Close central unrounded vowel

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Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
ɯ̈
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Sound

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i. In American tradition this symbol (and the name "barred i") denote a slightly different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's;[1] see also near-close central unrounded vowel.

Occasionally, this vowel is transcribed ⟨ï⟩ (centralizedi⟩) or ⟨ɯ̈⟩ (centralized ⟨ɯ⟩).[2]

The close central unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare post-palatal approximant [j̈].[3]

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (such as Proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although that is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨə] 'to know' Asyik[4] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[5] describe this sound as such while Durie[6] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
English Southeastern English[7] rude [ɹɨːd] 'rude' May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní[8] yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Hausa[9] [example needed] Allophone of /i/.[9]
Irish Munster[10] caora [kɨ̟ːɾˠə] 'sheep' Somewhat fronted;[10] allophone of /i/ between broad consonants.[10] See Irish phonology
Kalagan Kaagan[11] [pɨˈnɨt̪] 'beard'
Kashmiri[12] teer [ˈt̪ɨːr] 'cold'
Kera[13] [ɡɨ̀ɡɨ̀r] 'knee'
Latgalian[14] dyžan [ˈd̪ɨʒän̪] 'very much' See Latgalian phonology
Mongolian[15] хүчир [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Mono[16] dɨ [dɨ] 'count'
Muisca Hycha[17] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Romanian[18] înot [ɨˈn̪o̞t̪] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[19] ты About this sound [t̪ɨ] 'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[20] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sema[21] sü [ʃɨ̀] 'to hurt' Also described as near-close [ɨ̞].[22]
Shipibo[23] tenaitianronki [ˈt̪ɨnɐi̞ti̞ɐ̃ɽõ̞ɣi̞] [translation needed] Possible realization of /ɯ/ after coronal consonants.[23]
Sirionó[24] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish Bohuslän[25] bli [blɨᶻː] 'to stay' A fricated vowel that corresponds to [] in Central Standard Swedish.[25] See Swedish phonology
Närke[25]
Tajik Bukharan[26] ғижғиж [ʁɨʑʁɨʑ] 'the sound of
wood sawing'
Allophone of /i/ in the environment of uvular consonants.[26]
Tamil[27] வால் [väːlɨ] 'tail' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be rounded [ʉ] instead.[27] See Tamil phonology
Tera[28] zu [zɨ] 'said'
Udmurt[29] ургетэ, ыргетэ[30] [ɨrgete] 'it growls'
Welsh Northern dialects[31] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[32] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

The sound of Polish ⟨y⟩ is often represented as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟].[33] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed ⟨e⟩, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel,[34] more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded)

See also

References

  1. ^ Flemming, E., Johnson, S. (2007), "Rosa’s roses: reduced vowels in American English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37/1, pp. 83–96.
  2. ^ See e.g. Gimson (2014:133), who transcribes the unrounded central realization of the English GOOSE vowel /uː/ with the symbol [ɯ̈ː].
  3. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar".
  4. ^ Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies, 11: 1–33, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2013, retrieved 9 November 2012 
  5. ^ Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities, 15: 9–21 
  6. ^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese
  7. ^ Lodge (2009:174)
  8. ^ "Phonological inventory of Paraguayan Guarani". South American Phonological Inventory Database. Berkeley: University of California. 2015. 
  9. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999:90)
  10. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  11. ^ Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  12. ^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  13. ^ Pearce (2011:251)
  14. ^ Nau (2011:9–10)
  15. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  16. ^ Olson (2004:235)
  17. ^ González de Perez (2005:50)
  18. ^ Sarlin (2014:18)
  19. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:33)
  20. ^ Hargus & Beavert (2002)
  21. ^ Teo (2014:28)
  22. ^ Teo (2012:368)
  23. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001:283)
  24. ^ Firestone (1965:?)
  25. ^ a b c Riad (2014:21)
  26. ^ a b Ido (2014:91)
  27. ^ a b Keane (2004:114)
  28. ^ Tench (2007:230)
  29. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:64, 68)
  30. ^ ургетыны [Udmurt-Russian dictionary] (in Russian) 
  31. ^ Ball (1984:?)
  32. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  33. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  34. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)

Bibliography

  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9 
  • Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark, Thomas C (1986), "Meso-America as a linguistic area", Language, 62 (3): 530–570, doi:10.2307/415477, JSTOR 415477 
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica (16), London: Mouton & Co 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Hargus, Sharon; Beavert, Virginia (2002), "Predictable versus Underlying Vocalism in Yakima Sahaptin", International Journal of American Linguistics, 68 (3): 316–340, doi:10.1086/466492 
  • Ido, Shinji (2014), "Bukharan Tajik", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 44 (1): 87–102, doi:10.1017/S002510031300011X 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Nau, Nicole (2011), A short grammar of Latgalian, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-86288-055-3 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (02): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744 
  • Pearce, Mary (2011), "Kera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (2): 249–258, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000168 
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1 
  • Sarlin, Mika (2014) [First published 2013], "Sounds of Romanian and their spelling", Romanian Grammar (2nd ed.), Helsinki: Books on Demand GmbH, pp. 16–37, ISBN 978-952-286-898-5 
  • Schuh, Russell G.; Yalwa, Lawan D. (1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952 
  • Teo, Amos B. (2012), "Sumi (Sema)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (03): 365–373, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000254 
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5 
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109 
  • Wendel, Åsa; Wendel, Dag (1978), "Kaagan-Kalagan phonemic statement" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 2 (1): 191–203 
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