Estanislao Esteban Karlic  Argentina 7 February 1926
91
Archbishop emeritus of Paraná
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga  Ecuador 1 January 1934
83
Archbishop emeritus of Quito
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 October 1939
77
Archbishop of Kinshasa
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Paolo Romeo  Italy 20 February 1938
79
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Donald William Wuerl  United States 12 November 1940
76
Archbishop of Washington
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raymundo Damasceno Assis  Brazil 15 February 1937
80
Archbishop emeritus of Aparecida
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Kazimierz Nycz  Poland 1 February 1950
67
Archbishop of Warsaw
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Albert Malcolm Ranjith Patabendige Don  Sri Lanka 15 November 1947
69
Archbishop of Colombo
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Reinhard Marx  Germany 21 September 1953
64
Archbishop of Munich and Freising
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
José Manuel Estepa Llaurens  Spain 1 January 1926
91
Military archbishop emeritus of Spain
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
George Alencherry  India 19 April 1945
72
Major archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly
(Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Thomas Christopher Collins  Canada 16 January 1947
70
Archbishop of Toronto
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Dominik Duka OP  Czech Republic 26 April 1943
74
Archbishop of Prague
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Willem Jacobus Eijk  Netherlands 22 June 1953
64
Archbishop of Utrecht
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Betori  Italy 25 February 1947
70
Archbishop of Florence
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Timothy Michael Dolan  United States 6 February 1950
67
Archbishop of New York
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Rainer Maria Woelki  Germany 18 August 1956
61
Archbishop of Cologne
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
John Tong Hon  China 31 July 1939
78
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Lucian Mureșan  Romania 23 May 1931
86
Major archbishop of Făgăraș and Alba Iulia
(Romanian Greek Catholic Church)
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal  India 15 June 1959
58
Major archbishop of Trivandrum
(Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan  Nigeria 29 January 1944
73
Archbishop of Abuja
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Rubén Salazar Gómez  Colombia 22 September 1942
75
Archbishop of Bogotá
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle  Philippines 21 June 1957
60
Archbishop of Manila
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Pietro Parolin  Italy 17 January 1955
62
Secretary of State
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Vincent Gerard Nichols  Great Britain 8 November 1945
71
Archbishop of Westminster
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano  Nicaragua 7 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Managua
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Gérald Cyprien Lacroix ISPX  Canada 27 July 1957
60
Archbishop of Québec
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Jean-Pierre Kutwa  Ivory Coast 22 December 1945
71
Archbishop of Abidjan
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Orani João Tempesta OCist  Brazil 23 June 1950
67
Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Gualtiero Bassetti  Italy 7 April 1942
75
Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Mario Aurelio Poli  Argentina 29 November 1947
69
Archbishop of Buenos Aires
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Andrew Yeom Soo-jung  South Korea 5 December 1943
73
Archbishop of Seoul
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Ricardo Ezzati Andrello SDB  Chile 7 January 1942
75
Archbishop of Santiago de Chile
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo  Burkina Faso 25 January 1945
72
Archbishop of Ouagadougou
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Orlando B. Quevedo OMI  Philippines 11 March 1939
78
Archbishop of Cotabato
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Chibly Langlois  Haiti 29 November 1958
58
Bishop of Les Cayes
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Fernando Sebastián Aguilar CMF  Spain 14 December 1929
87
Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Kelvin Edward Felix  Saint Lucia 15 February 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Castries
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente  Portugal 16 July 1948
69
Patriarch of Lisbon
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel CM  Ethiopia 14 July 1948
69
Archbishop of Addis Abeba
(Ethiopian Catholic Church)
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
John Atcherley Dew  New Zealand 5 May 1948
69
Archbishop of Wellington
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Edoardo Menichelli  Italy 14 October 1939
77
Archbishop emeritus of Ancona-Osimo
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn  Vietnam 1 April 1938
79
Archbishop of Hanoi
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Alberto Suárez Inda  Mexico 30 January 1939
78
Archbishop emeritus of Morelia
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Charles Maung Bo SDB  Myanmar 29 October 1948
68
Archbishop of Yangon
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovithavanij  Thailand 27 June 1949
68
Archbishop of Bangkok
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Francesco Montenegro  Italy 22 May 1946
71
Archbishop of Agrigento
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet SDB  Uruguay 4 July 1959
58
Archbishop of Montevideo
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Ricardo Blázquez Pérez  Spain 13 April 1942
75
Archbishop of Valladolid
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán OAR  Panama 24 February 1944
73
Bishop of David
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Arlindo Gomes Furtado  Cape Verde 15 November 1949
67
Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Soane Patita Paini Mafi  Tonga 19 December 1961
55
Bishop of Tonga
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez  Colombia 18 February 1919
98
Archbishop emeritus of Manizales
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Luis Héctor Villalba  Argentina 11 October 1934
82
Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Júlio Duarte Langa  Mozambique 27 October 1927
89
Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Dieudonné Nzapalainga CSSp  Central African Republic 14 March 1967
50
Archbishop of Bangui
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Carlos Osoro Sierra  Spain 16 May 1945
72
Archbishop of Madrid
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Sérgio da Rocha  Brazil 21 October 1959
57
Archbishop of Brasília
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Blase J. Cupich  United States 19 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Chicago
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Patrick D'Rozario CSC  Bangladesh 1 October 1943
73
Archbishop of Dhaka
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo  Venezuela 10 October 1944
72
Archbishop of Mérida
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Jozef De Kesel  Belgium 17 June 1947
70
Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Maurice Piat CSSp  Mauritius 17 July 1941
76
Bishop of Port-Louis
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Carlos Aguiar Retes  Mexico 9 January 1950
67
Archbishop of Tlalnepantla
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
John Ribat MSC  Papua New Guinea 9 February 1957
60
Archbishop of Port Moresby
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Joseph William Tobin CSsR  United States 3 May 1952
65
Archbishop of Newark
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Anthony Soter Fernandez  Malaysia 22 April 1932
85
Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Renato Corti  Italy 1 March 1936
81
Bishop emeritus of Novara
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Sebastian Koto Khoarai OMI  Lesotho 11 September 1929
88
Bishop emeritus of Mohale's Hoek
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Jean Zerbo  Mali 27 December 1943
73
Archbishop of Bamako
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Juan José Omella Omella  Spain 21 April 1946
71
Archbishop of Barcelona
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Anders Arborelius OCD  Sweden 24 September 1949
67
Bishop of Stockholm
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun IVD  Laos 8 April 1944
73
Apostolic vicar of Paksé
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Gregorio Rosa Chávez  El Salvador 3 September 1942
75
Auxiliary bishop of San Salvador
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Renato Raffaele Martino  Italy 23 November 1932
84
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Justice and Peace and for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants, Protodeacon of the College of Cardinals
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Leonardo Sandri  Argentina 18 November 1943
73
Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Giovanni Lajolo  Italy 3 January 1935
82
President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Paul Josef Cordes  Germany 5 September 1934
83
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Angelo Comastri  Italy 17 September 1943
74
Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, Vicar General for Vatican City and President of the Fabric of Saint Peter
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Stanisław Ryłko  Poland 4 July 1945
72
Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Raffaele Farina SDB  Italy 24 September 1933
83
Archivist and Librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Angelo Amato SDB  Italy 8 June 1938
79
Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Robert Sarah  Guinea 15 June 1945
72
Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Francesco Monterisi  Italy 28 May 1934
83
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raymond Leo Burke  United States 30 June 1948
69
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Kurt Koch   Switzerland 15 March 1950
67
President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Paolo Sardi  Italy 1 September 1934
83
Patron emeritus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Mauro Piacenza  Italy 15 September 1944
73
Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Gianfranco Ravasi  Italy 18 October 1942
74
President of the Pontifical Council for Culture
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Elio Sgreccia  Italy 6 June 1928
89
President emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Walter Brandmüller  Germany 5 January 1929
88
President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Fernando Filoni  Italy 15 April 1946
71
Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Manuel Monteiro de Castro  Portugal 29 March 1938
79
Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Santos Abril y Castelló  Spain 21 September 1935
82
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Antonio Maria Vegliò  Italy 3 February 1938
79
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Bertello  Italy 1 October 1942
74
President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Francesco Coccopalmerio  Italy 6 March 1938
79
President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
João Braz de Aviz  Brazil 24 April 1947
70
Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Edwin Frederick O'Brien  United States 8 April 1939
78
Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Domenico Calcagno  Italy 3 February 1943
74
President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Versaldi  Italy 30 July 1943
74
Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Prosper Grech OSA  Malta 24 December 1925
91
Titular archbishop emeritus of San Leone
CD 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
James Michael Harvey  United States 20 October 1949
67
Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Lorenzo Baldisseri  Italy 29 September 1940
76
Secretary-General of the Synod of Bishops
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Gerhard Ludwig Müller  Germany 31 December 1947
69
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Beniamino Stella  Italy 18 August 1941
76
Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Dominique Mamberti  France 7 March 1952
65
Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Luigi de Magistris  Italy 23 February 1926
91
Pro-Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Karl-Josef Rauber  Germany 11 April 1934
83
Apostolic nuncio emeritus to Belgium and Luxembourg
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Mario Zenari  Italy 5 January 1946
71
Apostolic nuncio to Syria
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Kevin Joseph Farrell  United States 2 September 1947
70
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Ernest Simoni  Albania 18 October 1928
88
Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodër-Pult

Demographics

By appointing pope

The number of cardinals eligible to vote for each category appears in parentheses.

Created by Cardinal bishops (CB) Cardinal priests (CP) Cardinal deacons (CD) Total Percentage of total
John Paul II
16 October 1978 – 2 April 2005
7 (0) 76 (19) 1 (0) 84 (19) 38.2% (15.8%)
Benedict XVI
19 April 2005 – 28 February 2013
2 (1) 46 (32) 28 (19) 76 (52) 34.5% (43.3%)
Francis
13 March 2013 – present
0 (0) 51 (43) 9 (6) 60 (49) 27.3% (40.8%)
Total 9 (1) 173 (94) 38 (25) 220 (120) 100% (100%)
Percentage of total 4.1% (0.8%) 78.6% (78.3%) 17.3% (20.8%) 100% (100%)
Percentage of total cardinals eligible to participate in a papal conclave: 54.5%

By continent vs. geographic distribution of Catholics

2013 World Representation in the College of Cardinals
Region Total Population Catholics  % Catholic  % of Catholic total  % of College of Cardinals
Africa 885,103,542 135,211,325 15.27% 12.57% 8.17%
Asia and Middle East 3,889,093,723 123,851,272 3.18% 11.51% 9.62%
Europe 750,072,510 283,916,457 37.85% 26.37% 57.65%
Continental Central America 42,883,849 32,317,384 75.36% 3.00% 1.00%
North America and Caribbean 472,952,469 192,274,838 40.65% 17.88% 12.98%
South America 371,363,897 299,570,011 80.66% 27.87% 10.58%
Oceania 30,686,468 7,747,654 25.24% 0.72% 1.92%

By nationality

As of 9 September 2017

Number of cardinals Nationality
42 Italy
17 United States
13 Spain
10 Brazil
9 France, Germany
6 Mexico, Poland
4 Argentina, Colombia, India, Philippines
3 Canada, Chile, Nigeria, Portugal
2 Australia, Belgium, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, South Korea, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
1 Albania, Angola, Austria, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Kenya, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Myanmar, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Romania, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Tanzania, Tonga, Uganda, Uruguay

From Italy over time

Italian-born cardinals as percentage of total College of Cardinals (1903–2013)
February 2013 22.60
April 2005 17.09
October 1978 22.50
August 1978 22.80
1963 35.36
1958 35.80
1939 54.80
1922 51.60
1914 50.76
1903 56.25

By particular church sui iuris

213 out of 220 cardinals (116 out of 120 cardinal-electors) belong to the Latin Church, which accounts for 98% of all Catholic believers. Of 220 cardinals, 7 (3.2%) belong to one of the Eastern Catholic Churches; of 120 cardinal electors, 4 (3.3%) belong to such a Church.

The four cardinal-electors are:

The other three cardinals are:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Paul VI set the 120 limit in November 1970, effective 1 January 1971

References

  1. ^ 1983 CIC, Bk. II, Pt. II, Sec. I, Chap. III The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Archived 3 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b Broderick, 1987, p. 13.
  3. ^ Broderick, 1987, p. 11.
  4. ^ Miranda, S. (2003). The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition. Detroit: Gale. [page needed]
  5. ^ van Lierde, Peter C. (1964). What Is a Cardinal?. New York: Hawthorne Books Inc. p. 14. 
  6. ^ a b c d Noonan, James-Charles (2012). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church, Revised Edition. New York: Sterling Ethos. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-40278730-0. 
  7. ^ a b c Pham, 2004, p. 65.
  8. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 52–54.
  9. ^ Jugie, Pierre. Levillain, ed. 2002. "Cardinal." pp. 241–242.
  10. ^ a b c Miranda, Salvador. 1998. "Guide to documents and events (76–2005)."
  11. ^ Burkle-Young, Francis A. 1998. "The election of Pope Paul II (1464)."
  12. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 78-79.
  13. ^ Walsh, 2003, p. 109.
  14. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 82.
  15. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 92.
  16. ^ Burkle-Young, Francis A. 1998. "The election of Pope Alexander VI (1492)."
  17. ^ Pham, 2004, p. 65-66.
  18. ^ a b Pham, 2004, p. 66.
  19. ^ Friendly Jr., Alfred (27 November 1970). "Ottaviani Deplores Papal Action Barring Vote of Aged Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  20. ^ "Crítica de dos Cardenales contra el Papa Paulo VI" (in Spanish). UP. 26 November 1970. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  21. ^ Hofmann, Paul (3 February 1973). "30 Cardinals Named; Three Are American". New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  22. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (22 February 2001). "Shaping a Legacy, Pope Installs 44 Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  23. ^ Mickens, Robert (24 April 2017). "Letter from Rome The Next Stage of Francis's Mission". Commonwealth Magazine. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  24. ^ Gagliarducci, Andrea (13 October 2016). "What's the thought behind Pope Francis' choices for cardinals?". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  25. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (21 May 2017). "Francis names five new cardinals, including associate of Oscar Romero". La Stampa. Retrieved 9 July 2017. After the upcoming consistory, Francis will have named 49 of 121 cardinals able to vote in a papal conclave. 
  26. ^ Broderick, 1987, p. 11.
  27. ^ CIC 1983, can. 349
  28. ^ a b John Paul II, Ap. Const. Universi Dominici gregis in AAS 88 (1996)
  29. ^ Walsh, Michael (2011). The Cardinals: Thirteen Centuries of the Men Behind the Papal Throne. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 17. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  30. ^ Broderick, J.F. 1987. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099–1986)." Archivum historiae Pontificiae, 25: 8.
  31. ^ Pope John Paul II (26 November 2000). "Fundamental Law of Vatican City State" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2008. 
  32. ^ "Code of Canon Law, Chapter II: Bishops". The Holy See. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  33. ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 88–90
  34. ^ Pigott, Robert (25 February 2013). "Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns as Archbishop". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  35. ^ Allen Jr., John L. (20 March 2015). "In rare step, Scottish prelate caught in sex scandal quits as cardinal". Crux. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 

Sources

  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8.
  • Broderick, J.F. 1987. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099–1986)." Archivum historiae Pontificiae, 25: 7–71.
  • Levillain, Philippe, ed. 2002. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92228-3.
  • Pham, John-Peter. 2004. Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517834-3
  • Walsh, Michael. 2003. The Conclave: A Sometimes Secret and Occasionally Bloody History of Papal Elections. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 1-58051-135-X.

External links

  • The College of Cardinals—Holy See Press Office
  • GCatholic.org—extensive information on all cardinals since the 17th century
  • Cardinals of the Catholic Church—sortable list, often slightly out of date on deaths
  • Catholic-Hierarchy.org, with entry into extensive databases.[self-published source]
  • Next Cardinal Creating Consistory by Pope Benedict XVI – The Required Background Data (including statistical data and links). Popes and the Papcy website (Anura Guruge). Retrieved 9 January 2017.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_of_Cardinals&oldid=799890901"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/College_of_Cardinals
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "College of Cardinals"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA